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- Introduction to Power System Protection & Relays
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- Practical Introduction to Power System Protection & Control
- Relay Application Guide AREVA
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Alan Wixon

Senior Applications Engineer

Power System Fault Analysis (1)

understanding

TO :-

Calculate Power System Currents and Voltages during Fault

Conditions

Check that Breaking Capacity of Switchgear is Not

Exceeded

Determine the Quantities which can be used by Relays to

Distinguish Between Healthy (i.e. Loaded) and Fault

Conditions

Appreciate the Effect of the Method of Earthing on the

Detection of Earth Faults

Select the Best Relay Characteristics for Fault Detection

Ensure that Load and Short Circuit Ratings of Plant are Not

Exceeded

Select Relay Settings for Fault Detection and Discrimination

Understand Principles of Relay Operation

Conduct Post Fault Analysis

Power System Fault Analysis (2)

Required fault clearance times

Need for 1 phase or 3 phase auto-reclose

Computer Fault Calculation Programmes

Powerful for large power systems

Sometimes overcomplex for simple circuits

Not always user friendly

Sometimes operated by other departments and not

directly available to protection engineers

Programme calculation methods:- understanding is

important

Need for ‘by hand’ spot checks of calculations

Pocket Calculator Methods

programmes e.g. on site

Vectors

relationship between electrical quantities.

Z

V I

V = Vsinwt = V ∠ 0°

θ

I = I ∠ -θ ° = Isin(wt-θ )

j Operator

j = 1 ∠ 90°

90° 90°

j2 = 1 ∠ 180° 1

= -1

90° 90°

j3 = 1 ∠ 270°

= -j

“imaginary” parts.

a = 1 ∠ 120 °

Used extensively in “Symmetrical Component Analysis”

1 3

a = 1∠120° = - + j

2 2

120°

120° 1

120°

1 3

a = 1∠240° = − − j

2

2 2

> Fault Analysis – January 2004 9

a = 1 ∠ 120 °

Balanced 3Ø voltages :-

VC = aVA

a2 + a + 1 = 0 VA

VB = a2VA

Balanced Faults

Balanced (3Ø) Faults (1)

CAUSES :-

1. System Energisation with Maintenance Earthing

Clamps still connected.

2. 1Ø Faults developing into 3Ø Faults

3Ø FAULTS MAY BE REPRESENTED BY 1Ø CIRCUIT

Valid because system is maintained in a BALANCED state

during the fault

Voltages equal and 120° apart

Currents equal and 120° apart

Power System Plant Symmetrical

Phase Impedances Equal

Mutual Impedances Equal

Shunt Admittances Equal

Balanced (3Ø) Faults (2)

GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

LINE ‘X’ LINE ‘Y’

LOADS

3Ø FAULT

Eb IbF

Ec IcF

ZLOAD

Balanced (3Ø) Faults (3)

IcF

Ea

IaF

Ec Eb

IbF

Ea

ZG1 ZT1 ZLX1 F1 ZLX2

N1

Representation of Plant

Generator Short Circuit Current

The AC Symmetrical component of the short circuit current varies with time

due to effect of armature reaction.

i

TIME

Ι ac = (Ι"- Ι')e- t/Td" + (Ι' - Ι )e- t/Td' + Ι

where :

I" = Initial Symmetrical S/C Current or Subtransient Current

= E/Xd" ≈ 50ms

I' = Symmetrical Current a Few Cycles Later ≈ 0.5s or

Transient Current = E/Xd'

I = Symmetrical Steady State Current = E/Xd

Simple Generator Models

Parallel Generators

11kV 11kV

XG=0.2pu 11kV

j0.05 j0.1

20MVA

XG=0.2pu

20MVA

If both generator EMF’s are equal ∴ they can be thought of as resulting from

the same ideal source - thus the circuit can be simplified.

P.U. Diagram

IF

⇒ IF

Positive Sequence Impedances of Transformers

2 Winding Transformers

ZS = Secondary Leakage

Reactance

ZP ZS ZM = Magnetising impedance

P1 S1

= Large compared with ZP

and ZS

ZM ZM Infinity ∴ Represented by

an Open Circuit

N1

ZT1 = ZP + ZS = Positive

Sequence Impedance

P1 ZT1 = ZP + ZS S1

ZP and ZS

both expressed

on same voltage

N1 base.

Motors

Decay rate of the current depends on the system. From

tests, typical decay rate is 100 - 150mS.

Typically modelled as a voltage behind an impedance

Xd"

M 1.0

Induction Motors – IEEE Recommendations

Small Motors

Motor load <35kW neglect

Large Motors

SCM ≈ motor full load amps

Xd"

impedance 20%

Synchronous Motors – IEEE Recommendations

1200 rpm

514 - 900 rpm

450 rpm or less

Analysis of Balanced Faults

Different Voltages – How Do We Analyse?

