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Production Technology

K. Srinivasulu Reddy

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology
Welding
Name AWS Characteristics Applications
Air acetylene welding AAW
Chemical welding process, not
popular
Limited
Oxyacetylene welding OAW
Combustion of acetylene with oxygen
produces high-temperature flame,
inexpensive equipment
Maintenance,
repair
Oxygen/Propane
welding
Gas welding with oxygen/propane
flame
Oxyhydrogen welding OHW
Combustion of hydrogen with oxygen
produces flame
Limited
Pressure gas welding PGW
Gas flames heat surfaces and pressure
produces the weld
Pipe, railroad
rails (limited)
GAS WELDING -TYPES
Oxy-Fuel Gas Welding
Oxy-fuel gas welding (OFW) is a fusion welding
processes wherein the joint is completely melted to
obtain the fusion.

The heat produced by the combustion of gas is sufficient
to melt any metal and as such is universally applicable

In oxy-Acetylene welding(OAW) which is an oxy-fuel gas
welding process that uses Acetylene as fuel gas.

In pressure gas welding application of pressure without
filler metal.
Oxy-Acetylene Welding
Consists of high temperature flame produced by the
combustion of Acetylene with oxygen and directed by torch.
The intense heat of the flame (3100 C) melts the surface of
the base metal to form a molten pool.
Filler metal is added to fill gap or grooves.
As the flame moves along the joint, the melted base
metal and filler metal solidifies to produce the weld.

The temperature of oxy-Acetylene flame is not uniform
throughout, its length and the combustion is also
different in different parts of the flame.
The temperature is highest just beyond the inner cone
and decreases gradually towards the end of the flame.
Oxy-Acetylene Welding cont..

The heat generated by the combustion is in accordance
with a pair of chemical reactions
- The primary combustion process which occurs in the
inner core of the flame is
C
2
H
2
+ O
2
2CO + H
2
+ Heat(18.75 MJ/m
3
)

- However both CO and H
2
are combustible and will
react with oxygen from air
2CO + H
2
+ 1.5O
2
2CO
2
+ H
2
O + Heat(35.77 MJ/m
3
)

Oxy-Acetylene Welding cont..
- High heat produced in 2nd stage is distributed over a
large area, the temp. achieved is small(1200 to 2000
0
C),
used for pre heating the steels.
- The inner white cone temp. is of the order of 3100
0
C,
which is used for directly melting the steel joint.

- The first reaction is dissociation of Acetylene to CO and H
2
.
It produces about 1/3
rd
of the total heat generated in the
flame.
- The second reaction in which further burning of the H
2
and
the CO.
- The second reaction produces about 2/3
rds
of the total
heat.
Oxy-Acetylene Flame Types
Three basic types of oxyacetylene flames used in oxyfuel-gas welding and
cutting operations: (a) neutral flame (b) oxidizing flame (c) carburizing, or
reducing flame.
The gas mixture in (a) is basically equal volumes of oxygen and acetylene.
3300
0
C 2900
0
C
white
Blue
(reddish)
Certain amount of oxygen is required for complete
combustion of fuel gases(acetylene)

Based on the amount of supply of oxygen three types of
flames are formed viz. neutral, oxidizing and carburizing
(reducing) flames.


When equal amount of oxygen is provided, neutral flame
is obtained.

When less oxygen is provided part of the combustible
matter is left as it is and it results in a reducing flame or
carburizing flame.

If more oxygen is provided, oxidizing flame will result.
Oxy-Acetylene Flame Types cont..
1.Neutral Flame:

- Ideal condition i.e., complete combustion(1:1)
- All the Acetylene is completely burned.
- All the available heat in the Acetylene is released.
- Most desirable flame to be used in oxy-Acetylene
flame.
- Temp. in inner white cone 3100
0
C
When less oxygen is provided. Similar to neutral
flame, only with the addition of a third phase in
between outer envelope and inner cone and is called
Acetylene feather.
Length of feather is an indication of excess acetylene
present.
The temperature of reducing flame is lower, so it is
suitable for applications requiring low heat such as
brazing, flame hardening.
2.Carburising or reducing flame
Since unburned carbon goes into the weld pool, the
metal appears to boil this excess carbon causes the
steel to become extremely hard and brittle.

Not suggested for general use

Useful for those materials which are readily oxidised

Ex: Oxygen free copper alloys,
High carbon steels,
High Speed Steels,
Cemented carbides &
Cast Irons
Reducing flame contd
When oxygen is in excess it is called oxidizing flame.
This is similar to neutral flame except that the inner
white cone is somewhat small, giving rise to higher tip
temperatures(3300
0
C)
This flame is harmful especially for steels because it
oxidizes steel.
3.Oxidizing Flame
Oxy-Acetylene Flame Types cont..
Because of the burning of the metal, the weld pool foams
and sparks, produces a loud noise.

Oxidizing flame is desirable for non-ferrous alloys such
as copper and zinc base alloys.

A thin protective layer of slag forms over the molten
metal.
Other fuel gas such as hydrogen, propylene, propane
can be used in OFW, but temperatures developed by
these gases are low.

Because the temperatures developed are low, they are
used for welding
metals with low melting points such as lead.
parts that are thin and small.

Flame with pure H
2
is colourless & hence difficult to
adjust.
Oxy-Acetylene Torch
General view
cross-section of a torch used in oxyacetylene welding.
Basic equipment used in oxyfuel-gas welding
To ensure correct connections
1.All threads on acetylene fittings are left-handed,
whereas those for oxygen are right-handed.
2. Oxygen regulators are usually painted green, and
acetylene regulators red.
Acetylene Generation Methods
An acetylene generator is used instead of an acetylene
cylinder.
Acetylene is produced by a reaction between calcium
carbide and water which is instantaneous as shown
below.
CaC
2
+ 2 H
2
O C
2
H
2
+ Ca(OH)
2

The acetylene generator consists of a cylinder which is
partially filled with water.
CaC
2
is stored in an hopper near the top of the generator.
A pressure regulated valve controls the flow of CaC
2

into water, depending on the pressure of the acetylene in
the generator.
Calcium carbide
+
=
Lime
Coke
CaC
2
Hopper
Water
Automatic pressure
release valve
Acetylene
pipe
ethanol is an expensive alternative to carbide to ripen the fruits
Calcium carbide (Carbide is known to be a carcinogenic-
cancer inducing substance) used to artificially ripen the fruits

Used in the desulfurisation of iron

Calcium carbide is produced industrially in an electric arc
furnace from a mixture of lime and coke at approximately 2000 C.
This method has not changed since its invention in 1888

CaO + 3 C CaC
2
+ CO

The reaction of calcium carbide with water, producing acetylene
and calcium hydroxide, was discovered by Friedrich Whler in
1862.

CaC
2
+ 2 H
2
O C
2
H
2
+ Ca(OH)
2

This reaction is the basis of the industrial manufacture
of acetylene, and is the major industrial use of calcium carbide.
Welding Technique
1. Acetylene valve on the torch is opened slightly and
lighted with the help of a spark lighter.

2. The flame draws oxygen from atmosphere air and thus
results in reducing flame.

3. Now acetylene valve is opened to get the required flow
of acetylene.

4. The oxygen valve is slowly opened till the intermediate
flame feather of the reducing flame recedes into the
inner white cone.

5. The actual adjustment of the flame depends on the type
of material to be joined.
1. The choice of the torch depends on the thickness of the metal
to be joined.

2. Large torch tip sizes cause higher amount of oxygen and fuel
to flow out, causing the release of more heat.

3. Except for outside corners, all other joints require a filler metal
to fill the joint.

4. The torch tip should be positioned above the metal plate so
that the white cone is at a distance of 1.5 to 3 mm from the
plate.

5. The torch should be held 30 to 45 degrees from the horizontal
plane.
Other Aspects
6. The torch movement along the joint should be either
oscillating or circular.

7. When welding rod is used to provide filler material, it is
necessary to hold it at a distance of 10mm from the flame
and 1.5 to 3.0 mm from the surface of the puddle

8. Can be used for all types joints and in all positions

9. Thicker plates require more than one pass of the gas torch
along the length, to complete the joint, which is called multi
pass welding
Forehand welding:
Torch is moved in the direction of the tip
Preheat the metal before the white cone of the tip melts it.
Back hand welding
The torch moves backwards
Outer blue flames are now directed on the already welded joint
Continuously annealed by relieving the welding stresses
Better penetration and bigger weld bead
Used for thicker materials
Disadvantages
Slower and cant compete with other welding methods such
as electric arc welding
Advantages
1.Versatality of the equipment
2.Same equipment with a range of torches can be used be
for gas cutting, brazing and braze welding
3.Useful for small shops
Flame Cutting
To separate piece of material into two or more pieces or
into various contours.
Heat source torches, electric arcs, lasers.

Types of flame cutting
- Arc cutting
- Oxy fuel (acetylene) gas cutting
GAS CUTTING
Produces temperatures about 870
0
C while cutting steel.
Cutting occurs mainly by oxidation of steel.
Maximum thickness cut by oxy-acetylene gas is 300-350mm.
The flame leaves drag lines on cut surface which are very
rough.
Basic reactions with steel
Fe + O FeO + Heat
3Fe + 2O
2
Fe
3
O
4
+ Heat
4Fe + 3O
2
2Fe
2
O
3
+ Heat
Shearing is used to cut plates in straight line and also upto a
thickness of 40 mm.

