Power Transformer

Power Transformer
Thermal Ratings
Thermal Ratings
Tim Raymond Tim Raymond
2003 IEEE Transmission & Distribution 2003 IEEE Transmission & Distribution
Conference Conference
Dallas, Texas – PN06 – Tuesday, 9-Sep-2003 Dallas, Texas – PN06 – Tuesday, 9-Sep-2003

Transformer Loading
Transformer Loading
Limit
Limit

In general, transformer capacity
In general, transformer capacity
limited by equipment (winding &
limited by equipment (winding &
oil) temperatures.
oil) temperatures.

Design limits (110C hot spot) not
Design limits (110C hot spot) not
necessarily operational limits
necessarily operational limits

Nameplate Rating
Nameplate Rating

Nameplate rating is not Nameplate rating is not
necessarily operational limit necessarily operational limit

Based on 30C (40C Max.) Based on 30C (40C Max.)
ambient ambient

Continuous load at rated Continuous load at rated
current current

Conservative hot spot temp Conservative hot spot temp
of 110C of 110C

Results in overly conservative Results in overly conservative
ratings ratings

Transformer Cooling
Transformer Cooling

Insulating oil acts as cooling medium
Insulating oil acts as cooling medium

Oil flow is either natural thermosiphon flow
Oil flow is either natural thermosiphon flow
(no pumps) or forced flow (pumps).
(no pumps) or forced flow (pumps).

Heat exchangers or radiators transfer heat
Heat exchangers or radiators transfer heat
from oil to environment
from oil to environment

Fans may be used to increase forced
Fans may be used to increase forced
convection over radiator fins
convection over radiator fins

Oil Flow Within
Oil Flow Within
Winding
Winding

Core & Coils
Core & Coils

Transformer Cooling
Transformer Cooling

Thermal Model
Thermal Model

Simple lumped parameter model Simple lumped parameter model

Oil temperature rise function of total loss Oil temperature rise function of total loss

Winding temperature rise function of current Winding temperature rise function of current
( )
( )
m
i R HS i HS
n
i
R TO i TO
K
R
R K
2
, ,
2
, ,
1
1
⋅ ∆ · ∆
]
]
]

+
+
∆ · ∆
θ θ
θ θ
Steady-state Temperatures:
2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , HS TO A HS
θ θ θ θ ∆ + ∆ + ·

Thermal Model
Thermal Model

Thermal Model
Thermal Model
Oil thermal time constant: Oil thermal time constant:
For OA and FA (ONAN and OFAF) the thermal For OA and FA (ONAN and OFAF) the thermal
capacity, C, equals: capacity, C, equals:
C = 0.0272 * W C = 0.0272 * W
CC CC
+ 0.01814 * W + 0.01814 * W
Tank Tank
+ 5.034 * V + 5.034 * V
Fluid Fluid
For DFOA and NDFOA (ODAF and OFAF) the For DFOA and NDFOA (ODAF and OFAF) the
thermal capacity, C, equals: thermal capacity, C, equals:
C = 0.0272 * W C = 0.0272 * W
CC CC
+ 0.0272 * W + 0.0272 * W
Tank Tank
+ 7.305 * V + 7.305 * V
Fluid Fluid
The thermal time constant of the bulk oil at rated The thermal time constant of the bulk oil at rated
temperature equals: temperature equals:
τ
τ
O,R O,R
= C * = C *
∆ θ
∆ θ
TO,R TO,R
/ P / P
T,R T,R


Thermal Model
Thermal Model
( )
( )
n
U
R TO U TO
R
R K
]
]
]

+
+
∆ · ∆
1
1
2
, ,
θ θ ( )
1 , 1 , , 2 ,
1
TO
t
TO U TO TO
O
e θ θ θ θ
τ
∆ +

,
`

.
|
− ∆ − ∆ · ∆


m
U R HS U HS
K
2
, ,
⋅ ∆ · ∆ θ θ
( )
1 , 1 , , 2 ,
1
HS
t
HS U HS HS
W
e θ θ θ θ
τ
∆ +