20MVA 50MVA 50MVA

O/H Line Feeder

ZT=10% ZT=10%

Referring Impedances

X1 R2 X2

R1

N : 1

Ideal

Transform

er

Consider the equivalent CCT referred to :-

Primary Secondary

R1/N2 + R2

Per Unit System

Definition

of a Quantity Base Value in the Same Units

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values

11 kV 11/132 kV 132/33 kV

20 MVA 50 MVA 50 MVA

O/H LINE FEEDER

ZT = 10% ZT = 10%

several voltage levels

All system parameters referred to common base quantities

Base quantities fixed in one part of system

Base quantities at other parts at different voltage levels

depend on ratio of intervening transformers

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values (1)

Value ~ MVA rating of largest item

of plant or 100MVA

BASE VOLTAGE = KVb = ∅/∅ voltage in kV

This value is referred through

transformers to obtain base

voltages on other parts of system.

Base voltages on each side of

transformer are in same ratio as

voltage ratio.

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values (2)

(kVb )2

BaseImpedance = Zb = in Ohms

MVAb

MVAb

BaseCurrent = Ιb = in kA

3 . kVb

Base Quantities and Per Unit Values (3)

Base Value

MVAa

Per Unit MVA = MVAp.u. =

MVAb

KVa

Per Unit Voltage = kVp.u. =

KVb

Za MVAb

Per Unit Impedance = Zp.u. = = Za .

Zb (kVb )2

Ιa

Per Unit Current = Ιp.u. =

Ιb

Transformer Percentage Impedance

If ZT = 5%

with Secondary S/C

5% V (RATED) produces I (RATED) in Secondary.

∴ V (RATED) produces 100 x I (RATED)

5

= 20 x I (RATED)

If Source Impedance ZS = 0

Fault current = 20 x I (RATED)

Fault Power = 20 x kVA (RATED)

i.e. Based on MVA (RATED) & kV (RATED)

∴ is same value viewed from either side of transformer.

2 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 32

Example (1)

1 2

MVA

kVb / kV1 kVb / kV2

Actual impedance of transformer viewed from side 1 = Za1

Example (2)

Base voltage on each side of a transformer must be in the same ratio as voltage ratio of transformer.

Incorrect selection

of kVb 11.8kV 132kV 11kV

of kVb 141

= 11.05kV

selection of kVb 132

OHL Distribution

System

Conversion of Per Unit Values from One Set of

Quantities to Another

Zp.u.1 Zp.u.2 Za

Zp.u.1 =

Zb1

Za Z

Zp.u.2 = = Zp.u.1 x b1

Zb1 Zb2 Zb2 Zb2

(kVb1)2

MVAb1

MVAb2

MVAb2 = Zp.u.1 x x

kVb1 kVb2

MVAb1 (kVb2)2

MVAb2 (kVb1)2

Actual Z = Za = Zp.u.1 x x

MVAb1 (kVb2)2

Example

11 kV 11/132 132/33

20 MVA 50 MVA

kV 50 MVA

kV

0.3p.u. 10% 40Ω 10% 8Ω

3∅

11 FAULT

kVb 132 33

MVAb 50 50 50

Zb 2.42Ω 349Ω 21.8Ω

=kVb2

∴ I11 kV = 0.698 x Ib =

MVAb

0.698 x 2625 = 1833A

Ib 2625 A 219 A 874 A I132 kV = 0.698 x 219 = 153A

I33 kV = 0.698 x 874 = 610A

=MVAb

√3kVb

Zp.u 0.3 50 40 = 8

x 20 0.1p.u. 3490.115

0.1p.u. 21.8 =

0.367

. = 0.75p.u. p.u. p.u.

1.432p.u.

V 1p.u. IF = 1 =

0.698p.u.

1.432

Fault Types

similar today all over the world.

Unbalanced Faults

Unbalanced Faults (1)

phase representation is adopted.

3 phase faults are rare.

Majority of faults are unbalanced faults.

UNBALANCED FAULTS may be classified into

SHUNT FAULTS and SERIES FAULTS.

