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OLTC Fundamentals On-Load Tap-Changers

By
Mats Carlsson EETC Alexandria Zone
November 2006
© ABB - 1
Outline

 ABB Components introduction


 Tap-changers
 Bushings
 Life cycle support
© ABB Power Technologies - 2
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Power Transformer Components

Bushings

Tap-
Changers
© ABB Power Technologies - 3
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The High Voltage Valley in Ludvika, Sweden

Swedish Transmission HV Circuit


Research Institute HV
High Power Breakers Instrument
Laboratory Transformer
s
HV Surge
Transformer
Arresters
Tap-
changers
Transform
High er
Power Bushings
High Voltage
Capacitors
Laboratory HV
Thyristor
Converters
© ABB Power Technologies - 4

Power
HV Shunt Transformer
Reactors s
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Components Ludvika, Sweden

KEY FIGURES 2005


 Revenue ~100 MUSD

 External ABB sales ~50%

 Employees ~300

 No of Bushings >10000

 No of Tap Changers >2000

 Export share 95%

 R&D expenditure ~10%


© ABB Power Technologies - 5
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Tap-changer historical overview (2)
 1910 First tap-changer produced (type HM)
 1927 HA
 1953 HF
 1963 UCB (in-tank)
 1964 UZB (on-tank)
 1965 UCC
 1978 UCG
 1978 UZE
 1983 UCL
 1987 UZF
© ABB Power Technologies - 6

 1991 UBB
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ABB is the largest manufacturer of bushings
Resin impregnated (RIP) Oil impregnated (OIP)
with composite or porcelain with porcelain insulators
insulators 36 - 550 kV 36 - 800 kV
© ABB Power Technologies - 7
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Conformance: IEC, IEEE & Regional Standard Variants


Transformer components – in challenging
applications!
© ABB Power Technologies - 8

HVDC Phase-shifters
transformers e.g. 1630 MVA & 400
kV
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Subjects

 Tap-changer types
 Principles of operation
 Transition resistor
 Switching time
 Contact life
 Maintenance
 News!
 Tie-in resistor
 Tests
 Development
© ABB Power Technologies - 9
Components
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On-load tap-changers

ABB (ASEA) has


manufactured tap-changers
since 1910.
More than 45 000 units of
the modern design are
today in operation world-
wide.
© ABB Power Technologies - 10
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On-load tap-changers

Design philosophy:
 Highest reliability
 Easy maintenance
 Longest lifetime
© ABB Power Technologies - 11
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On-load tap-changers

 Longest lifetime
by using first class materials and by thorough tests.

Typical contact life is 350 000 through 500 000


operations.
 Highest reliability
by using few parts and making simple designs
 Easiest maintenance
by same reasons as above
© ABB Power Technologies - 12
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© ABB Power Technologies - 13
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On-load tap-changers
ABB Tap-Changer Reliability
Reported unscheduled service interruptions due to the tap-changer
0,06%

0,05%

0,04%
Amount

0,03%

0,02%

0,01%

0,00%
© ABB Power Technologies - 14

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Year

An average of 5000 years between these stops!


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Failures of Tap Changers from 1996-2005
Failures during service.

Year failure was repo

1996
1997
© ABB Power Technologies - 15

The figures include all failures, independent of age and types of tap-changers, which have led

1998
to a service interruption of the transformer, caused by fault in the tap-changer.
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© ABB Power Technologies - 16
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On-load tap-changers
On-load tap-changers

WHAT IS AN ON-LOAD TAP-CHANGER?


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On-load tap-changers

A device for changing the tapping connection


of a winding while the transformer is on load
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© ABB Power Technologies - 19
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On-load tap-changers
© ABB Power Technologies - 20
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On-load tap-changers
On-load tap-changers

Current is interrupted
Must not happen!
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On-load tap-changers

One loop of the


regulating winding is
short-circuited

Must not happen!


© ABB Power Technologies - 22
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© ABB Power Technologies - 23
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On-load tap-changers

Transition Resistors
© ABB Power Technologies - 24
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On-load tap-changers

Transition Resistors
On-load tap-changers

 Resistor type
 Reactance type
 Electronic types
 Others
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On-load tap-changers

 Reactance type
is mainly used in ANSI-standard countries, most often to
regulate on the LV side of the transformer.
© ABB Power Technologies - 26
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On-load tap-changers

 Electronic types
belongs to the future
© ABB Power Technologies - 27
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On-load tap-changers

 Resistor types
most common today.
Can be diverter switch type or selector switch type.
© ABB Power Technologies - 28
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On-load tap-changers

