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Aircraft Maintenance Practices

Unit 72: Aircraft Maintenance Practices (Aircraft Handling). N.Q.F Level 3: BTEC National.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Outcomes:
Define/Describe Aircraft Handling Safety Precautions by: Understanding the Health & Safety precautions directly associated with Aircraft Handling.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Apron Safety Ground Handling:

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


High-visibility Clothing (PPE):

High-visibility clothing must be worn by those who need to be seen on the apron during poor lighting or weather conditions, or when working in environments where there is a lot of moving aircraft and /or machinery.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Ear Defenders (PPE):
Noise is a problem in our environment, all aircraft engines are noisy when running, therefore ensure you always wear ear defenders, protect yourself.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Apron Safety Ground Handling:

Example B737-300 The Activities Surrounding an Aircraft Preparing for a Flight.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Example B737-300 The Servicing Points:

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Aircraft Engine Running Safety:
It is dangerous to work around aircraft gas turbine engines. When a engine is running (operating) there are safety entry and exit corridors that must be used. (see Aircraft Maintenance Manual Chapter 71) Personnel must stay away from inlet and exhaust areas when the engine is running.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Aircraft Engine Running Safety:
Health and Safety hazards around Gas Turbine engines that are operating (running).
Inlet suction. Heat. Exhaust. Noise.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Safety Entry Corridors:
Engine entry corridors are between the inlet hazard area and the exhaust hazard areas, approached from the wing tip. Only approach the engine:

When engine is at forward thrust ground idle only. When personal are in contact with the flight station.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Inlet Suction:
Example B777-200:

Suction at the inlet of an engine can pull objects, including a person into the engine.
At idle power, the hazard are is a radius around the inlet of 12 feet (3.7 m). At maximum power the hazard are is a radius around the inlet of 27 feet (8.3 m). The inlet hazard area is increased by 20% if the surface wind is greater than 25 knots.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Foreign Object Damage:
Engine damage can happen when rags, goggles, hardhats, nuts & bolts or other loose objects enter the engine through the inlet cowl. Before starting jet engines always check for FO, during engine walk-round checks. To help, if available use inlet guards.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Heat/Exhaust:
Heat:
The engine exhaust temperature can remain high for a long distance behind the engine.

Exhaust:
The engine makes high speed exhaust that can cause injury. The fan exhaust moves forward when the thrust reverser deploys.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Jet Engine Noise:
Noise:
Engine noise can cause temporary and permanent hearing loss.

Ear protectors must be worn.


Warning long exposures to jet engine noise cause hearing damage even when youre wearing ear protection.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Airfield Apron Safety:
Aircraft moving Engines running: Taxing Aircraft Maintenance Manual ATA reference chapter 09 Aircraft static Engines running: Pushback Ground Runs A.M.M. ATA reference chapter 71

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Taxing Aircraft Danger Areas:

Viewed from side engines at ground idle jet efflux extends to 140 feet approximately. Example Boeing 767-300ER PW4056, CF6-80C2 engines
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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Taxing Aircraft Danger Areas:

Viewed from above engines at ground idle jet efflux extends to 140 feet approximately. Example Boeing 767-300ER PW4056, CF6-80C2 engines
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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Taxing Aircraft Danger Areas:

Viewed from side engines at full power jet efflux extends to 140 feet approximately. Example Boeing 767-300ER Rolls Royce RB211-524 engines
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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Engine Ground Safety Precautions:
The operation of jet power engines is dangerous. While the engine operates, these dangerous conditions can occur. There is a very strong suction at the front of the engine that can pull persons and unwanted materials into the air inlet. Very hot, high speed gases go rearward from the turbine exhaust nozzle. The fan exhaust at high thrust has very high speed. When the thrust reverser is extended, the fan exhaust goes forward while the turbine exhaust is goes rearward.
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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Aircraft Engine Running Safety Zones:

Ground Idle. Example B737-300

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Aircraft Engine Running Safety Zones:

Break-way Power Both Engines:

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices

WARNING
The next three slides show the harsh reality of how dangerous jet engines can be. Look away now if you do not like the sight of blood and guts.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Dont let it be YOU!

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Dont let it be YOU!

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Dont let it be YOU!

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Engine Noise Hazard Areas :
Always wear ear protectors (PPE).

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Safety Strap/Lanyard:

Aircraft Maintenance Manual Chapter 71

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Thrust Reverse Danger Areas:

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Thrust Reverse Danger Areas:

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Propeller Safety:
Do not approach a turning propeller.

For those who dont know why propeller tips


are painted a different color than the rest of the propeller it is for ground safety reasons.

The spinning propeller becomes invisible,


but the colored tip is visible to serve as a warning that it is there, so ground personnel dont inadvertently step into its path.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Helicopter Rotor Safety:

Unless unavoidable never approach a helicopter with its rotors turning. Remember always approach and walk away from a helicopter from the front /side to avoid the tail rotor. The front of the aircraft is the safe zone, but never approach an aircraft unless instructed to do so by the pilot , flight crew. or ground crew .

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Radio Transmission:
Electrostatic Magnetic Wave which could cause a spark. Before transmitting by radio, check that refuelling is not in progress as the transmission may induce enough voltage to cause a spark in the nearby metal. The risk is greater for high frequency systems as they transmit much more power than VHF systems and under no circumstances should they be used when refuelling.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Earthing and Bonding:
Earthing: Static builds up on the aircraft during flight when the aircraft lands this static, flows through the bonded airframe and the remaining charge will bleed away through conductive tyres or earthing strap which allows this to happen. Bonding: allows electrical charge to equalise throughout the aircraft and prevent a build up of a difference of potential between parts of the aircraft.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Bonding - Static Discharge:

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Requirements for Fire:
There are three requirements for fire to take place. There must be a fuel, which is any material that will combine with oxygen. There must be oxygen with which can combine. There must be a means of increasing the temperature of the fuel to its kindling point, this is the point at which combustion will occur.

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Ground use Fire Extinguishers:
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) based fire extinguishers are primarily used for fighting electrical fires.

The liquid CO2 dissipates cleanly


into the atmosphere after the fire has been extinguished.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Ground use Fire Extinguishers:
Dry Powder
Standard or Multi-Purpose Dry Powder Fire Extinguishers are safe to use on most kinds of fire, (Class A, B & C) .

E.g. Fires caused by petrol,


oil, fat, paint, solvents, grease, propane, butane and natural gas, as well as electrical equipment.
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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Ground use Fire Extinguishers:
Foam Fire Extinguishers
Are ideal for multi-risk situations where class A and B risks exist. Class B fires, those involving flammable liquids, such as petrol, diesel, spirits, solvents and lubricants, can be tackled very effectively. The foam fire extinguishers, which are available in both gas cartridge and stored pressure versions, contain an aqueous film forming foam which gives rapid flame knock-down and has a blanketing effect, smothering the flames and sealing vapours to prevent re-ignition.
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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Fire Safety:
The correct behaviour in case of a fire is very important and decisive to protect people and material assets. A procedure is: Raise the alarm, contact fire services and get people out of the building.

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Fighting a Fire:

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Fighting a Fire:

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Aircraft Maintenance Practices


Plenary:
Aircraft Handling Safety Precautions by being able to Define/Describe: Apron Safety High-Vis PPE Jet Efflux Taxing Jet Efflux Engine Running Propeller Safety Rotor Safety Radio Transmissions Earthing and Bonding Fire Extinguishers

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END
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