SHUNT FAULTS:

Line to Ground

Line to Line

Line to Line to Ground

SERIES FAULTS:

Single Phase Open Circuit

Double Phase Open Circuit

Unbalanced Faults (2)

LINE TO GROUND

LINE TO LINE

Causes :

1) Insulation Breakdown

2) Lightning Discharges and other Overvoltages

3) Mechanical Damage

Unbalanced Faults (3)

Causes :

1) Broken Conductor

2) Operation of Fuses

3) Maloperation of Single Phase Circuit Breakers

IS LOST

VALID

Unbalanced Faults (4)

Analysed using :-

Symmetrical Components

Equivalent Sequence Networks of Power System

Connection of Sequence Networks appropriate to

Type of Fault

Symmetrical Components

Symmetrical Components

‘n’ phasors may be resolved into :-

(n-1) sets of balanced n-phase systems of phasors, each set having a different phase sequence

plus

1 set of zero phase sequence or unidirectional phasors

VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA3 + VA4 - - - - - VA(n-1) + VAn

VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB3 + VB4 - - - - - VB(n-1) + VBn

VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC3 + VC4 - - - - - VC(n-1) + VCn

VD = VD1 + VD2 + VD3 + VD4 - - - - - VD(n-1) + VDn

------------------------------------------

Vn = Vn1 + Vn2 + Vn3 + Vn4 - - - - - Vn(n-1) + Vnn

Sequence

Unbalanced 3-Phase System

VA1 VA2

120° 240°

Unbalanced 3-Phase System

VA0

VB0

VC0

Zero Sequence

Symmetrical Components

VA

VB = VB1+ VB2 + VB0

=V

VC C1+ VC2 + VC0

VC

VA1 VB

+ VC0

+ VC2

VC1

VB1 VB2

VC1 = a VA1 VC2 = a2VA2 VC0 = VA0

7 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 47

Converting from Sequence Components to

Phase Values

VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA0

VB = VB1 + VB2 + VB0 = a2VA1 + a VA2 + VA0

VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC0 = a VA1 + a2VA2 + VA0

VA0

VA

VA2

VA1

VC

VC0

VC1

VC2 VB

VB1 VB0

VB2

8 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 48

Converting from Phase Values to

Sequence Components

VA1 = 1/3 {VA + a VB + a2VC}

VA2 = 1/3 {VA + a2VB + a VC}

VA0 = 1/3 {VA + VB + VC}

VA

VB

3VA0

VC

VA0

Summary

VA = VA1 + VA2 + VA0

VB = ∝2VA1 + ∝VA2 + VA0

VC = ∝VA1 + ∝2VA2 + VA0

IB = ∝2IA1 + ∝A2 + IA0

IC = ∝IA1 + ∝2IA2 + IA0

VA2 = 1/3 {VA + ∝2VB + ∝VC }

VA0 = 1/3 {VA + VB + VC }

0 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 50

Residual Current

IA

IB

IC

IRESIDUAL = IA + IB + IC

= 3I0

E/F

zero for :- 3∅ Faults present for :- ∅/Ø/E Faults

Ø/∅ Faults Open circuits (with

current in remaining phases)

Residual Voltage

Used to detect earth faults

“Open Delta” or “Broken Delta” VT

secondary windings.

VRESIDUAL is zero for:-

Healthy unfaulted systems

3∅ Faults

∅/∅ Faults

VRESIDUAL is present for:-

VRESIDUAL = ∅/E Faults

VA + VB + VC ∅/∅/E Faults

Open Circuits (on supply

= 3V0 side of VT)

Example

components for the unbalanced phase vectors :

VC

VA = 1 ∠ 0°

VB = 1.5 ∠ -90°

VA

VC = 0.5 ∠ 120°

VB

3 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 53

Solution

= 1/3 [ 1 + (1 ∠ 120) (1.5 ∠ -90)

+ (1 ∠ 240) (0.5 ∠ 120) ]

= 0.965 ∠ 15

= 1/3 [ 1 + (1 ∠ 240) (1.5 ∠ -90)

+ (1 ∠ 120) (0.5 ∠ 120) ]

= 0.211 ∠ 150

= 1/3 (1 + 1.5 ∠ -90 + 0.5 ∠ 120)

= 0.434 ∠ -55

4 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 54

Positive Sequence Voltages

VC1 = aVA1

15º

VB1 = a2VA1

VA2 = 0.211∠ 150° VC2 = a2VA2 -55º

150º

VB0 = -

VC0 = -

VB2 = aVA2

Zero Sequence

Voltages

Negative Sequence

Voltages

Symmetrical Components

VC2

VC1 VC0

VC

VA2

VC2

VA2 VA1

VA0

VA

VB2 V0

VB1

VB2

VB0 VB

Example

components

IA1 = 0.6 ∠ 0

IA2 = -0.4 ∠ 0

IA0 = -0.2 ∠ 0

Solution

8 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 58

Unbalanced Voltages and Currents acting on

Balanced Impedances (1)