,
`

.
|
− ∆ − ∆ · ∆


2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , HS TO A HS
θ θ θ θ ∆ + ∆ + ·
Top oil temperature rise at time t
2
=
t
1
+∆ t
Hot spot temperature rise at time t
2
=
t
1
+∆ t
Hot spot temperature at time t
2
=
t
1
+∆ t

Risk
Risk

Any energized transformer has
Any energized transformer has
finite risk of failure
finite risk of failure

Risk increases with operating
Risk increases with operating
temperatures
temperatures



Overload” is possible, if risks are
Overload” is possible, if risks are
considered and mitigated to
considered and mitigated to
acceptable levels
acceptable levels

Risks
Risks

Three areas of risk:
Three areas of risk:

Long-term (insulation aging)
Long-term (insulation aging)

Short-term (bubbles, oil expansion)
Short-term (bubbles, oil expansion)

Ancillary components (bushings,
Ancillary components (bushings,
LTCs, CTs)
LTCs, CTs)

Long-term Risk
Long-term Risk

Insulation ages at any
Insulation ages at any
temperature
temperature

Rate of aging increases with
Rate of aging increases with
temperature (roughly doubling for
temperature (roughly doubling for
every 6C rise)
every 6C rise)

Effects mechanical strength of
Effects mechanical strength of
paper
paper

Insulation Aging
Insulation Aging

Oil and paper adversely affected
Oil and paper adversely affected
by heat
by heat

Oil is replaceable, paper is not
Oil is replaceable, paper is not

Paper ages at any temperature
Paper ages at any temperature

Pyrolysis, hydrolysis, oxidation
Pyrolysis, hydrolysis, oxidation

Break bonds in cellulose chain,
Break bonds in cellulose chain,
decreases mechanical strength
decreases mechanical strength

Insulation Aging
Insulation Aging

Arrhenius Reaction Rate
Arrhenius Reaction Rate

A is reference hot spot
A is reference hot spot
– A=95C for 55C insulation A=95C for 55C insulation
– A=110C for 65C insulation A=110C for 65C insulation

Integrate F
Integrate F
AA AA
over time to get equiv. aging
over time to get equiv. aging

Life “end point” difficult to determine
Life “end point” difficult to determine

Based upon moisture content of 0.5% and
Based upon moisture content of 0.5% and
low O2
low O2

,
`

.
|
+

+
·
273 273
, HS R HS
A A
AA
e F
θ θ

Insulation Aging
Insulation Aging
Source: IEEE C57.91

Short-term Risks
Short-term Risks

Reduction in dielectric strength
Reduction in dielectric strength
due to “bubble” formation
due to “bubble” formation
(>140C)
(>140C)

Function of moisture content, gas
Function of moisture content, gas
content, pressure & temperature
content, pressure & temperature

Bubble Formation
Bubble Formation
Source: EPRI Report RP 1289-1

Bubble Prediction
Bubble Prediction

2 models available
2 models available

Complex model by Rouse et al., sum
Complex model by Rouse et al., sum
of instantaneous partial pressure of
of instantaneous partial pressure of
gas and water vapor vs. static
gas and water vapor vs. static
pressure
pressure

Empirical model by T. V. Oommen
Empirical model by T. V. Oommen
relates moisture content, gas
relates moisture content, gas
pressure and static pressure to onset
pressure and static pressure to onset
temperature
temperature

Bubble Prediction
Bubble Prediction
(Oommen)
(Oommen)
( ) 273 -
30
V

P
-
W
1.4495 + 22.454
6996.7
=
1.585
g
)
W
0.473 (
pres WP
bubble
WP
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

]
]
]

Θ EXP
ln ln
Where:
Θ
bubble
is bubble onset temperature
W
WP
is moisture content of paper (% by wgt)
P
pres
is static pressure
V
g
is total gas concentration (% by vol)

Additional Risks
Additional Risks

Expansion of oil beyond capacity
Expansion of oil beyond capacity
of tank
of tank

Deterioration of gaskets and seals
Deterioration of gaskets and seals

Delamination of composite
Delamination of composite
insulating materials
insulating materials

Reduced mechanical strength of
Reduced mechanical strength of
conductor bonding materials
conductor bonding materials

