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# ELECTRICAL PLANT DIMENSIONING

## CIRCUIT BREAKER SELECTION

ABB SACE
Protection of transformers
Generalities

## As to be able to protect LV/MV transformers LV side, we must mainly take into

account:
•rated current of the protected transformer, LV side, from which the rated
current of the CB and the setting depend (In);
•the max estimated short circuit current in the installation point which defines
the minimal breaking power of the protection circuit breaker (Isc).

ABB SACE
Protection of transformers
MT-BT switchboard with one single transformer

Sn

U20

In
Isc

ABB SACE
Protection of transformers

## The rated current of the transformers LV side is defined by the following

expression

Sn x 103
In =
3 x U20

where
Sn = rated power of the transformer [kVA]
U20 = rated secondary voltage (no load) of the transformer [V]
ln = rated current of the transformer, LV side [A]

ABB SACE
Protection of transformers

The full voltage three-phase short circuit current immediately after the LV side
of the transformer can be expressed by the following relation once we suppose
infinite power at the primary:

In x 100
Isc =
Ucc %
where
Ucc %= short circuit voltage of the transformer [%]
ln = rated current, LV side, [A]
lsc = three-phase rated short circuit current, LV side, [A]

ABB SACE
Protection of transformers

The short circuit current is normally lesser than the preceding deduced
values if the CB is installed at a certain distance by means of a cable or
bar connection, according to the connection impedance.

ABB SACE
Protection of transformers
Choice of the circuit breaker

The following table shows some possible choices within the SACE Emax ACB
range according to the characteristics of the CB to protect.

Attention
Those indications are valid at the conditions that we declare in the table;
different conditions will lead us to repeat calculations and modify the choices.

ABB SACE
Protection of transformers
Sn [kVA] 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150
Ucc (1) % 4 4 5 5 5 6,25 6,25 6,25 6,25
In (2) [A] 722 909 1154 1443 1804 2309 2887 3608 4547
Isc (2) [kA] 18 22.7 23.1 28.9 36.1 37 46.2 57.7 72.7
SACE Emax E1B08 E1B12 E1B12 E2B16 E2B20 E3B25 E3B32 E4S40 E6H50
(1) For values of the percent short circuit voltage U’cc% different from the Ucc% values as per table, the rated three-
phase short circuit current I’cn becomes:
Ucc %
I’sc = Isc
U’cc %
(2) The calculated values refer to a U20 voltage of 400 V. for different U’20 values, do multiply In and Isc the following
k times:

U’20 [V] 220 380 400 415 440 480 500 660 690

## k 1.82 1.05 1 0.96 0.91 0.83 0.8 0.606 0.580

ABB SACE
Protection of lines

The choice of the circuit breakers for switching and protection of the lines means the
perfect knowledge of:
•rated operating line current lB
•presumed short circuit current in the point of installation of the circuit breaker Icc

ABB SACE
Protection of lines

The correct circuit breaker must be apt to satisfy the following conditions:
•it must own short circuit breaking power (lcu or eventually lcs) greater or equal
to the short circuit current lcc
•it must use a protection release so that its overload setting current ln (l1)
satisfies the relation lB < ln < lZ
•the let through energy (l2t) that flows through the circuit breaker must be
lesser or equal to the maximal one allowed by the cable (K²S²)

ABB SACE
Protection of lines

As far as the verification required by the IEC 364 standard, according to which
the overload protection must have an intervention current lf that assures the
operation for a value lesser than 1,45 lz (lf < 1,45 lz), we must state that it is
always verified for SACE CBs since those are IEC 60947-2 standard compliant
and the value is less than 1,3 ln.

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution
Selective protection

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

## The example emphasizes the need of co-ordination of the intervention

between the two A and B circuit breakers so that, in case of fault in C, only the
B circuit breaker trips, thus leaving complete continuity to the rest of the plant
supplied by the circuit breaker A.

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

## Selectivity might be total or partial:

•total selectivity: only the circuit breaker B trips for every current value lesser or
equal to the max short circuit current foreseen in C;
•partial selectivity: the circuit breaker B opens only according to fault current
lower than a certain value; values that are equal or greater than this will give
the intervention of the two A and B circuit breakers

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

## Amperometric selectivity is obtained by setting on different values the

instantaneous tripping currents of the circuit breakers’ chain (greater values for
upstream circuit breakers)

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

B A

ImB ImA

## ImA is the selectivity limit !

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

## Chronometric selectivity is obtained by introducing intentionally always greater

delays in the intervention tripping timings of the upstream circuit breakers in
the chain.

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

B A

Total selectivity

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution
Switchboard A 2500 kVA
(fault current 57,5 kA)

E4S40
with PR112

400V

E2N20
with PR111

## Switchboard B E2N20 MS (disconnector)

400V

T5H 630
with PR222

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

ABB SACE
ABB SACE
ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution
Back-up protection

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

In the figure, the circuit breaker B, downwards in respect with A, might have a
short circuit breaking capacity lesser than the presumed short circuit current in
case of fault in C if the circuit breaker A satisfies at all the two following
conditions:
•it own correct short circuit power (greater or equal to the presumed short
circuit current in its installation point and obviously greater than the short circuit
current in C)
•in case of fault in C with short circuit values greater than the short circuit
breaking capacity of circuit breaker B, the circuit breaker A must limit the let
through energy by tapering it to a correct value than can be stood by the circuit
breaker B and by the protected lines

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

## The back-up protection is to be used in electric plants where operation

continuity is not a main need: that is the tripping of an upstream circuit breaker
will include in the black-out also those parts of the plant that are not interested
in the faulty current. This co-ordination solution is used by those who need to
contain the plant costs by reducing the general performance in case of fault.

ABB SACE
Primary and secondary distribution

## Upstream circuit breaker Short circuit breaking capacity

E2L - E3L 130 [kA] (@ 380/415 V)
Downstream circuit breaker Breaker capacity on

T4N 65 [kA]
T4S - T5N - E1B - E2B 85 [kA]
T4H - T5S - T5H - S7H - E2N 100 [kA]

ABB SACE
Back up protection application example

T4L 250

100 kA !!!

## T1N 160 T1N 160 T1N 160

* T1N 160 is 36 kA only mccb

ABB SACE
ABB SACE
Solution for selectivity

S6L 800

100 kA

## T4L 250 T4L 250 T4L 250

ABB SACE
Selectivity Table

ABB SACE
ABB SACE