To cut along a specified contour and thickness more than 40 mm
and upto 2 metres oxy fuel gas cutting(OFC) is useful.
pre-heating flames
Differences in torch tips for gas welding and gas cutting
Slag + Molten metal
Direction
of travel
Position of cutting torch in oxy-fuel gas cutting
Drag
Kerf
1. Oxidise(burn) the iron and steel by heating to a temp of 800
to 1000
0
C
2. When a high pressure oxygen jet with a pressure of the
order of 300 kPa is directed against a heated steel plate, the
oxygen jet burns the metal and blows it away causing the
cut(kerf)
Equipment is simple and can be carried anywhere
Gas cutting outfit is similar to that of welding except for the
torch tip.

Here torch tip has a provision for preheating the plate as
well as providing the oxygen jet.
The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a
substance is the lowest temperature at which it will
spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere without an
external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.
If a large size of orifce is used than that required, the kerf
width is wider and larger volumes of oxygen are consumed.
Tip has a central hole for oxygen jet with surrounding holes
for preheating.

Tip size is dependent on the thickness of the plate, which
determines the amount of preheating as well as the oxygen jet
flow required for cutting
The heat generated causes the metal to melt and get
blown away by the oxygen pressure.

About 30 to 40% of the metal in the kerf(cut) is simply blown
away, while the rest is oxidised.(60-70%)
It gets readily combined with oxygen giving iron oxide.
After the steel plate has reached the kindling temperature,
which is about 870
0
C, the operator should release the
oxygen jet to start the cutting, moving in the forehand
direction to achieve the desired cut.
Melting point of cast iron is less than that of iron oxide. So cutting of cast iron is
difficult. Preheating and post heating should be done. If not, white cast iron will form
resulting hard edges.

If chromium and nickel are present in ferrous alloys, these will interfere with the
oxidation and difficult to cut without special provisions.
Drag: the amount by which the lower edge of the drag
line trails from the top edge.
Torch tip can held vertically or slightly inclined in the
direction of travel. The torch should be positioned above
the metal at a distance of about 1.5 to 3 mm
A good cut is characterized by very small or negligible
drag. Forward cutting speed should not be high.

More the speed, more the drag, which leads to turbulence
conditions for the oxygen jet, which gives very rough and
irregular shaped cut edges.

If the torch moved slowly, starting on and off of the
oxygen jet takes place and leads to irregular cut.
Widely used for those materials which readily get
oxidised and the oxides have low MP than metals.
Hence widely used for ferrous materials. Not used for
materials such as Auminium, bronze, stainless steel etc.
since they resist oxidation.

Shielded gas cutting processes (Gas Metal Arc Cutting &
Gas Tungsten Arc Cutting) are used for materials like
Aluminium, stainless steel, Nickel alloys.

Plasma Arc Cutting(PAC) will produce very high
temperatures of the order 14,000
0
C. Any metal can easily be
melted and blown away by this process.

Gas cutting can be done manually or by a machine.
Microprocessor controlled flame cutting machines are also
available.
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
+
Ammeter
Voltmeter Battery
Resistance Simple electrical circuit
+
I
V
Welding
machine
Electrode
Welding electrical circuit (Straight polarity)
-
Work
Arc
Arc Welding
Name AWS Characteristics Applications
Atomic
hydrogen
welding
AHW
Two metal electrodes in
hydrogen atmosphere
Historical
Bare metal arc
welding
BMAW
Consumable electrode, no flux
or shielding gas
Historical
Carbon arc
welding
CAW Carbon electrode, historical
Copper, repair
(limited)
Flux cored arc
welding
FCAW
FCAW-S
Continuous consumable
electrode filled with flux
Industry,
construction
Gas metal arc
welding
GMAW
Continuous consumable
electrode and shielding gas
Industry
Gas tungsten
arc welding
GTAW
Nonconsumable electrode,
slow, high quality welds
Aerospace
Plasma arc
welding
PAW
Nonconsumable electrode,
constricted arc
Tubing,
instrumentation
Shielded
metal arc
welding
SMAW
Consumable electrode covered
in flux, can weld any metal as
long as they have the right
electrode
Construction,
outdoors
Submerged
arc welding
SAW
Automatic, arc submerged in
granular flux
Electric Arc
An arc is generated between two electrodes
An arc is a sustained electric discharge through the ionized gas
column called plasma between the two electrodes
Accelerated electrons strike anode at high velocity conversion of
KE to heat ionization of the column - arc column temperature
generated is about 6000C
In order to produce the arc, the potential difference between the two
electrodes should be sufficient
The arc formation is similar for both the AC or DC welding
In AC the polarity changes continuously and hence the temperature
across the arc is uniform
In DC the polarity is fixed and hence the heat is more concentrated at
one of the electrodes
Heat produced by the electric arc to fusion weld metallic pieces
Electrons liberated from the cathode move towards the anode
and are accelerated in their movement. When they strike the
anode at high velocity, large amount of heat is generated.

Electrons are moving through the air gap between the
electrodes, also called the arc column, they collide with the ions
in the ionised gas column between the electrodes
In DC welding

Striking of electrons on anode from cathode: 65 to 75%
heat liberated at anode(6000
0
C)

Positively charges ions, moving from anode to cathode, and
liberating 25 to 35% heat at cathode.
The larger air gap requires, higher potential differences. If
the air gap becomes too large for the voltage, the arc may
be extinguished.
In order to produce the arc, the potential difference
between the two electrodes should be sufficient to allow
them to move across the air gap.
50% of all industrial and maintenance welding is currently
performed by this process (Shielded metal arc welding SMAW,
also know as stick welding)
Current ranges: 50A to 500A
Voltage: 20 to 40 V
Power requirements: less than 10 kW
Current : AC or DC
For sheet metal work: DC preferred as it produces steady arc
Arc welding Contd..
In the normal operation of a transformer as amperage is
increased, the voltage decreases, and vice-versa.

Electrical arc welding power supply characteristics are
constructed so that either the voltage or the amperage is
relatively constant as the other factor changes.

Arc gap is proportional to voltage

Heat generated is proportional to current
Polarity of DC Supply
Direct current straight polarity(DCEN)
Direct current reverse polarity(DCEP)
+
I
V
Welding
machine
(DC power
source)
Electrode
-
Work
Arc
Electron flow
+
I
V
Electrode
-
Work
Arc
Electron flow
Welding
machine
(DC power
source)
Deep penetration
Shallow penetration
but good deposition
I
V
Electrode
Work
Arc
Electron flow
Electrode Work
AC Welding Circuit
DC arc welding is more expensive than AC welding. But DC is
preferred because of the control of the heat input offered by it.

In DC, 70% of heat is liberated near anode. Hence if more heat is
required and for thicker sheets, DCEN (straight polarity)is preferred
for more penetration.

For thinner sheets where less heat is required, reverse polarity or
DCEP is preferred for small penetration.

In case of AC, the weld bead is some where in between DCEP
and DCEN.

DC welding is generally preferred for difficult tasks.
Comparison of Penetration Contours
Arc blow in DC, deflection of the arc by means of magnetic fields setup due to the
flow of welding current
Arc blow in DC arc welding
Arc welding equipment
This allows two different types of power supply characteristics:
i. Constant current(droop curve machines or droopers)
In a constant current power supply, the current (amperage)
stays relatively constant when the voltage is changed.

- Shield Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
- For a large change in o/p voltage, the corresponding
change in current is so small that the quality of the weld
can be maintained.
- This is essential for manual arc-welding processes, since
the maintenance of constant arc is nearly impossible by a
human welder.
Amperes
V
o
l
t
s

100
80
60
40
20
0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150
25
115
Characteristics of constant current power supply.
The machine provides a high voltage for striking the arc.
Open circuit voltage (OCV)
When the arc is struck, the voltage drops to the welding voltage.
Arc voltage
Arc voltage varies with the arc length.
As the welding proceeds, the current will not vary much as the arc length
changes.
Increasing the voltage from 20 to
25 volts (25%) only decreases
the amperage from 125 to 115
Amp (8%).
ii. Constant Voltage

-To maintain constant arc gap.

- In a constant voltage power supply, the voltage stays
relatively constant when the amperage is changed.

- Automatic welding (self corrective) which will maintain
constant arc gap
When the electrode comes a bit closer to the work, the
arc voltage drops raising the output current to a very high
value. This current instantly melts the electrode and thus
maintains the arc gap. And vice versa.


Ampere
s
V
o
l
t
s

100
80
60
40
20
0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150
Characteristic curves of a constant
Voltage arc welding machine
I : 100 to 200
V: 30 to 25 only
I
SCC
OCV
OCV V
|
.
|

\
|
=
OCV= Open circuit voltage
SCC= Short circuit current
For stable arc in constant voltage transformer, V
arc
= V
transformer

For stable arc in constant current transformer, I
arc
= I
transformer
Power P = VI
For maximum power, dP/dL = 0
Where L= Arc length
For linear power source characteristics, voltage (V) is
The constant-current or drooping type of power source is
preferred for manual metal arc welding since it is difficult to hold
a constant arc length.

The changing arc length causes arc voltage to increase or
decrease, which in turn produces a change in welding current.
The welding voltages range from 20 to 30 V depending upon
welding current i.e. higher the current, higher the voltage.

