WELCOME

MIS – 104: Computing Fundamentals

BBA Department of MIS University of Dhaka

Books
1. Introduction to Computer Peter Norton 2. Computer Fundamentals Dr. M Lutfar Rahman 3. Computer Fundamentals Pradeep K. Sinha

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Previous class >>Organization of computer  Input Unit  Output Unit  Memory unit  Control Unit  ALU 4 .

Today’s Class .

Memory Unit .

Memory Memory: – One or more set of chips that stores data or programmed instructions either temporarily or permanently. Secondary memory 7 . Primary memory 2. Classification of memory: 1.

Location of different memories ALU INPUT UNIT CONTROL UNIT MAIN MEMORY OR RESISTERS OUTPUT UNIT SECONDARY MEMORY 8 .

1024 B 9 .1024.1024.Calculations of storage capacity 01 BYTE (B) 01KB 01 MB 08 bit 1024 B 1024.1024 B 01 GB 01 TB 1024.1024.1024 B 1024.

Memory Terminologies • Memory Address: – Memory locations are identified by numbers 0000 0001 0002 A B 100 FFFD FFFE FFFF X Y 10 .

this digital 08 bits in combine known as a memory word FFFD FFFE FFFF X Y 0000 0001 0002 A B 100 11 . – The block is considered to be a unit of operation/processing – A set of bit with which read/write operation is done in a certain storage device is called memory word – Example: 08 bits or 01 Byte memory word clearly 01000000 (08 bits) represents 64 and its character is @.Memory Terminologies • Memory Word: – When memory is read or written. here. a block of bit is read or written instead of a single bit.

needs re-write operation to retain data • Non-destructive: – reverse nature – Example: semiconductor. data disappears when read operation is done. switch.Memory Terminologies • Destructive: – composed of capacitors. pen drive 12 . flash memory.

– Ex-RAM • Non-volatile: – here content remains even the power is turned off – Example: hard disk. floppy disk. flash drive etc 13 .Memory Terminologies • Volatile: – Type of memory where data remains only when the power supply is on.

CD writing operation 14 .Memory Terminologies: Memory operation • Memory store/write: – The process of storing or writing data at the specific location of the memory – Data is stored as bits – Ex.

Memory Terminologies: Memory operation • Memory read: – Also called ‘fetch operation’ – To read stored data or to process that stored data – A binary word is selected from a specific address of memory and this is transferred to another device – Example: To hear a song from CD or any drive 15 .

Memory Terminologies: Memory access • Random access: – Any location of storage can be accessed at any moment – Does not matter whether the desired access location is too close or a far away – Consumes almost same amount of time – Found in primary and secondary memory 16 .

one after another – Access time depends on the last order/information execution time – Example: Off line storage such as playing a song from magnetic tape 17 .Memory Terminologies: Memory access • Sequential: – accessing a bit of information in a serial order.

Primary memory • Includes RAM & ROM • CPU access directly on this memory • Normally volatile in nature 18 .

application programme.Primary memory: RAM • Central storage unit • Volatile • Temporary in nature • Holds operating systems. data in current use • Other name is (Read/Write) memory 19 .

Data disappears after a certain period automatically if it is not refreshed. TT-RAM. A-RAM 20 .Z-RAM.Different types of RAM • S RAM. Ex. This type of RAM needs periodically reread or re-written.Exhibits data remanance but still volatile as data dissolves when turn off • D RAM.

Primary memory: ROM • Proportionally read operation is more than write operation • Contains user programmed instructions like Bootstrap loader • Non-volatile • permanent 21 .

Different types of ROM ROM Mask ROM PROM EPROM EEPROM 22 .

Secondary memory • • • Auxiliary unit Storing capacity is huge Normally non-volatile • Normally two types1. Optical 23 . Magnetic 2.

Secondary memory: Magnetic • Variation of ‘Magnet polarity’ determines whether the bit will be 0 or 1 • Data write process is done by electromagnetic head • Ex. floppy disk.hard disk. magnetic tape 24 .

BD-R 25 .Secondary memory: Optical • Variation of light reflection determines the nature of bits • Data is written with the help of LASER or UV rays • Ex-CD-R/RW. DVD-R/RW.

Octal. Hex-decimal numbers are also used for addressing 26 .Memory address: • It is a number or a set of digital number (bit/Bytes) in the memory • This address specially represented by binary numbers • Decimal.

virtual memory vanishes • Virtual memory can be selected by user 27 . by creating space for the great amount of data • When RAM finishes it’s access.Virtual memory: • When secondary memory is used as primary memory then this is called virtual • Provide assistance to the RAM.

Cache memory: • Small memory chip is attached between CPU & main memory • Give the assistance to the resisters • Speed up the data process • Three types of cache memory is found e. L1(CPU resident).g. L2 & L3 (mother board) 28 .

04 bytes data processing capability 29 . • Ex.indicates the amount of data with which CPU can work/access.32 bits processor means.Resisters • They are not the part of main memory but store data and pass as directed by CPU • The size of the resisters which is sometimes called the word size.

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