Ancillary Components
Ancillary Components

Bushings
Bushings

LTCs
LTCs

DETCs
DETCs

Leads
Leads

Bushing CTs
Bushing CTs

Bushings
Bushings

Oil-impregnated, paper-
Oil-impregnated, paper-
insulated, capacitance-
insulated, capacitance-
graded bushings
graded bushings

Designed with 105C
Designed with 105C
bushing hot spot limit at
bushing hot spot limit at
rated load and 95C top oil
rated load and 95C top oil
temperature average over
temperature average over
24 hours
24 hours

Overload is possible
Overload is possible

Bushing (cont)
Bushing (cont)

Overload risks of bushings include:
Overload risks of bushings include:
– Pressure build-up due to oil expansion Pressure build-up due to oil expansion
– Deterioration of gaskets and seals Deterioration of gaskets and seals
– Thermal deterioration of paper insulation Thermal deterioration of paper insulation
– Increase in dielectric loss, possibly resulting Increase in dielectric loss, possibly resulting
in thermal runaway in thermal runaway
– Gas evolution at extreme hot spots Gas evolution at extreme hot spots

Bushing (cont)
Bushing (cont)

Overload limits:
Overload limits:

40C ambient
40C ambient

110C transformer top oil
110C transformer top oil
temperature
temperature

2x rated bushing current
2x rated bushing current

150C bushing hot spot temperature
150C bushing hot spot temperature

Load Tap Changer
Load Tap Changer

Designed with a contact rise
Designed with a contact rise
over oil of less than 20C at
over oil of less than 20C at
1.2 times rated load
1.2 times rated load

Designed to break twice
Designed to break twice
rated current at least 40
rated current at least 40
times
times


Load Tap Changer
Load Tap Changer
(cont)
(cont)

Overload risks of LTCs include:
Overload risks of LTCs include:

Increased contact wear and ablation with Increased contact wear and ablation with
increased load during break operations increased load during break operations

Increased contact temperatures increases Increased contact temperatures increases
probability and rate of coking of contacts probability and rate of coking of contacts
(>120C) (>120C)

Higher overloads result in prolonged Higher overloads result in prolonged
arcing during break operation. Dragging arcing during break operation. Dragging
the arc across the contacts could result in the arc across the contacts could result in
short-circuiting the regulating winding short-circuiting the regulating winding

Load Tap Changer
Load Tap Changer
(cont)
(cont)

Overload limits:
Overload limits:

120C contact temperature (higher is
120C contact temperature (higher is
OK, but may result in greater
OK, but may result in greater
maintenance)
maintenance)

2x LTC rated load current (limit
2x LTC rated load current (limit
breaking operations at high load
breaking operations at high load
level to few times/year)
level to few times/year)

Other
Other

DETC similar in rating to OLTC
DETC similar in rating to OLTC

Leads can be a concern. Same hot spot
Leads can be a concern. Same hot spot
limits apply for leads as for windings.
limits apply for leads as for windings.
However, leads are usually not limiting.
However, leads are usually not limiting.

Bushing CTs are limited by transformer top
Bushing CTs are limited by transformer top
oil temperature. Maintaining a top oil <
oil temperature. Maintaining a top oil <
110C should avoid excessive temperatures
110C should avoid excessive temperatures

Example Lead Heating
Example Lead Heating

Operation Concerns
Operation Concerns

Difference between tested rises
Difference between tested rises
and design limits
and design limits

Age & loading history
Age & loading history

Prior operational records
Prior operational records
(maintenance history)
(maintenance history)

Overall Condition (moisture, DGA,
Overall Condition (moisture, DGA,
oil quality)
oil quality)

Uprating
Uprating

Add fans and pumps
Add fans and pumps
– Practical maximum Practical maximum
– Caution must be exercised to avoid large hot Caution must be exercised to avoid large hot
spot gradient spot gradient

Increase size of heat exchanger
Increase size of heat exchanger
– Same caveats as above Same caveats as above

Water spray during peak loading
Water spray during peak loading
– Careful to avoid excessive local mechanical Careful to avoid excessive local mechanical
forces and steam may cause flashover of forces and steam may cause flashover of
bushings bushings

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