Welding current depends on the size of the electrode i.e. core
diameter.

The approximate average welding current for structural steel
electrodes is 35xd (where d is electrode diameter in mm) with
some variations with the type of coating of electrode.
The output voltage of the power source on no load' or open
circuit' must be high enough to enable the arc to be started.

A value of 80 V is sufficient for most electrodes but certain types
may require more or less than this value.

A manual welding power source is never loaded continuously
because of operations such as, electrode changing, slag removal
etc.

Most MMA welding equipment has a duty cycle of around 40%
at maximum welding current.
Arc welding machine specifications:

1.Max. rated open-circuit voltage: The voltage between the o/p
terminals when no welding is done, normally fixed at 80V. Normally 40 to
50V is enough for starting an arc. For continuous welding 20 to 30 V is
sufficient.

Min. welding load voltage V
m
= 20 + 0.04 I, where I= load current in amp

2. Rated current in amp: The max. current in amp that a welding
machine is capable of supplying at a given voltage. Preferred current
ratings are 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 900 A

3. Duty cycle: The % of time in a 10 min period, that a welding machine
can be used at its rated o/p without overloading. Normally 60% duty
cycle is suggested.(remaining time for setting up, metal chipping,
cleaning and inspection). For automatic welding machines, 100% duty
cycle.

I
2
D = Constant
Where D= Duty cycle
I= Current
1. The arc length characteristic is given by expression V=24 + 4L (L= arc length
in mm). The volt ampere characteristic of a power source can be approximated
by a straight line with open circuit voltage 80V and short circuit current is 600A.
Determine optimum arc length for maximum power.
OCV=80V
SCC=600A
V= 80-[80/600]I
Stable V
arc
=V
transformer
V=24 +4L = 80 [80/600]I

I = [56-4L] [60/8]
We know power P= VI={24 +4L}{56-4L}{60/8}=[60/8] {(56)(24) + 128L -16 L
2
For maximum power, dp/dL = 0
128-32L =0
L=4 mm
The arc length for maximum power is 4 mm
2. Arc length voltage characteristic can be represented by V=20 + 4 L. If the arc
length in the welding operation varies between 4 mm to 6mm and the welding
current between 450 amp to 550 amp, assuming a linear power source
characteristic, calculate 1. Open circuit voltage(OCV) 2. Short circuit current
(SCC)
At arc length L1=4mm
V1= 20 +(4x4) =36 volts
At arc length L2=6mm
V2= 20+(4x6)=44 volts
I (Amp)
V (volts)
(550,36)
(450,44)
Equation of the line:


V-36 = {(44-36)/(450-550)} x (I 550)

V= 80 (8/100) I
y - y
1
= [(y
2
- y
1
) / (x
2
- x
1
)](x - x
1
)
V-V1 = {(V2-V1)/(I2-I1)} x (I - I1)
I
SCC
OCV
OCV V
|
.
|

\
|
=
By comparison,

OCV = 80V

OCV/SCC = 8/100

SCC= 1000 Amp

V= 80 (8/100) I
3. A DC welding machine with a linear power source characteristic provides OCV of
80 V and SCC of 800 A. During welding with the machine, the measured arc current
is 500 A corresponding to an arc length of 5 mm and the measured arc current is 460
A corresponding to an arc length of 7 mm. What is the linear voltage (V) arc length
(L) characteristic of the welding arc.
I
SCC
OCV
OCV V
|
.
|

\
|
=
V= 80-(80/800)I = 80 (1/10)I
Let linear voltage(V)-arc length(L) characteristic of welding arc be V= a + b (L)
Where a, b are constants.
For arc current (I)=500 A, Arc length L = 5 mm

From (1), V= 80-(1/10) 500 = 30 V
From(2), V= a + 5 b
---(1)
---(2)
Equating these two, a + 5b = 30
Similarly , for arc current(I) , 460 A, arc length (L) is 7 mm
From (1), V= 80-(1/10)460= 34 V
From (2), E= a+ 7b
Equating these two, a + 7b = 34
Solving these equations, a= 20 , b= 2
So, V= 20 + 2 L
Electrodes in Arc Welding
Types
1. Consumable Electrodes:
a) Bare electrodes: MIG, SAW
b) Coated electrodes: MMAW (SMAW)
2. Non-Consumable Electrodes: TIG, Atomic Hydrogen welding,
Plasma Arc Welding, Carbon(graphite) Arc Welding.
High Energy Beam
a) Electron Beam Welding
b) Laser Beam Welding
If Metal is included in the title of welding process, it uses
consumable electrode.

If Metal name like carbon, Tungsten is used, It is non consumable
electrode. So Filler metal is used separately.
Basic functions of Electrodes

1. Strike the arc with work, Stabilizes and directs the arc

2. Formation of slag, which protects solidified hot metal from
atmospheric gases

3. Filler metal

4. Shielding of weld pool- Forms a gaseous shield

5. Alloying with certain elements such as Cr, Ni, Mo to improve
weld metal properties
Welding of dissimilar metals: Forge welding, Resistance welding,
Friction welding, Laser beam welding, Explosive welding (cladding-for
corrosion prevention), Soldering, Brazing, Adhesive bonding etc.
Applications
Weld Bead Geometry

Figure shows the important parameters of the weld bead geometry
for a butt weld.

Manual Metal Arc Welding (Shielded Metal Arc Welding SMAW)

-Most extensively used manual welding process, with stick(coated electrodes)
-Least expensive than most of the arc-welding processes
-For all jobs in any position
-Currents: 50 to 500A; Voltages 20 to 40
-Dis Adv: slow speed(1 to 8 kg/hr for flat position)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
SMAW is a process in which an electric arc is established between the
electrically grounded work piece and a 9-18 length of covered consumable
metal rod, called the electrode.

The heat of the arc melts the base metal in the immediate area, the
electrodes metal core, and any metallic elements in the coating of the
electrode.

It also melts, vaporizes or breaks down chemically non-metallic substances
in the coating to shield the arc, protect the weld, and add alloys or properties
to the weld deposit.

Stick is the most commonly used name for SMAW. This is because the
electrode resembles a stick. It is also, often referred to as manual welding

The SMAW process uses constant current power sources.
Section view of arc welding with a coated electrode
SMAW-Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(Co
2
)

Coatings give off inert gases such as carbon dioxide under the arc heat, which shields
the molten metal pool and protects it from the atmospheric oxygen, hydrogen and
nitrogen pick-up, thus reducing the contamination of the weld metal.
Coatings provide flux to the molten metal, which mixed with the oxides and other
impurities present in the puddle, forms slag. The slag being lighter, floats on the top of
the puddle and protects it against the surrounding air during the weld-bead
solidification. The slag covering also helps the metal to cool slowly preventing the
formation of a brittle weld. When the weld is sufficiently cooled, the slag can be
removed exposing the shiny weld underneath.
Inert-Gas Shielded Arc Welding
To complete exclusion of oxygen and other gases, which
interfere with the weld pool to the detriment of the weld quality.

In manual metal arc welding, the use of stick electrodes does
this job to some extent but not fully.

In Inert gas shielded arc welding process, a high pressure inert
gas flowing around the electrode while welding, would physically
displace all the atmospheric gases around the weld metal to fully
protect it.

Ex: Carbon dioxide(1890-Higher currents but economical gas),
Helium & Argon gases with non consumable electrodes in 1930.
Argon is preferred(low arc voltage, longer arc)

No separate flux
Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (TIG, GTAW)
Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) is
a welding process in which heat is generated by an electric arc struck
between a tungsten non-consumable electrode and the work piece.

The weld pool is shielded by an inert gas (Argon, Helium, Nitrogen)
protecting the molten metal from atmospheric contamination.

The heat produced by the arc melts the work pieces edges and joins
them. Filler rod may be used, if required(for thick sheets). Generally a
bare wire. Difficult to use for thick sheets.
Nozzle(shield) size, gas flow rate, filler rod size, electrode diameter,
current to be chosen depending on position of the weld & metal
thickness.

Nozzle
Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding produces a high quality weld of most of
metals. Flux is not used in the process.

Preferred for Al, Mg, stainless steel, cast iron, High carbon steel of thin
sheets.
Advantages of Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (TIG, GTAW):

Weld composition is close to that of the parent metal
High quality weld structure
Slag removal is not required (no slag)
Thermal distortions of work pieces are minimal due to
concentration of heat in small zone.
Suitable for all types of metals


Disadvantages of Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (TIG, GTAW):

1.Low welding rate
2.Relatively expensive
3.Requires high level of operators skill
4.For thin sheets only
Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG, GMAW)
Metal Inert Gas Welding (Gas Metal Arc Welding) is a arc
welding process, in which the weld is shielded by an external gas
(Argon, helium, CO
2
, argon + Oxygen or other gas mixtures).

For more thickness sheets than in TIG welding

Consumable electrode wire, having chemical composition similar to
that of the parent material, is continuously fed from a spool to
the arc zone. The arc heats and melts both the work pieces edges
and the electrode wire. The fused electrode material is supplied to
the surfaces of the work pieces, fills the weld pool and forms joint.

Due to automatic feeding of the filling wire (electrode) the process
is referred to as a semi-automatic.

The operator controls only the torch positioning and speed.