 Diverter switch type


consists of separate diverter switch and tap selector
 Selector switch type
consists of a combined diverter switch and
tap selector unit
© ABB Power Technologies - 29
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Types of Switching
A. Linear Switching
 Not very common (~20%)
 Simple design trafo & oltc
 Smallest regulating range
 Smallest losses
Selector
Switch
Coarse
Winding
A. Plus/Minus Switching
 Most common (~70%)
10
K K  Additive (+) & subtractive (-)
9 9
 Change Over Selector
Regulating Winding

A. Coarse/Fine Switching
Selector
Switch
 Least common (~10%)
© ABB Power Technologies - 30

 Coarse winding insertion


 Change Over Selector
 Small losses
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A B C
Principle Circuits of OLTC Transformers (1)

For two-winding power


transformers, the most popular
arrangments is the regulation at
the neutral end of the winding.
This solution provides the most
economical tap winding
arrangement with generally
graded insulation combined with a
compact three-phase neutral
point OLTC.
© ABB Power Technologies - 31

OLTC in Y or Star Connected Windings


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Principle Circuits of OLTC Transformers (2)

2-Pole + 1-Pole
3-Pole Line-End Arrangment 3-Pole Mid-Winding Arrangment
Line-End Arrangment
© ABB Power Technologies - 32
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OLTC in Delta-Connected Windings


On-load tap-changers

MVA Transformer Ratings

> 80 80 80 50 60 150 150 300 HVDC 1000


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------

1
UZF UZE
650 UB
USB 650 2 B3
200 50 UCG.N/
3 UCG.N/C C 1050 UCL.N/III
UCD.N/II
Short 1050 UCC.
UCG.N/II I 1050
© ABB Power Technologies - 33

4 1050 N
L (m) I 1050
1050
All are of Jansen type, i.e. spring operated switches and of resistive type.
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© ABB Power Technologies - 34
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Tap-changers, diverter switch type

Diverter

Tap selector

7
6
5
© ABB Power Technologies - 35

4
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Transformer
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regulating winding
Italy, Terna
 400 kV, 1630 MVA
 Weight 820,000 kg
 Footprint 13x15x10 m
© ABB Power Technologies - 36
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On-load tap-changers

Two-phase UC-type
Tap-Changer
mounted on special
transformer
© ABB Power Technologies - 37
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On-load tap-changers

Top section with mounting


flange

Shielding rings

Diverter switch

Connectors between diverter


switch ant tap selector

Tap selector with pre-


selector
© ABB Power Technologies - 38
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On-load tap-changers

Switching sequence
for Diverter-Switch
type Tap-Changer
© ABB Power Technologies - 39
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© ABB Power Technologies - 40
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5
7

4
6
Tap-changers, diverter switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 41
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5
7

4
6
Tap-changers, diverter switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 42
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5
7

4
6
Tap-changers, diverter switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 43
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5
7

4
6
Tap-changers, diverter switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 44
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5
7

4
6
Tap-changers, diverter switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 45
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5
7

4
6
Tap-changers, diverter switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 46
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5
7

4
6
Tap-changers, diverter switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 47
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5
7

4
6
Tap-changers, diverter switch type
On-load tap-changers

Animation
Switching sequence
for Diverter-Switch
type Tap-Changer
© ABB Power Technologies - 48
Components
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Features for the UC tap-changer

Extensive service experience


 More than 9000 units in service
 Excellent service record
Quick and easy maintenance
 Shaft outside diverter switch housing
 Open design, no special tools needed
Reliable
 Few parts
 Simple and robust design
© ABB Power Technologies - 49

 No on-line filtration needed


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UC tap-changers

 Completely clean cover


 Bevel gear for shaft system
outside cover
 Lift our diverter switch without
removing shafts!
 Operate motor-drive and tap
selector when diverter switch is
removed
 Operate diverter switch as
© ABB Power Technologies - 50

desired!
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UC tap-changers

 Diverter switch electrically


connected and mechanically
coupled without screws
 Kept on place by springs on top,
pressed by the cover
© ABB Power Technologies - 51
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UC tap-changers

 Easiest possible
maintenance
 No dismantling of
diverter switch needed
for inspection & cleaning
© ABB Power Technologies - 52
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UC tap-changers

 No need to bring diverter


switch down from
transformer for
maintenance
 Transformer outage less
than one day for
maintenance
© ABB Power Technologies - 53
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

UCG top section


with shaft,
bevelgear &
motor-drive
mechanism
© ABB Power Technologies - 54
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

The cover has been


removed.

(Six minutes passed)


© ABB Power Technologies - 55
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Note that the shaft


system is not
dismantled
© ABB Power Technologies - 56
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Tube for draining,


guiding and oil
sampling

Springs for fixing


diverter switch

Mounting
© ABB Power Technologies - 57

information
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Hook to lift...
© ABB Power Technologies - 58
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© ABB Power Technologies - 59
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Lift...
ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers
ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Continue to lift...
© ABB Power Technologies - 60
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Dvierter switch
lifted out.

