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Introduction TLP Mechanics Assumptions Influence of tension, weight and hydrostatic

pressure on TLP tendons

Effect of static offset on TLP modelling Effects of tendon disconnection on TLP Summary References

What is TLP ?
What is tendon ?

What is tendon function ?

On what factors the tendon influenced ? What is an offset and setdown ? Why pretension for tendon ?



Initial pretension in all tethers is equal and

remains unaltered over time.

Wave diffraction effects are neglected.

Change in the pretension is calculated at every time step and the equations of equilibrium at each time step modify elements of the stiffness matrix. Wave forces on the tethers are assumed to be


For small angles

Fz is about 7% of
total buoyancy and

Fx is 25% for an
angle of 150.


From the above equation, top tension can be reduced by

reducing the tendon weight in air or reducing the bottom tension. Reducing the top tension permits the flexibility to reduce the size of the platform or to increase the deck 15 playload.

Reaction on the hull R1 can be

minimised tendon by reducing in air the and


reactions at the bottom anchor connector R0. Increasing the buoyant force

by increasing the D/t ratio.


Minimum tension are governed by two different requirements. 1. to provide the required contact in the anchor connector.

2. not to exceed the global and local buckling

loads. The minimum tension requirement is normally specified to be greater than zero.

According to author (Shaddy et al., 1989) two composite tendons

were examined, one with the same cross-section area as the steel tendon (60 sq in.) and other with sufficient cross-sectional area to provide the same vertical stiffness (85 sq in.) as the steel tendon. For neutrally buoyant tendons (zero weight in water), both materials will provide the same hull reactions. In this case, the composite tendon provides an advantage since it has approximately one-half the diameter required by steel tendon and small diameter translates into less drag force. To avoid hydrostatic collapse in very deep waters, steel tendons

are limited to D/t ratios of about 15.


In case of zero current, steel and composite neutrally buoyant tendons will both provide a restoring force ratio of one. If the steel tendon D/t ratio is limited to 15, the

composite tendon will provide 19% higher restoring

force. In the presence of a 3 ft/sec current, the restoring force of the composite tendon is approximately 30% higher 20 than for the steel tendon with D/t = 15.

The outer diameter is 0.6096 m, wall thickness is

20.6248 mm, pretension is 3337.5 kN, maximum top tension, is 6675 kN, minimum top tension, is 1468.5 kN, water depth, is 549 m, tendon top depth, mm.

is 18.3 m and solid diameter 220.4212

Tensions and Reactions (kN) Minimum top tension, T1 Maximum top tension, T1 Maximum top rection, R1 Maximum bottom tension, T0 Minimum bottom tension, T0 Minimum bottom reaction, R0 Maximum bottom reaction, R0

Tubular tendon 1468.5 6675 6728.7 5117.5 -89 1521.9 6728.4

Solid tendon 1468.5 6675 6682.02 5117.5 -89 121.485



The dynamic characteristics of a TLP are functions of the magnitude of a static offset that the TLP may have experienced under the action of wind and current loads

acting on the platform.

This dependence, which becomes more pronounced as

the water depth increases.



Deformation of Tendon or Riser under own weight



This gives stiffnes matrix of individual tendon




TLP is one of the proven technologies to support the risers in the severe environment by allowing negligible vertical-plane motions, as heave, roll, and pitch. The vertical-motion characteristics of the TLP are mainly determined by the tendon configuration and

properties, while those of other floaters are mostly

affected by the hull geometry.

Thus, damaged or broken tendons may result in

catastrophic impact on the TLP hull and risers.

The TLP tendons may break at the top or unlatch at the

bottom during the harsh environment.

The break at the top may occur when the tension

exceeds the breaking strength.

The unlatch at the bottom may happen when the bottom

29 tension becomes negative and experiences the down



Numerical Model

Natural periods and damping factors



Heave free decay


Comparison of transient effects after down-wave tendons unlatched at the bottom-top tension of the unlatched tendons


Comparison of transient effects after upwave tendons broken at the toptop tension of the most neighboring tendon


Transient effect on tension when #2 tendon is broken in a regular wave (T = 12s and H=7.6m)

For the uniform straight tendons and for inclination angles up to

150, most of the upthrust buoyancy forces are generated from pressures acting on the tendon ends and not on the tendon sides.

Reducing the tendon top tension can be accomplished by reducing the bottom tension or reducing the tendon weight in air. Lightweight composite materials, therefore, can provide a

significant advantage.

Minimum tension requirements are established by two different

criteria. The first criterion is to maintain a minimum compressive reaction on the elastomer joint. The second criterion is to maintain minimum tension or maximum compression sufficient to prevent global buckling and unacceptable stresses. For deepwater slender steel tendons, preliminary results indicate that the hydrostatic collapse crieteria is a more active constraint than the strength criteria. For very deep waters, the allowable D/t ratio is limited to about 15.

The presence of a large static offset does lead to significant

changes in the stiffness matrix of the platform, but does not necessarily lead to significant changes in all 6 fundamental natural periods of the TLP. The periods of the so called horizontal modes (surge, sway, yaw) do decrease somewhat and do so in manner consistent with the increase in the total tendon force.

As the static offset increases, greater coupling occurs among the

various natural modes.

The heave and pitch natural periods are appreciably affected by

the tendon breakage and unlatch.

The up-wave tendon breakage increases the maximum pitch and

tension more than the down-wave tendon unlatch because the mean heel angle of the latter is smaller due to the weight of hanging tendons. The inclusion of nonlinear terms in the wave excitations is

important to find the dynamic and maximum tendon tension in

reliable manner.

The transient effect generally increases as the number of broken

lines increases.

However, in the unlatched case, the maximum tension is less

affected because the unlatch happens when the tension is minimum.


Chandrasekaran, S., Jain, A. K., Chandak, N., R 2007. Response Behavior of Triangular Tension Leg Platforms under Regular Waves Using Stokes Nonlinear Wave Theory. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 133, 3. Murray, J., Yang, C.K., Yang, W., Krishnaswamy, P., Zou, J., 2008b. An extended tension

leg platform design for post-Katrina Gulf of Mexico. In: Proceedings of the international
Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE08) #287, Vancouver, Canada. Oran, C., 1992. Effect of static offset on TLP modeling. Journal of Engineering Mechanics 118, 74-91. Shaddy, Y.H., William, H.T., Jerry, G.W., 1989. Influence of Tension, weight and hydrostatic pressure on TLP tendons. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 115, 172-189.

Yang, C.K., Kim, M.H., 2010. Transient effects of tendon disconnection of TLP by hulltension-riser coupled dynamic analysis. Ocean Engineering 37, 667-677.