Power supply: Constant voltage type only. Normally with DCEP.
With DCEN arc is highly unstable and results in spatter.
Shielding gas is used and hence no flux
MIG
Advantages of Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG, GMAW):

1.Continuous weld may be produced (no interruptions)
2.High level of operators skill is not required
3.Slag removal is not required (no slag)


Disadvantages of Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG, GMAW):

1.Expensive and non-portable equipment is required
2.Outdoor application are limited because of effect of wind, dispersing
the shielding gas.
Submerged Arc Welding is a welding process, which utilizes a bare
consumable metallic electrode producing an arc between itself and the
work piece within a granular shielding flux applied around the weld.

The arc heats and melts both the work pieces edges and the electrode
wire. The molten electrode material is supplied to the surfaces of the
welded pieces, fills the weld pool and joins the work pieces.

Since the electrode is submerged into the flux, the arc is invisible.

Flux partially melts and forms a slag protecting the weld pool from
oxidation and other atmospheric contaminations.

For faster welding jobs.
Consumable electrode wire: 1.5 mm to 12 mm in diameter
Current: 300A to 4000A(very high currents)
Metal deposition rates: more than 20 kg/hr
High welding speeds: 5m/ min
Plate thickness: 75 mm in single pass
No shielding gas and hence flux is used separately
Submerged Arc Welding
A part of the flux melts and forms the slag, which covers the weld.
The unused flux is collected and reused.
Advantages of Submerged Arc Welding (SAW):

1.Very high welding rate
2.The process is suitable for automation
3.High quality weld structure


Disadvantages of Submerged Arc Welding (SAW):

1.Weld may contain slag inclusions
2. Limited applications of the process - mostly for
welding horizontally located plates.



Forge Welding
Forge welding is a welding process of heating two or more pieces
of metal and then hammering them together.
The process is one of the simplest methods of joining metals and
has been used since ancient times.
Forge welding is versatile, being able to join a host of similar and
dissimilar metals.
With the invention of electrical and gas welding methods during the
Industrial Revolution, forge welding has been largely replaced.
Forge Welding cont..
Forge welding between similar materials is caused by solid-state
diffusion. This results in a weld that consists of only the welded
materials without any fillers or bridging materials.

Forge welding between dissimilar materials is caused by the
formation of a lower melting temperature eutectic between the
materials. Due to this the weld is often stronger than the individual
metals.

The temperature required to forge weld is typically 50 to 90% of the
melting temperature.
The oldest welding process in the world. Oxides must be removed
by flux or flames
Resistance welding

Fusion welding Process where both heat and pressure are
applied on the joint but no filler metal or flux is added.

Heat necessary for melting of the joint is obtained by the
heating effect of the electrical resistance of the joint and
hence, the name resistance welding.
This is one of the most commonly used process in sheet-
metal fabrication and in automotive-body assembly.

No consumables.

For joining dissimilar materials(different thicknesses)
A low voltage (typically 1 V) and very high current (Typically 15,000 A) is
passed through the joint for a very short time(typically 0.25 s)
Resistance Spot Welding
(a) Sequence in resistance spot welding. (b) Cross-section of a spot weld,
showing the weld nugget and the indentation of the electrode on the sheet
surfaces.
Resistance Spot Welding cont..
Heat generated in resistance welding in Joules
H = I
2
R t k
t = time in sec
R = resistance (ohms O)
I = current (Amp)
k = factor which represents energy losses through conduction
and radiation (<1)

The total resistance in this process consists of
a) Resistance of the electrodes.
b) Electrode-workpiece contact resistance.
c) Resistance of individual parts to be welded
d) Workpiece-workpiece contact resistance.
Principle of Resistance spot Welding
Electric resistance welding Schedule
One of the very important characteristics of the resistance
welding process is the transfer of heat to the two parts being
joined differently so that proper fusion obtained even when the
plates are dissimilar from the stand point of material or thickness.
Proper fusion can be obtained only if there is proper heat
balance, by providing an electrode with a smaller contact area at
the thinner sheet and a thicker electrode at the thicker sheet
together with very high current densities for short times.
If two dissimilar metals with different electrical conductivities or
thermal conductivities are to be joined,

1.Use large contact area electrode for the one which has higher
electrical conductivity

2.Use small contact area electrode for the one which has higher
thermal conductivity
Electrode Shapes for Spot Welding- Heat Balance
Very little skill is required to operate the resistance
welding machine.
These are very well suited for mass production, as they
give a high production rate.
There are no consumables used in this process except
for the electrical power and a relatively smaller electrode
wear.
Heating of the workpiece is confined to a very small part,
which results in less distortion.
It is possible to weld dissimilar metals as well as metal
plates of different thicknesses.

Advantages
The resistance welding machine is highly complex with
various elements such as a heavy transformer,
electrodes and heavy conductors for carrying the high
currents, the electrode force applying mechanism such
as a pneumatic cylinder and its supply, the heavy
machine structure to support the large forces and an
expensive timing arrangement.

Certain resistance welding processes are limited only to
lap joints.
Disadvantages
Spot Welding Configurations
Schematic illustration of an air-operated,
rocker-arm, spot welding machine
Spot Welding
(a) and (b) Spot-welded cookware and muffler. (c) An automated spot-
welding machine with a programmable robot; the welding tip can move
in three principal directions. Sheets as large as 2.2 m 0.55 m (88 in.
22 in.) can be accommodated in this machine.
Resistance Seam Welding
(a) Resistance seam-welding process in which rotating rolls act as electrodes; (b) overlapping spots in
a seam weld; (c) roll spot welds; (d) mash-seam welding.
Modification of spot welding bottom and top electrodes replaced
by rotating wheels.
The electrically conducting rollers produce spot weld, when the
current reaches a high value.
This process can be carefully controlled to produce continuous
seam.

Applications: Mufflers, gasoline tanks.
Resistance Projection Welding
High electrical resistance at the joint is developed by embossing one or
more projections on the surface to be welded.
High localized temperatures are generated at projections which are in
contact with flat making part.
Process produces number of weld in one pass, extended electrode life.
(a) Schematic illustration of resistance projection welding. (b) A welded bracket. (c) and (d) Projection
welding of nuts or threaded bosses and studs. (e) Resistance-projection-welded grills.
Resistance Projection Welding cont..
Another variation of spot welding.
Where of the sheets to be joined is provided with a number of
projections to help localize the current at a predetermined spot.
The projection are very small (0.8 mm) and are obtained by means
of embossing.
Because of the localization of the current by the use of projections it
is no more necessary to use small size electrodes.
As the welding current from this projections they often get melted
and a fusion joint is made under pressure applied from the
electrodes.

Applications: Metal Baskets, grills, over drags, shopping carts.
Name AWS Characteristics Applications
Resistance
spot welding
RSW
Two pointed electrodes
apply pressure and current
to two or more thin
workpieces
Automobile
industry,
Aerospace
industry
Resistance
seam
welding
ERW
Two wheel-shaped
electrodes roll along
workpieces, applying
pressure and current
Aerospace
industry, steel
drums, tubing
Upset
welding
RSEW
Butt joint surfaces heated
and brought together by
force
Thermit Welding(Exothermic Welding)
Thermit welding is the process of igniting a mix of high energy materials,
also called thermite, that produce a metallic slag that is poured between the
working pieces of metal to form a joint.

Commonly utilizing the composition of iron oxide red powder (Fe
3
O
4
) with
aluminium powder(Al) giving aluminium oxide powder (Al
2
O
3
) and iron(Fe).
To heat the metal, it requires no
external source of heat or current.
Aluminium dust reduces the oxide of
another metal, most commonly iron
oxide, because aluminium is highly
reactive.
The complete reaction takes place in a
total of 1 minute, irrespective of the
amount of thermit mixture present in the
crucible.
Thermit Welding cont
A violent exothermic reaction occurs. Aluminium is a strong reducing
agent, and combines with the oxygen from the iron oxide, the iron
oxide being reduced to iron and intense heat will be released.
Ignition temp. 1200
0
C
Produces a white hot iron slag and vapors of aluminium oxide.
8Al + 3Fe
3
O
4
9Fe + 4 Al
2
O
3
+ Heat
Temperature of this exothermic reaction is around 2500 C.
Because of large difference in densities, aluminium oxide floats on the
top with molten steel settling below.
Sometimes the mixture contains other materials(like manganese) to
impart special properties to the weld.
Used for aligning the parts to be joined
Gap is usually filled with wax, around which a sand or ceramic mold is
buit.
If the parts are thick, the mold cavity may be preheated to improve
welding and dry the mold.

Other thermit mixtures: Aluminium and copper oxide(for welding copper
cables)

Similar to casting process. Molten metal obtained by thermit reaction
is poured into the refractory cavity made around the joint.

1. Wax is poured in the joint and wax pattern is formed where the weld
is to be obtained.
2. A molding flask is kept around the joint and sand is rammed carefully
around the wax pattern
3. Pouring basin, sprue and riser are made
4. A bottom opening is provided to run off the molten wax
5. The wax is melted through the opening at the bottom, which is used
to preheat the joint and make it ready for welding
6. The igniting mixture ( barium peroxide or magnesium) is placed at the
top of the thermit mixture and is ignited by means of a heated rod of
acetylene gas
7. Complete reaction takes place & molten metal is produced.
8. Strength of thermit welded joint is same as forged metal without any
defects.