(Ten minutes passed)


© ABB Power Technologies - 61
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Drive disc with


slot for drive pin
© ABB Power Technologies - 62
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UC Tap-changer Maintenance (overhaul)

Bottom in tap selector cylinder

Notch for
driving pin
© ABB Power Technologies - 63

Driving pin
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Operate the
diverter switch
from one side...
© ABB Power Technologies - 64
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

...to the other without


caring about the
position...
© ABB Power Technologies - 65
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

 No harm if you
operate the motor-
drive.
 You don’t have to
note the tap position
number.
© ABB Power Technologies - 66
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Put the spare or


overhauled diverter
switch back...
© ABB Power Technologies - 67
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Fork for guiding


© ABB Power Technologies - 68
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Switch not
yet in proper
position
© ABB Power Technologies - 69
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Before operated
to correct
position
© ABB Power Technologies - 70
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

Operate the hand crank


till you see and hear
that...
© ABB Power Technologies - 71
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

… that it falls
down to it’s
proper position.

Everything is
now mechanically
© ABB Power Technologies - 72

and electrically
connected.
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ABB tap-changers in furnace transformers

When the tap-


changer is
operated to correct
position you can
put the cover on.
(Less than 20
minutes passed)
© ABB Power Technologies - 73
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UC tap-changers

 Simple, open design with


very few parts offers
highest reliability and
easiest maintenance!
© ABB Power Technologies - 74
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© ABB Power Technologies - 75
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Diverter Switch
Upgrade your old transformer

Plug & play concept

 Interchangeability in old
transformers
 For all UCGs since 1978
© ABB Power Technologies - 76
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Tap-changer with vacuum interrupter technology

Proven experience

 Vacuum bottles, based on 25 years


of ABB experience and millions of
successfully delivered units provide
for an extremely reliable product
© ABB Power Technologies - 77
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© ABB Power Technologies - 78
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Tap-changer with vacuum interrupter technology
Tap-changer with vacuum interrupter technology

Reduced life-cycle cost and increased


transformer availability

 Very limited maintenance


during the entire transformer life
time
 No arcing in oil
 No carbonization
 Reduced down time
 No need for an oil-filter unit
 Designed for maintainability
© ABB Power Technologies - 79

 External shaft system remains


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Tap-changer with vacuum interrupter technology

Reliability

 Redundant contact-
system for increased
reliability
© ABB Power Technologies - 80
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 Vacuum more complex
 Monoploy
 Humidity – oil samples
 Normally maintence after 5-7-15 years
 Failures often happens after maintenance
© ABB Power Technologies - 81
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Modular motor drive

Improved service friendliness


and flexibility

 Adding / changing of functionality


in the field
 Self diagnostic and event handling
 Reduced number of parts
 Transmission gear made from
maintenance free elements
 Shortened delivery time and
increased flexibility in order
process
© ABB Power Technologies - 82
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© ABB Power Technologies - 83
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CIGRÉ, August 28th - September 1st
© ABB Power Technologies - 84
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Modular motor drive
On-load tap-changers

Summary
 Extremely high reliability
 Excellent service records
 Easiest maintenance
 Models for all applications available
 New technology to be introduced during 2007
© ABB Power Technologies - 85
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© ABB Power Technologies - 86
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Comparison ABB - MR

2000

USB G&
Criteria: RMV-II
Current, 1500 UCC

neutral point
versions UCD R
1000

UCL
UCG, UZ M
500
UBB V
© ABB Power Technologies - 87

UCG
MS
short

ABB MR
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ABB OLTC Benefits - Type UC In-Tank

Operating shaft OUTSIDE the


diverter housing requiring no
disassemble before lifting
diverter assembly = Time
SAVINGS and REDUCED risk of
reassembly error.

Design optimisation of diverter


using FEWER parts = LESS
statistical possibility for error on
reassembly

No disassembly of diverter
required during overhaul* = Time
© ABB Power Technologies - 88

SAVINGS and NO SPECIAL


skills required by service
technician
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* Note: Contact inspection does not require disassembly but is required during contact replacement.
On-load tap-changers

GSA bushing

VVAH cooler

UZF tap-changer
© ABB Power Technologies - 89
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On-load tap-changers

 Active part of transformer


prepared for UZE type tap
changer.
 Transformer tank with
integrated tap-changer
tank.
© ABB Power Technologies - 90
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Benefits of using the on-tank UZ

 No oil filter is needed


 Less cleats and leads
(conductors), which
can easily be made in
parallel
 No drive-shafts or
bevel gears
 The UZ is needed
later in the
production process
 Short delivery time
© ABB Power Technologies - 91
Components
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On-load tap-changers

