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Why not use electrical lines…..!!!!
Submitted by:

Praveen Mittal (2013JTM2532) Manish Bhumarkar (2013JTM2524)

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Introduction Motivation

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Types of PLC Architecture
PLC Technology Background OFDM basics

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Network Architechture
Advantages Important Issues International Standards References

This technology offers an alternative means for : • • • • • • • High speed internet access Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Video Streaming Home Networking Home Automation Home Security Systems Telemedicine Applications Evolution Of PLC : PLC technology developed in 1928 by AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories In the 1990s.INTRODUCTION Power Line Communications (PLC) is a disruptive communications technology that enables power line infrastructure landlords to deliver a suite of Internet Protocol (IP) based services using their existing power distribution infrastructure. development began on broadband over power line (BPL) .

DSL or wireless connections. • as Broadband Power Line Access (BPL).MOTIVATION : • The birth and growth of the Internet has accelerated the demand for digital telecommunications services to almost every premises. • Every outlet in the home becomes a high-speed Internet access point. • This technology has the potential to offer benefits relative to regular cable. is the latest technology to provide broadband Internet access through existing house wiring. . Access from the in-home network.


technology is based on high density advanced modulation using : • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) • Code division multiple access (CDMA) • Forward error correction (FEC) . For deliverance of high speed data communication to customers.PLC TECHNOLOGY BACKGROUND : BPL systems function by coupling radio frequency energy to the existing electrical power lines .

• A large number of closely spaced orthogonal subcarrier signals are used to carry data on several parallel data stream or channel • Each subcarrier is modulated with a convention modulation scheme.OFDM MODULATION : • frequency multiplexing scheme utilized as a digital multi carrier modulation method . frequency frequency Conventional FDM OFDM . • Each subcarrier is orthogonal to each other.

.OFDM Mechanism :  OFDM Transmitter : An OFDM carrier signal is the sum of a number of orthogonal sub-carriers. with base band data on each sub-carrier being independently modulated commonly using some type of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or phase-shift keying (PSK).

. each of which is converted to a binary stream using an appropriate symbol detector.OFDM Mechanism :  OFDM Receiver: The receiver picks up the signal r(t). These streams are then re-combined into a serial stream. which is an estimate of the original binary stream at the transmitter. which is then quadrature-mixed down to baseband using cosine and sine waves at the carrier frequency. 9 . This returns N parallel streams.

2 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Normalized Frequency (fT) ---> 4 6 .8 Normalized Amplitude ---> 0.4 0.2 0 -0.OFDM Spectrum 0.6 0.

OFDM Basics  To maintain orthogonality   f Ts = sub-carrier spacing = symbol duration 1  f Ts where  If N-point IDFT (or FFT) is used  Total bandwidth (in Hz) : Time W  Nf T Base frequency = 1/T T= symbol period .

clock and phase offset • The OFDM time-domain signal has a relatively large peak-to-average ratio • tends to reduce the power efficiency of the RF amplifier • non-linear amplification destroys the orthogonality of the OFDM signal and introduced out-of-band radiation .Advantages of OFDM in BPL : • • • Severe channel conditions Narrowband interference Frequency selective fading Disadvantages : • High sensitivity inter-channel interference. ICI • OFDM is sensitive to frequency.


Data Transmission over power line .

. BPL extractors are usually located at each LV distribution transformer feeding a group of homes  Repeaters: For long runs of MV power lines.ACCESS BPL BUILDING BLOCKS : Access BPL equipment consists of:  Injectors: BPL signals may be injected onto MV power lines with the injectors. repeaters are employed to maintain the required signal strength.  Extractors: Provide interface between the medium power lines & the customers .

Coupler Coupler Bridge Backhaul Point .

and an Ethernet cable running to your computer finishes the connection .  It plugs into a common wall socket.BPL MODEM : The signal is received by a power line modem that plugs into the wall. BPL modem has roughly the size of a common power adapter. BPL modems use silicon chipsets specially designed to handle the work load of pulling data out of an electric current.

• Improves the competitiveness of the market for broadband services. • Secure data-encryption: The signals are not in the air where neighbours or others could potentially snoop your service.ADVANTAGES : • High Speed Internet Access to Rural areas as well. Power line adapters are sold with encryption turned on . Secured network through a simple password setting process. . • One wire offers both power and your high-speed communications needs. Anywhere there is electricity there could be broadband. • There would be no need to build a new infrastructure. So cheaper.

• Noise: The power lines are inherently a very noisy environment. • Harmonics & Intermodulation: The interference caused by BPL harmonics is not reduced even if the fundamental frequency is notched. as their high inductance makes them act as low-pass filters. which readily produce mixing. • • BPL signals cannot readily pass through transformers. The system is based on shared bandwidth. Every time a device turns on or off. it introduces a pop or click into the line. Power lines are shielded & have potential to interfere with radio communications. .BPL ISSUES : • Interference issue: The system is expected to use frequencies of 1 to 30 MHZ which has been used by radio operators. Intermodulation products are frequently encountered in power lines at bad joints. in part due to the tree design of the infrastructure.

CENELAC Standards. ETSI Standards. ITU-T G.INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS • • • • IEEE 1901.9960 Standards. Broadband Power Line Standards. .