Applications

Welding and repairs of large forgings and broken castings.
Welding of thick structural sections.
Rail road repairs, joining tracks on site.
Welding cable conductors
FRICTION WELDING

It is solid state joining
process.
Mechanical friction between
a moving work piece
(1500 to 3000 rpm) and a
stationary component.
Lateral force (upset) is
applied (40 MPa to 450MPa)
to plastically displace and
fuse the materials
Similar to lathe machine
Power requirements:
25KVA to 175 KVA
Major Parameters: Rotational speed,
axial pressure applied & time( 2-30 sec)
Types of Friction Welding
Spin Welding:
A rotating chuck along
with flywheel.
Linear Friction Welding:

Oscillating Chuck is used.

Used for non-round
shapes as compared to
Spin welding.

Material should be of high
shear strength.

Friction Surfacing:

It is a surface coating
process.

Coating material
Mechtrode is rotated
under pressure over
substrate.

Friction Stir Welding:

A cylindrical shouldered
tool, with a profiled probe
(nib or pin) is used.

Friction is between tool
shoulder, nib and
workmetal.
Advantages of Friction
Simplicity of operation and simple equipment.
Less time requirement.
Low Surface impurities and oxide films.
Heat affected zone is small as compare to conventional
flash welding.
There is no flux, gas, filler metal or slag present to cause
imperfections in welds.
Dissimilar metals can be joined
No distortion and warping
Because of high quality of the weld obtained, widely
accepted in aerospace and automobile industry for
critical parts
Disadvantages of Friction
Process is restricted to flat and angular butt welds.
Used only for joining small parts.
It require heavy rigid machine due to high Thrust
pressure.
In case of tube welding process becomes complicated.
In case of high carbon steels it is difficult to remove
flash.

Materials used in Friction welding process:

Variety of metals can be joined by this process as well as
it gives variety of metals combination which cannot join
by conventional process.
Aluminum
Brass
Cast iron
Ceramic
Copper
Lead
Bronze

Aluminum Alloys
Steel Alloys
Magnesium
Magnesium Alloys
Tungsten
Vanadium


Cu + Al
Weldable Material Combinations
Applications
Automobile: Bimetallic engine valve, universal
joint yoke, gear hub etc.
Aerospace: Turbine blade joining, seamless
joining etc.
Consumer: Hand tools, sports equipment
Industrial: Spindles, tapers, tools
Military
Medical: Stainless steel joining of containers
Marine: Shipping Industry
Mining/Drilling: Twist drill etc.
Hydraulic equipments

Applications
Drill Pipe
Since dissimilar metals can often be joined, a significant cost
savings can be realized by designing bimetallic parts that use a
minimum of expensive metals only where needed.

Expensive forgings and castings can sometimes be replaced with
less expensive forgings welded to bar stock, tubes, and plates, or
with components created solely by welding together bar stock,
tubes, and plates.
Process diagram for Plasma arc welding
Power source
+ -
Plasma gas
Tungsten electrode
Shielding gas
Orifice to constrict arc
Plasma
stream
Nozzle
Circulating Coolant
Plasma-Arc Welding Process
Two types of plasma-arc welding processes:
(a) transferred, (b) non-transferred.
Deep and narrow welds can be made by this process at
high welding speeds.
Plasma-Arc Welding Process (PAW)
Plasma is a state of matter reached by gases when heated to
temperatures above 1000 C
PAW is an arc welding process that uses a constricted arc between
a non-consumable electrode and the work or between the non-
consumable electrode and the constricting nozzle
Compared to TIG, PAW has higher energy concentration higher
temperature, constricted cross-sectional area, velocity of plasma jet
Stiff columnar plasma
Torch to work distance less critical
Complete penetration single pass welding, small heat affected zone
High welding speeds
Transferred arc mode for welding applications
Non -Transferred arc mode for thermal spraying and heating non-
conducting materials
Laser Welding (LW)
Laser Welding (LW) is a welding process, in which heat is
generated by a high energy laser beam targeted on the work piece.
The laser beam heats and melts the work pieces edges, forming a
joint.

Energy of narrow laser beam is highly concentrated: 10
8
-
10
11
W/in
2
(10
8
-10
10
W/cm
2
), therefore diminutive weld pool forms
very fast (for about 10
-6
sec.). Solidification of the weld pool
surrounded by the cold metal is as fast as melting. Since the time
when the molten metal is in contact with the atmosphere is short, no
contamination occurs and therefore no shields(neutral gas, flux) are
required.

The joint in Laser Welding (Laser Beam Welding) is formed either
as a sequence of overlapped spot welds or as a continuous weld.

Laser Welding is used in electronics, communication and aerospace
industry, for manufacture of medical and scientific instruments, for
joining miniature components.

Advantages of Laser Welding:

Easily automated process;
Controllable process parameters;
Very narrow weld may be obtained;
High quality of the weld structure;
Very small heat affected zone;
Dissimilar materials may be welded;
Very small delicate work pieces may be welded;
Vacuum is not required;
Low distortion of work piece.


Disadvantages of Carbon Arc Welding:

Low welding speed;
High cost equipment;
Weld depth is limited.
Name AWS Characteristics Applications
Coextrusion
welding
CEW
Dissimilar metals are extruded through the
same die
Joining of corrosion
resistant alloys to
cheaper alloys
Cold pressure
welding
CW
Joining of soft alloys such as copper and
aluminium below their melting point
Electrical contacts
Diffusion welding DFW No weld line visible
Titanium pump impellor
wheels
Explosion welding EXW
Joining of dissimilar materials, e.g. corrosion
resistant alloys to structural steels
Transition joints for
chemical industry and
shipbuilding. Bimetal
pipelines
Electromagnetic
pulse welding
Tubes or sheets are accelerated by
electromagnetic forces. Oxides are expelled
during impact
Automotive industry,
pressure vessels,
dissimilar material joints
Forge welding FOW
The oldest welding process in the world.
Oxides must be removed by flux or flames.
Damascus steel
Friction welding FRW
Thin heat affected zone, oxides disrupted by
friction, needs sufficient pressure
Aerospace industry,
railway, land transport
Friction stir welding FSW
A rotating consumable tool is traversed
along the joint line
Shipbuilding,
aerospace, railway
rolling stock, automotive
industry
Hot pressure
welding
HPW
Metals are pressed together at elevated
tempeartures below the melting point in
vacuum or an inert gas atmosphere
Aerospace components
Hot isostatic
pressure welding
HPW
A hot inert gas applies the pressure inside a
pressure vessel, i.e. an autoclave
Aerospace components
Roll welding ROW
Bimetallic materials are joined by forcing
them between two rotating wheels
Dissimilar materials
Ultrasonic welding USW
High-frequency vibratory energy is applied
to foils, thin metal sheets or plastics.
Solar industry.
Electronics. Rear lights
of cars.
Diffusion: Process of movement of atoms from one location of
higher concentration to another of lower concentration or to a
vacant place.

Diffusion of atoms would be faster at high temperatures and in liquid
phase. It is also a time dependent phenomenon as the atoms have
to physically travel from one site to the other.

No plastic deformation occurs.

Diffusion welding can be used for joining metals to metals and
metals to nonmetals.
Liquidus temperature: It specifies the temperature above which a
material is completely liquid
Solidus temperature: Temperature on a phase diagram below
which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized)
Brazing & Soldering
Metal Joining Processes
Brazing & Soldering
Filler metal distributed by capillary action
Only filler metal is melted, not base metal
Strength of joint typically
Can join dissimilar metals
Less heat - can join thinner sections (relative to welding)
stronger than filler metal itself
weaker than base metal
Excessive heat during service can weaken joint
Pros & Cons
Lower temperatures than welding
gap at joint important (0.001 0.010)
Metallurgical bond formed between filler & base metals
Brazing: A joint with the help of a filler metal whose liquidus
temperature is above 450
0
C and is below the solidus temperature of
the base metal.

The filler metal is drawn into the joint by means of capillarity.

Dissimilar metals such as stainless steel to cast iron can be joined
by brazing.

Except Aluminium and Magnesium, brazing can join all metals.

Not useful for high-temperature service because of low melting
temp. of the filler metal.

Joints need to be extremely clean. Fluxes are added into the brazed
joint to remove any of the oxides present or prevent the formation of
oxides so that base metal and filler metal remain pure during brazing.

Ex: 75% borax + 25% boric acid
Number of filler metals are available.

For brazing ferrous materials, copper based filler metals with
less zinc content are used.

For brazing Aluminium, Al-Si filler material is used

Silver brazing is used for applications requiring high strength
(upto 900 MPa tensile strength)and high temperature service.

Heat source: Molten bath of brazing filler metal, oxyacetylene
torch, controlled atmospheric furnace.
Braze Welding: Similar to brazing. In braze welding the filler metal
reaches the joint without the capillary action since the joint gap is
bigger.

Edge preparation will be done.
Filler metal enters the joint by gravity.
Similar to oxyacetylene gas welding.
Filler metals: Brasses(Cu + Zn) with zinc content upto 40%.
Joint is obtained by diffusion.
Explosive Welding: In explosive welding (EXW), detonation of explosives
is used to accelerate a part to move towards the other plate at a fast rate,
so that the impact creates the joint.

As the plate moves at high velocity and meets the other plate with a
massive impact, very high stress waves (of the order of thousands of MPa)
are created between the plates, which clear all the oxide and scales
present in the interface and make a clean joint.