 Three-phase fully
insulated phases or
neutral point design
 Tap-changer, motor-drive
and shaft system
integrated
 Extremely simple -
excellent maintenance
properties
© ABB Power Technologies - 92
Components
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On-load tap-changers

 UZF tap-
changer
 Three phase
boards
 Integrated
motor-drive
mechanism
© ABB Power Technologies - 93
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Benefits of using the on-tank UZ

 BIL 650kV / 600A fully insulated


 Up to 100 MVA transformers
 No drive-shafts or bevel gears
 The UZ require a smaller tfo
 less oil
 less sheet metal
 less beams
 less welding
 less work
© ABB Power Technologies - 94
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Benefits of using the on-tank UZ

 The UZ require a smaller transformer tank


 less oil
On-tank
 less sheet metal
 less beams
 less welding
 less work
In-tank
 Smaller oil conservator
 The UZ does not determine the
height of the transformer
© ABB Power Technologies - 95
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On-load tap-changers
Mobile transformer by Porter, USA, equipped with UZE type tap-changer
© ABB Power Technologies - 96
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© ABB Power Technologies - 97
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I
Tap-changers, selector switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 98
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7

I
Tap-changers, selector switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 99
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7

I
Tap-changers, selector switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 100
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7

I
Tap-changers, selector switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 101
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7

I
Tap-changers, selector switch type
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7

I
Tap-changers, selector switch type
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7

I
Tap-changers, selector switch type
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7

I
Tap-changers, selector switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 105
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7

I
Tap-changers, selector switch type
© ABB Power Technologies - 106
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On-Load Tap-Changer Type UB

 UBB type tap-changer


 Selector switch type
 Introduced in 1992
 More than 5000 units in service
 Uses the contact system from UZ-
type tap-changer
© ABB Power Technologies - 107
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On-Load Tap-Changer Type UB

 Fibreglass cylinder
 Fixed contacts mounted through cylinder
wall with excellent tightening system
 Fixed and moving contacts replaceable
from inside the tap-changer
© ABB Power Technologies - 108
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On-Load Tap-Changer Type UB

 Pre-selector switch

 Three fully insulated phases

 Moving contacts

 Current collectors
© ABB Power Technologies - 109
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On-Load Tap-Changer Type UB

 Central shaft

 Shield

 Current collectors

 Neutral connection between


phases
© ABB Power Technologies - 110
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On-Load Tap-Changer Type UB

Moving contact system consisting of:

Transition resistor contacts

Main arcing contacts

Current contacts
© ABB Power Technologies - 111
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On-Load Tap-Changer Type UB

 Main arcing contacts by copper-


wolfram alloy

 Current carrying contacts by silver-


plated brass

 Contact tips by solid silver


© ABB Power Technologies - 112
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On-Load Tap-Changer Type UB

 Pre-selector contacts with four


contact fingers
© ABB Power Technologies - 113
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© ABB Power Technologies - 114
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TIE-IN RESISTOR

 Only for plus/minus and coarse/fine connections.

 Used when the recovery voltage over the change-over selector exceed
the max. value (between 25-40kV dependent on OLTC)
© ABB Power Technologies - 115
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TIE-IN RESISTOR

Main Winding Change-Over Selector

Tap Winding
© ABB Power Technologies - 116

Switch (only connected during change-over operations)


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TIE-IN RESISTOR

Main Winding Change-Over Selector

Tap Winding
© ABB Power Technologies - 117

Switch (only connected during change-over operations)


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TIE-IN RESISTOR

Main Winding Change-Over Selector

Tap Winding
© ABB Power Technologies - 118

Switch (only connected during change-over operations)


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TIE-IN RESISTOR

Main Winding Change-Over Selector

Tap Winding
© ABB Power Technologies - 119

Switch (only connected during change-over operations)


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TIE-IN RESISTOR CONNECTION

Main Winding Change-Over Selector

Tie-in Resistor

Tap Winding
© ABB Power Technologies - 120

Switch (only connected during change-over operations)


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TIE-IN RESISTOR CONNECTION

Main Winding Change-Over Selector

Tie-in Resistor

Tap Winding
© ABB Power Technologies - 121
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TIE-IN RESISTOR CONNECTION

Main Winding Change-Over Selector

Tie-in Resistor

Tap Winding
© ABB Power Technologies - 122

Switch
Switch (only connected during change-over operations)
Components

(only connected during change-over operations)


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Calculation of Tie-In Resistor
Needed to calculate the Tie-In Resistor value are:
 Capacitance from the regulating winding to adjacent windings or earth. (Included
influence from leads)
 Voltage on the adjacent windings and the voltage over the regulating winding.
 Transformer connection data and frequency.

H1

Tank

HV U RW

C1 C2
© ABB Power Technologies - 123

+ -
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© ABB Power Technologies - 124
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Recommendation Letter