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Pengenalan Sukan dan Kesenggangan (Rekreasi)

'Sport'- an activity with a significant physical component in which two or more participants engage for the purpose of competitively evaluating their personal performance.
The Coaching Association of Canada

1. At the end of each game they must be a winner and a loser.

2. There must be practice, which is noncompetitive, that teaches the skills of the game.
3. Throughout the game there must be "official rules and procedures".

4. Throughout the game "tactics and strategies" should be used.


5. Muscle and nerve coordination should be taught and learned. 6. A repeating "movement or form" that includes a "certain degree of risk" or effort. 7. A teacher or coach whom is not only trained in skills of that particular sport but other subjects like nutrition sport psychology, biomechanics, and physiology.


Human-powered (Running, swimming,....)
Human-assisted (Cycling, rowing, canoeing, ...) External power source (Motor racing, sailing, powerboating...)

Combat (Judo, karate, boxing...) Court (Tennis, badminton, volleyball, squash...) Team (Football, Rugby, ice hockey, field hockey, baseball, softball...)

Target (Archery, golf, shooting ...)
Display (Gymnastics, bodybuilding, diving...)

Strength (Weight-lifting, triple jump, shot put ...)

A combination of all categories

(Athletics) (Human-powered, Team, Strength)

Leisure (Kesenggangan)

Leisure is that it represents the free time that people have after they have taken care of their necessities and after their work has been performed.

(Cordes & Ibrahim, 1999)

Permission to do as one pleases at ones own pace, to participate in an activity of ones own choice, and to abandon the activity at will.
(Cordes and Ibrahim, 1999)

French sociologist, Dumazedier (1974), defines leisure as non-work activity that people engage in during their free time

Leisure has generally been perceived as free time and freely chosen activity

Leisure Component
Two clusters of leisure activity: 1. Relaxed Leisure - socializing, watching television, reading, and listening to music. 2. Transitional Activities was represented by two activity types: (i) sports and games, and (ii) arts and hobbies.
Ellis & Radmacher (1987)

Play and Recreation

Leisure can encompass play and recreational activities

As physical activity moves from play to sport, the following occurs.

1] Physical activity becomes less spontaneous and more controlled by rules. 2] Individuals put in more effort and time in learning skills, preparing tactics and playing to win.
3] Spectators become more evident and involved. 4] The rewards involve personal enjoyment and gaining awards, prizes and recognition