Group Members: Hamza Bin Omer (10M21A0318) Salman Saifuddin (10M21A0341) Shaik Ahmed (10M21A0346) Mohd Nasher Ahmed (10M21A0330)

What is a differential?

Differential is a device capable of transmitting torque and rotation through three shafts, almost always used in one of two ways. In one of these, it receives one input and provides two outputs; this is found in most automobiles. In an automobile and other wheeled vehicles, the differential allows each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them.

and they need one between the front and the back wheels as well. and also in many all-wheel-drive vehicles.Purpose of a differential  The differential is found on all modern cars and trucks. because the front wheels travel a different distance through a turn than the rear wheels. . These all-wheel-drive vehicles need a differential between each set of drive wheels.

Differential Overview   When turning. the inner wheels travel less distance than the outer wheels . the inner and outer wheels have arcs of different turning radii Consequently.

the wheels on both axles need to be able to spin independently of each other A differential is used to allow the wheels to spin at different speeds .Differential Overview   Because the turning paths of the inner and outer wheels are different.

Differential Function    When turning. the outer wheel axle turns its worm gear and its mating worm wheel The mating worm wheels are meshed together by spur gears  Perfect Differentiation: as one wheel increases speed the other wheel decreases speed proportionally  Torque is maintained at both wheels while . the outer wheel turns at a high RPM with respect to the differential housing Therefore.

Working of Differantial .

Torque Transfer in Differential  The torque bias ratio determines the amount of torque transferred and is dependant on the gear design  5:1 ratio transfers 5 times the torque to the wheel with traction  If one wheel loses all traction no torque is transferred to the wheel with traction .

Different Types of Differentials   Open Differential Limited Slip Differential (LSD)  Clutch LSD  Viscous Coupling LSD  Locking LSD  Torsen LSD .

Schematic of an Open Differential   The “Sun” gear and “Ring” gear are identical and supply power to the drive axles. . The planetary gears. or spider gears allow the axles to rotate at different speeds.

planet pinion. These included crown gear. drive shaft and half shafts.Parts of a differential  Our differential system consisted of eight unique parts. Two remaining parts made up our wheels. sungear. which connect to the wheels. . Six of these were used to construct the differential.

Therefore the following equation applies N s  r  c  N r  s  c  N s  number of teeth on sun gear N r  number of teeth on ring gear c  angular velocityof planet carrier r  angular velocityof ring gear s  angular velocityof sun gear .Open Differential  The open Differential is a planetary gear set.

Open Differential   The number of teeth on the ring gear and sun gear are equal and the planetary gear formula is simplified The angular velocity of the differential is equal to the average angular velocity of the axles N s  r  c   N r  s  c Ns r   s  1. therefore c  Nr 2 .

if one wheel has little friction there is no resistance to its rotation and slipping occurs The slipping wheel will spin twice as fast Left rear tire as the differential slipping on sandy surface .Open Differential Problems   As a result.

the automobile differential solves this problem with only one transmission and one drive shaft for both driven wheels which called Torsen differential .Fortunately.

The Torsen Differential  The Torsen Differential is capable of perfect differentiation  The Torsen Differential transfers power to the wheels with traction Torque transferred to wheel with traction .

we researched the dimensions and overall shape of a differential system on internet and by visiting a car mechanic shop.Project overview    Before we started our project. After we acquired the necessary data. Crown Gear Pinion gear . We scaled and normalized the dimensions we have gathered for easier drawing experience in Unigraphics. We reduced and normalized the dimensions that we collected for easier application of assembly. we started to construct our differential system.

3-D MODELLING of Differential .

Application of Differentials  Torsen differentials are used in off-road and high performance allwheel drive vehicles. Torsens can also be handy on icy or dirt roads  .

Thank Q .