Produce sound welds without any shock effects on the plates joined. The
detonation velocity changes with the thickness of the plate being
welded(2.4 to 3.6 km/s)

Applications: Cladding of metals for the purpose of corrosive prevention.
Very large plates can be cladded.

Joining of dissimilar metals such as titanium to steel, aluminium to steel,
aluminium to copper can be successfully carried out.
Brazing
Use of low melt point filler metal to fill thin gap between
mating surfaces to be joined utilizing capillary action
Metal Joining Processes
Brazing
Applications:
Pipe/Tubing joining (HVAC)
Filler metals include Al, Mg & Cu alloys (melt point
typically above 450
0
C)
Automotive - joining tubes
Electrical equipment - joining wires
Jewelry Making
Flux also used
Types of brazing classified by heating method:
Torch, Furnace, Resistance
Joint can possess significant strength
Soldering: Joining similar or dissimilar metals by means of a filler metal whose liquidus
temperature is below 450
0
C

Used for obtaining a neat leak-proof joint or a low-resistance electrical joint. Not suitable
for high-temperature service because of the low melting temperatures of the filler metals
used.

Similar to brazing as filler metal enters the joint by capillary action.

Soldered joint is weaker compared to a brazed joint.

To remove oxides from the joint surfaces, fluxes are used.

For electrical soldering work, Rosin and Rosin plus alcohol based fluxes are used

For nonelectrical soldering work, organic fluxes such as zinc chloride and aluminium
chloride are used.

Filler metals are normally called solders, which are alloys of lead and tin (lower
liquidus temp.)

Soldering iron is a copper rod with a thin tip, which is heated by keeping in a furnace or
by means of an internal electrical resistance , whose power rating may range from 15W
for electronic applications and of 200W for sheet metal joining.
Soldering
Solder = Filler metal
Metal Joining Processes
Soldering
Applications:
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacture
Pipe joining (copper pipe)
Jewelry manufacture
Easy to solder: copper, silver, gold
Difficult to solder: aluminum, stainless steels
(can pre-plate difficult to solder metals to aid process)
Alloys of Tin (silver, bismuth, lead)
Melt point typically below 450
0
C
Flux used to clean joint & prevent oxidation
Typically non-load bearing
Tinning = pre-coating with thin layer of solder
separate or in core of wire (rosin-core)
PCB Soldering
Soldering Iron & Solder Wire
Metal Joining Processes
Manual PCB Soldering
Heating lead & placing solder
Trim excess lead
Heat for 2-3 sec. & place wire
opposite iron
PTH - Pin-Through-Hole connectors
Flame Cutting
To separate piece of material into two or more pieces or into various
contours.
Through heat source torches, electric arcs, lasers.

Types of flame cutting
- Arc cutting
- Oxy fuel (acetylene) gas cutting

Arc cutting
Same principles as that of arc welding processes.
Air carbon Arc cutting, plasma arc cutting, lasers and electron beams.
Process leaves HAZ.
Oxy-Acetylene Gas Cutting
(a) Flame cutting of steel plate with an oxyacetylene torch, and a cross-section of the torch nozzle.
(b) Cross-section of a flame-cut plate, showing drag lines.
Produces temperatures about 870 C while cutting steel.
Cutting occurs mainly by oxidation of steel.
Maximum thickness cut by oxy-acetylene gas is 300-350 mm.
The flame leaves drag lines on cut surface which are very rough.
Distortion may be a problem
Basic reactions with steel
Fe + O FeO + Heat
3Fe + 2O
2
Fe
3
O
4
+ Heat
4Fe + 3O
2
2Fe
2
O
3
+ Heat
pre-heating flames
Differences in torch tips for gas welding and gas cutting
Slag + Molten metal
Direction
of travel
Position of cutting torch in oxy-fuel gas cutting
Drag
Kerf
Water-Jet Cutting Process
Water-Jet Cutting Process
Nonmetallic Parts Made by Water-Jet Cutting
Brazing is a method of joining two metal work pieces by means of a
filler material at a temperature above its melting point but below the
melting point of either of the materials being joined.
Flow of the molten filler material into the gap between the work pieces
is driven by the capillary force. The filler material cools down
and solidifies forming a strong metallurgical joint, which is usually
stronger than the parent (work piece) materials. The parent materials
are not fused in the process.

Brazing is similar to Soldering. The difference is in the melting point of
the filler alloy: brazing filler materials melt at temperatures above
840F (450C); soldering filler materials (solders) melt at temperatures
below this point.

The difference between brazing and welding processes is more
sufficient: in the welding processes edges of the work pieces are
either fused (with or without a filler metal) or pressed to each other
without any filler material; brazing joins two parts without melting them
but through a fused filler metal.
Surface cleaning and brazing fluxes
Capillary effect (Fundamentals of adhesive bonding#Wetting|wettability) is
achieved by both: a proper Surface preparation and use of a flux for wetting and
cleaning the surfaces to be bonded.
Contaminants to be removed from the part surface are: mineral oils,
miscellaneous organic soils, polishing and buffing compounds, miscellaneous
solid particles, oxides, scale, smut, rust.
The work pieces are cleaned by means of mechanical methods, soaking cleaning
and chemical cleaning (acid etching).

A brazing flux has a melting point below the melting point of the filler metal, it melts
during the heating stage and spreads over the joint area, wetting it and protecting
the surface from oxidation.
It also cleans the surface, dissolving the metal oxides.
It is important that the surface tension of the flux is: 1. Low enough for wetting the
work piece surface; 2. Higher than the surface tension of the molten filler metal in
order to provide displacement of the flux by the fused brazing filler. The latter
eliminates the flux entrapment in the joint.
The flux is applied onto the metal surface by brushing, dipping or spraying.
Advantages of brazing
Low thermal distortions and residual stresses in the joint parts;
Microstructure is not affected by heat;
Easily automated process;
Dissimilar materials may be joined;
High variety of materials may be joined;
Thin wall parts may be joined;
Moderate skill of the operator is required.

Disadvantages of brazing
Careful removal of the flux residuals is required in order to prevent corrosion;
No gas shielding may cause porosity of the joint;
Large sections cannot be joined;
Fluxes and filler materials may contain toxic components;
Relatively expensive filler materials.
Soldering
Soldering is a method of joining two metal work pieces by means of a third metal
(solder) at a relatively low temperature, which is above the melting point of the
solder but below the melting point of either of the materials being joined.
Flow of the molten solder into the gap between the work pieces is driven by the
capillary force. The solder cools down and solidifies forming a joint. The parent
materials are not fused in the process.

Soldering is similar to Brazing. The difference is in the melting point of the
filler alloy: solders melt at temperatures below 840F (450C); brazing filler
materials melt at temperatures above this point.

The difference between soldering and welding processes is more sufficient: in the
welding processes edges of the work pieces are either fused (with or without a
filler metal) or pressed to each other without any filler material; soldering joins two
parts without melting them but through a soft low melting point solder.

Soldering joints have relatively low tensile strength of about 10000 psi (70 MPa).

Surface cleaning and soldering fluxes
Capillary effect (wettability) is achieved by both: a proper Surface preparation and
use of a flux for wetting and cleaning the surfaces to be bonded.
Contaminants to be removed from the part surface are: mineral oils,
miscellaneous organic soils, polishing and buffing compounds, miscellaneous
solid particles, oxides, scale, smut, rust.
The work pieces are cleaned by means of mechanical methods, soaking cleaning
and chemical cleaning (acid etching).

A soldering flux has a melting point below the melting point of the solder, it melts
during the preheating stage and spreads over the joint area, wetting it and
protecting the surface from oxidation. It also cleans the surface, dissolving the
metal oxides.

It is important that the surface tension of the flux is: 1. Low enough for wetting the
work piece surface; 2. Higher than the surface tension of the molten solder in
order to provide displacement of the flux by the fused solder. The latter eliminates
the flux entrapment in the joint.

The flux is applied onto the metal surface by brushing, dipping, spraying, in form
of a gas-flux foam or by a flux wave (flowing flux forms a wave and the printed
circuit board moves over the apex of the wave).
Flux is acidic therefore its residuals may cause corrosion if not removed.
Advantages of soldering

Low power is required;
Low process temperature;
No thermal distortions and residual stresses in the joint parts;
Microstructure is not affected by heat;
Easily automated process;
Dissimilar materials may be joined;
High variety of materials may be joined;
Thin wall parts may be joined;
Moderate skill of the operator is required.

Disadvantages of soldering

Careful removal of the flux residuals is required in order to prevent
corrosion;
Large sections cannot be joined;
Fluxes may contain toxic components;
Soldering joints can not be used in high temperature applications;
Low strength of joints.
Welding Defects
The defects in the weld can be defined as irregularities in the
weld metal produced due to incorrect welding parameters or
wrong welding procedures or wrong combination of filler
metal and parent metal.
Weld defect may be in the form of variations from the
intended weld bead shape, size and desired quality. Defects
may be on the surface or inside the weld metal. Certain
defects such as cracks are never tolerated but other defects
may be acceptable within permissible limits. Welding defects
may result into the failure of components under service
condition, leading to serious accidents and causing the loss
of property and sometimes also life.
Various welding defects can be classified into groups such as
cracks, porosity, solid inclusions, lack of fusion and
inadequate penetration, imperfect shape and miscellaneous
defects.
1. Cracks
Cracks may be of micro or macro size and may appear in the weld
metal or base metal or base metal and weld metal boundary. Different
categories of cracks are longitudinal cracks, transverse cracks or
radiating/star cracks and cracks in the weld crater. Cracks occur when
localized stresses exceed the ultimate tensile strength of material.
These stresses are developed due to shrinkage during solidification of
weld metal.

Fig 1: Various Types of Cracks in Welds
Cracks may be developed due to poor ductility of base metal, high sulpher and carbon
contents, high arc travel speeds i.e. fast cooling rates, too concave or convex weld bead
and high hydrogen contents in the weld metal.
2. Porosity

Porosity results when the gases are entrapped in the solidifying weld
metal. These gases are generated from the flux or coating constituents
of the electrode or shielding gases used during welding or from
absorbed moisture in the coating. Rust, dust, oil and grease present on
the surface of work pieces or on electrodes are also source of gases
during welding. Porosity may be easily prevented if work pieces are
properly cleaned from rust, dust, oil and grease. Futher, porosity can
also be controlled if excessively high welding currents, faster welding
speeds and long arc lengths are avoided flux and coated electrodes
are properly baked.
Different Forms
of Porosities
3. Solid Inclusion

Solid inclusions may be in the form of slag or any other nonmetallic
material entrapped in the weld metal as these may not able to float on
the surface of the solidifying weld metal. During arc welding flux either in
the form of granules or coating after melting, reacts with the molten weld
metal removing oxides and other impurities in the form of slag and it
floats on the surface of weld metal due to its low density. However, if the
molten weld metal has high viscosity or too low temperature or cools
rapidly then the slag may not be released from the weld pool and may
cause inclusion.
Slag inclusion can be prevented if proper groove is selected, all the slag
from the previously deposited bead is removed, too high or too low
welding currents and long arcs are avoided.
Slag Inclusion in
Weldments
4. Lack of Fusion and Inadequate or incomplete penetration:

Lack of fusion is the failure to fuse together either the base metal and
weld metal or subsequent beads in multipass welding because of
failure to raise the temperature of base metal or previously deposited
weld layer to melting point during welding. Lack of fusion can be
avoided by properly cleaning of surfaces to be welded, selecting
proper current, proper welding technique and correct size of electrode.

Types of Lack of Fusion
Incomplete penetration means that the weld depth is not upto the desired
level or root faces have not reached to melting point in a groove joint. If
either low currents or larger arc lengths or large root face or small root
gap or too narrow groove angles are used then it results into poor
penetration.

Examples of Inadequate Penetration
5. Imperfect Shape
Imperfect shape means the variation from the desired shape and size of the
weld bead.
During undercutting a notch is formed either on one side of the weld bead or
both sides in which stresses tend to concentrate and it can result in the early
failure of the joint. Main reasons for undercutting are the excessive welding
currents, long arc lengths and fast travel speeds.
Underfilling may be due to low currents, fast travel speeds and small size of
electrodes. Overlap may occur due to low currents, longer arc lengths and
slower welding speeds.
Excessive reinforcement is formed if high currents, low voltages, slow travel
speeds and large size electrodes are used. Excessive root penetration and sag
occur if excessive high currents and slow travel speeds are used for relatively
thinner members.
Distortion is caused because of shrinkage occurring due to large heat input
during welding.
6. Miscellaneous Defects
Various miscellaneous defects may be multiple arc strikes i.e. several arc
strikes are one behind the other, spatter, grinding and chipping marks,
tack weld defects, oxidized surface in the region of weld, unremoved slag
and misalignment of weld beads if welded from both sides in butt welds.
Welding Processes
Fusion Welding Processes
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding
SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Non-Consumable Electrode
GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Electron Beam Welding
SAW Submerged Arc Welding
Consumable Electrode
PAW Plasma Arc Welding
High Energy Beam
Laser Beam Welding
Welding Processes
SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Slag keeps oxygen off weld bead during cooling
Consumable electrode
Flux produces protective gas around weld pool
Flux coated rod
Power = VI ~ 10 kW
Power... Current I (50 - 300 amps)
Voltage V (15 - 45 volts)
General purpose weldingwidely used
Thicknesses 1/8 3/4
Portable
Welding Processes
Electric Arc Welding -- Polarity
SMAW - DC Polarity
Straight Polarity
Shallow penetration Deeper weld penetration
(thin metal)
Reverse Polarity
(+)
()
()
(+)
AC - Gives pulsing arc
- used for welding thick sections
Welding Processes
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG)
DC reverse polarity - hottest arc
MIG - Metal Inert Gas
Consumable wire electrode
AC - unstable arc
Groover, M., Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing,, p. 734, 1996
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Torch
Shielding provided by gas
Double productivity of SMAW
Easily automated
Welding Processes
SAW Submerged Arc Welding
300 2000 amps (440 V)
Consumable wire electrode
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Torch
Shielding provided by flux granules
Automated process (limited to flats)
Low UV radiation & fumes
Flux acts as thermal insulator
High speed & quality (4 10x SMAW)
Suitable for thick plates http://www.twi.co.uk
Welding Processes
GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG)
Non-consumable electrode
a.k.a. TIG - Tungsten Inert Gas
Shield gas usually argon
Used for thin sections of Al, Mg, Ti.
With or without filler metal
Power ~ 8-20 kW
Current I (200 A DC)
(500 A AC)
Most expensive, highest quality
Welding Processes
Laser Welding
Typical laser welding applications :

Catheters & Other Medical Devices
Small Parts and Components
Fine Wires
Jewelry
Small Sensors
Thin Sheet Materials Down To 0.001" Thick

Laser beam produced by a CO2 or YAG Laser

High penetration, high-speed process

Concentrated heat = low distortion

Laser can be shaped/focused & pulsed on/off

Typically automated & high speed (up to 250 fpm)

Workpieces up to 1 thick

Welding Processes
Solid State Welding Processes
Friction Welding
Ultrasonic Welding
Resistance Welding
Diffusion Welding
Welding Processes
Friction Welding (Inertia Welding)
One part rotated, one stationary
Stationary part forced against rotating part
Friction converts kinetic energy to thermal energy
Metal at interface melts and is joined
When sufficiently hot, rotation is stopped
& axial force increased
Welding Processes
Resistance Welding
Resistance Welding is the coordinated application of electric current and
mechanical pressure in the proper magnitudes and for a precise period of
time to create a coalescent bond between two base metals.
Heat provided by resistance to electrical current (Q=I
2
Rt)
Force applied by pneumatic cylinder
Typical 0.5 10 V but up to 100,000 amps!
Often fully or partially automated
- Spot welding
- Seam welding


Welding Processes
Resistance Welding
Resistance Welding is the coordinated application of electric current and
mechanical pressure in the proper magnitudes and for a precise period of
time to create a coalescent bond between two base metals.
Heat provided by resistance to electrical current (Q=I
2
Rt)
Force applied by pneumatic cylinder
Typical 0.5 10 V but up to 100,000 amps!
Often fully or partially automated
- Spot welding
- Seam welding


Welding Processes
Diffusion Welding
Parts forced together at high temperature
(< 0.5Tm absolute) and pressure
Kalpakjian, S., Manufacturing Engineering & Technology, p. 889, 1992
Atoms diffuse across interface
After sufficient time the interface disappears
Good for dissimilar metals
Heated in furnace or by resistance heating
Bond can be weakened by surface impurities
Soldering & Brazing
Metal Joining Processes
Soldering & Brazing
Filler metal distributed by capillary action
Only filler metal is melted, not base metal
Strength of joint typically
Can join dissimilar metals
Less heat - can join thinner sections (relative to welding)
stronger than filler metal itself
weaker than base metal
Excessive heat during service can weaken joint
Pros & Cons
Lower temperatures than welding
gap at joint important (0.001 0.010)
Metallurgical bond formed between filler & base metals
Soldering
Solder = Filler metal
Metal Joining Processes
Soldering
Applications:
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacture
Pipe joining (copper pipe)
Jewelry manufacture
Easy to solder: copper, silver, gold
Difficult to solder: aluminum, stainless steels
(can pre-plate difficult to solder metals to aid process)
Alloys of Tin (silver, bismuth, lead)
Melt point typically below 840 F
Flux used to clean joint & prevent oxidation
Typically non-load bearing
Tinning = pre-coating with thin layer of solder
separate or in core of wire (rosin-core)
PCB Soldering
Soldering Iron & Solder Wire
Metal Joining Processes
Manual PCB Soldering
Heating lead & placing solder
Trim excess lead
Heat for 2-3 sec. & place wire
opposite iron
PTH - Pin-Through-Hole connectors
PCB Reflow Soldering
Metal Joining Processes
Automated Reflow Soldering
SMT = Surface Mount Technology
Printed solder paste on a printed circuit board (PCB)
Solder Paste serves the following functions:
supply solder material to the soldering spot,
hold the components in place prior to soldering,
clean the solder lands and component leads
prevent further oxidation of the solder lands.
Solder/Flux paste mixture applied to PCB using screen print or similar
transfer method
PCB assembly then heated in Reflow oven to melt solder and secure connection
Brazing
Use of low melt point filler metal to fill thin gap between
mating surfaces to be joined utilizing capillary action
Metal Joining Processes
Brazing
Applications:
Pipe/Tubing joining (HVAC)
Filler metals include Al, Mg & Cu alloys (melt point
typically above 840 F)
Automotive - joining tubes
Electrical equipment - joining wires
Jewelry Making
Flux also used
Types of brazing classified by heating method:
Torch, Furnace, Resistance
Joint can possess significant strength
Brazing
Use of low melt point filler metal to fill thin gap between
mating surfaces to be joined utilizing capillary action
Metal Joining Processes
Brazing
Applications:
Pipe/Tubing joining (HVAC)
Filler metals include Al, Mg & Cu alloys (melt point
typically above 840 F)
Automotive - joining tubes
Electrical equipment - joining wires
Jewelry Making
Flux also used
Types of brazing classified by heating method:
Torch, Furnace, Resistance
Joint can possess significant strength
Brazing
Metal Joining Processes
Brazing
Figuring length of lap for flat joints.

X = Length of lap


T = Tensile strength of weakest member
W = Thickness of weakest member
C = Joint integrity factor of .8
L = Shear strength of brazed filler metal
Lets see how this formula works, using an example.
Problem: What length of lap do you need to join .050" annealed Monel sheet to a metal of equal or greater strength?
Solution:

C = .8 T = 70,000 psi (annealed Monel sheet)
W = .050"
L = 25,000 psi (Typical shear strength for silver brazing filler metals)
X = (70,000 x .050) /(.8 x 25,000) = .18" lap length
Soldering & Brazing
Metal Joining Processes
Brazing
Figuring length of lap for tubular joints.


X = Length of lap area
W = Wall thickness of weakest member
D = Diameter of lap area
T = Tensile strength of weakest member
C = Joint integrity factor of .8
L = Shear strength of brazed filler metal
Again, an example will serve to illustrate the use of this formula. Problem: What length of lap do you need to join 3/4" O.D. copper
tubing (wall thickness .064") to 3/4" I.D. steel tubing?

Solution:
W = .064"
D = .750"
C= .8
T = 33,000 psi (annealed copper)
L = 25,000 psi (a typical value)
X = (.064 x (.75 .064) x 33,000)/(.8 x .75 x 25,000)
X = .097" (length of lap)
Coated Electrodes are specified based on core wire diameter.

Commonly used electrode diameters are 2, 2.5, 3.18, 4, 5 and 6 mm.

Length of electrodes may depend on diameter of core wire ranging
from 250 to 450 mm i.e. larger the core diameter larger the length.
However, special electrodes may be of 8-10 mm diameter
The electrodes are also specified based on ratio of diameter of coated
portion of electrode to core wire diameter.

If this ratio is lesser than 1.2 then electrodes are thin coated, if ratio
ranges between 1.2 to 1.5 then medium coated and if ratio exceeds 1.5
then electrodes are heavy coated or thick coated. This ratio may vary
slightly in different codes.
The ingress of oxygen and nitrogen from the atmosphere to the weld
pool and arc environment would cause embrittlement and porosity in the
weld metal and this must be prevented.

The Actual method of arc shielding from atmospheric nitrogen and
oxygen attack varies with different type of electrodes
Electrode coating performs many functions depending upon coating
constituents, during welding to improve weld metal properties.

The important functions are as follows:
1. Improve the electric conductivity in the arc region to improve the arc
ignition and stabilization of the arc.

2. Formation of slag, which;
(a) Influences size of droplet.
(b)Protects the droplet during transfer and molten weld pool from
atmospheric gases.
(c) Protects solidified hot metal from atmospheric gases.
(d) Reduces the cooling rate of weld seam.

3. Formation of shielding gas to protect molten metal.
4. Provide deoxidizers like Si and Mn in form of FeSi and FeMn.
5. Alloying with certain elements such as Cr, Ni, Mo to improve weld
metal properties.
6. Improve deposition rate with addition of iron powder in coating.
Various constituents of electrode coating are cellulose, calcium fluoride,
calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, clay, talc, iron oxide, asbestos,
potassium/sodium silicate, iron powder, ferro-maganese, powdered alloys,
silica etc.

Each constituent performs either one or more than one functions.
Electrode metallic core wire is the same but the coating constituents
give the different characteristics to the welds. Based on the coating
constituents, structural steel electrodes can be classified in the following
classes
1.Cellulosic Electrodes
Coating consists of high cellulosic content more than 30% and TiO2 up
to 20%. These are all position electrodes and produce deep penetration
because of extra heat generated during burning of cellulosic materials.
However, high spatter losses are associated with these electrodes
2.Rutile Electrodes
Coating consists of TiO
2
up to 45% and SiO
2
around 20%. These electrodes
are widely used for general work and are called general purpose
electrodes.

3.Acidic Electrodes
Coating consists of iron oxide more than 20%. Sometimes it may be up to
40%, other constituents may be TiO
2
10% and CaCO
3
10%.

Such electrodes produce self detaching slag and smooth weld finish and
are used normally in flat position.

4.Basic Electrodes
Coating consist of CaCO
3
around 40% and CaF
2
15-20%. These electrodes
normally require baking at temperature of approximately 250 C for 1-2 hrs
or as per manufacturer's instructions. Such electrodes produce high quality
weld deposits which has high resistance to cracking.

This is because hydrogen is removed from weld metal by the action of
fluorine i.e. forming HF acid as CaF
2
generates fluorine on dissociation in
the heat of arc.
Coating Constituent Functions
Main Functions Other Functions
Cellulose Gas former Coating Strength and Reducing
agent
Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) Slag basicity and metal fluidity,
H2removal
Slag former
Clay (Aluminum Silicate) Slag former Coating strength
Talc (Magnesium Silicate) Slag former Arc stabilizer
Rutile (TiO2 ) Arc stabilizer, Slag former,
Fluidity
Slag removal and bead
appearance
Iron Oxides Fluidity, Slag former Arc Stabilizer, improved metal
transfer,
Calcium Carbonate Gas former, Arc stabilizer Slag basicity, Slag former
Asbestos Coating strength Slag former
Quartz (SiO2 ) Slag fluidity, Slag former Increase in current carrying
capacity.
Sodium Silicate / Potassium
Silicate
Binder, Arc stabilizer Slag former
FeMn / FeSi Deoxidizer -
Iron Powder Deposition Rate -
Powdered Alloys Alloying -
Coating Constituents and Their Functions
Classification of Electrodes as per Indian Standard:
Structural steel electrodes were classified as per IS 814:1974 and
this code was revised and the revised code is IS 814:1991.

As per IS 814:1974, electrodes are designated with letters and digits.
P X X X X X X S
Prefix (P) is either E or R which indicates solid extruded (E) or
reinforced extruded (R) Electrode.

1 st digit Indicates type of coating.
2 nd digit Indicates weld positions in which electrode can be used.
3 rd digit Indicates welding current conditions.
4 th and 5 th digit Indicate UTS and YS of all weld metal.
6 th digit Requirement of minimum % elongation and absorbed
energy in charpy V- notch impact test of weld metal.
Suffix (s) P Deep penetration electrode
H Hydrogen controlled electrode
J, K and L Amount of metal recovery in case of iron powder
electrode
Suffix (s) are optional and may or may not be given if not applicable.
IS 814:1991
As per IS 814:1991 electrodes are designated with letters and digits
as given below:
E L X X X X S
E indicates extruded solid electrode,
L is a letter to designate type of coating,

First digit indicates UTS and YS of deposited weld metal,
Second digit gives percentage elongation and impact values of
weld metal deposited
Third digit gives welding positions in which electrode can be used
and
Fourth digit gives the current conditions for the use of electrode.

Suffix(s) are optional and indicate special characteristics of
electrode such as H
1
, H
2
, and H
3
indicate hydrogen controlled
electrodes with different amount of diffusible hydrogen J, K, L
indicate different amount of metal recovery in weld pool in case of
iron powder electrodes and X means radiographic weld quality
Electrodes: used for providing heat input in arc welding are 2 types.
Consumable and non-consumable.
Once the arc is initiated, the electrode is continuously consumed and hence,
the electrode should be moved continuously towards the w/p to maintain the
constant arc length. Since the electrode melts continuously, it also act as the
filler rod to provide the filler metal into the joint.

Functions of providing a filler metal and heat are both built into a single
electrode.

Consumable electrodes: steel, CI, copper, brass, bronze, Al.
Welding process is called metal arc welding.
Electrode may be bare or coated(stick electrode)
Generally used in manual arc welding process.

Non-consumable electrodes: Carbon, graphite, Tungsten.
Carbon & graphite used only in DC welding and Tungsten for both AC & DC.
Separate filler metal rod is used. Can control heat input as well as the amount
of filler metal deposited, since both are separately controlled.
Welding process is termed by the electrode material used.
Ex: Carbon arc welding, Tungsten arc welding
When starting the arc, strike the electrode like a match on the work
surface by gently and quickly moving it along the weld metal.
Next, withdraw the electrode to form an arc length from the work
piece of approximately 1/8.
Reduce the arc length to the approximate length required to
produce the desired weld.
Starting The Arc
Tapping technique
Electrode is brought straight down
to work piece then lifted slightly to
start arc
Scratch start technique
For AC welding
Drag electrode across work piece,
immediately lift electrode after
touching
1) Electrode
2) Work piece
3) Arc