Ia ZS

Va

Ib ZS Zm Zm

Vb

Ic ZS Zm

Vc

VB = IAZM + IBZS + ICZM

VC = IAZM + IBZM + ICZS

In matrix form

VA ZS ZM ZM IA

VB = ZM ZS ZM IB

VC ZM ZM ZS IC

Unbalanced Voltages and Currents acting on

Balanced Impedances (2)

Resolve V & I phasors into symmetrical components

1 1 1 V0 ZS ZM ZM 1 1 1 I0

1 a2 a V1 = ZM ZS ZM 1 a2 a I1

1 a a2 V2 ZM ZM ZS 1 a a2 I2

Multiply by [A]-1

-1

V0 1 1 1 ZS ZM ZM 1 1 1 I0

V1 = 1 a2 a ZM ZS ZM 1 a2 a I1

V2 1 a a2 ZM ZM ZS 1 a a2 I2

V0 1 1 1 ZS ZM ZM 1 1 1 I0

V1 = 1/3 1 a a2 ZM ZS ZM 1 a2 a I1

V2 1 a2 a ZM ZM ZS 1 a a2 I2

V1 = 1/3 ZS - ZM ZM + aZS + a2ZM ZM + aZM + a2ZS

V2 ZS - ZM ZM + a2ZS + aZM ZM + a2ZM + aZS

1 1 1 I0

0 1

> Fault Analysis – January 2004 a2 a I 60

Unbalanced Voltages and Currents acting on

Balanced Impedances (3)

V0 ZS + 2ZM 0 0 I0

V1 = 0 ZS - ZM 0 I1

V2 0 0 ZS - ZM I2

V0 Z0 0 0 I0

V1 = 0 Z1 0 I1

V2 0 0 Z2 I2

diagonal matrix if the system is symmetrical.

each other.

interconnected when an unbalance such as a fault or

unbalanced loading is introduced.

1 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 61

Representation of Plant

Cont…

Transformer Zero Sequence Impedance

P Q

ZT0

a a

P Q

b b

N0

General Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuit for

Two Winding Transformer

Primary Z T0 Secondary

Terminal 'a' 'a' Terminal

'b' 'b'

N0

Earthed Star Winding - Close link ‘a’

Open link ‘b’

Close link ‘b’

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (1)

P S

P0 ZT0

a a S0

b b

N0

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (2)

P S

P0 ZT0

a a S0

b b

N0

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (3)

P S

P0 ZT0

a a S0

b b

N0

Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuits (4)

P S

P0 ZT0

a a S0

b b

N0

3 Winding Transformers

P S

T

ZP, ZS, ZT = Leakage reactances of Primary,

P ZP ZS S Secondary and Tertiary Windings

ZM = Magnetising Impedance = Large

ZM ZT ∴ Ignored

T

N1

P ZP ZS S

ZP-S = ZP + ZS = Impedance between Primary (P)

and Secondary (S) where ZP & ZS

Z

are both expressed on same

T T voltage base

N1 Similarly ZP-T = ZP + ZT and ZS-T = ZS + ZT

Auto Transformers

H L H ZH1 ZL L

1

ZM1 ZT1

T

T N1

Equivalent circuit is similar to that of a 3 ZM = Magnetising Impedance =

winding transformer.

Large ∴ Ignored

H ZH1 ZL L

1

ZHL1 = ZH1 + ZL1 (both referred to same voltage base)

ZT1

ZHT1 = ZH1 + ZT1 (both referred to same voltage base)

T

ZLT1 = ZL1 + ZT1 (both referred to same voltage base)

N1

Sequence Networks

Sequence Networks (1)

impedances are balanced from the points of

generation right up to the fault, each sequence

current causes voltage drop of its own sequence

only.

thro’ impedances of its own sequence only, with

no interconnection between the sequence

networks right up to the point of fault.

Sequence Networks (2)

‘reference’ phase. This is usually taken as the ‘A’ phase.

reference ‘A’ phase.

For Ø/Ø faults consider a B-C fault

reference phase.

Positive Sequence Diagram

E1

N1 Z1 F1

connected to N1

- Phase-neutral voltage

3. Impedance network

- Positive sequence impedance per phase

4 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 74

Example

Generator Transformer

Line F

N

E

E1 ZT1 ZL1

N1 ZG1 I1 F1

V1

(N1)

5 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 75

Negative Sequence Diagram

N2 Z2 F2

to N2

2. No EMF’s included

- No negative sequence voltage is generated!

3. Impedance network

- Negative sequence impedance per phase

Example

Generator Transformer

Line F

N

R

System Single Line

Diagram

E

V2

Diagram

7 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 77

Zero Sequence Diagram (1)

each phase of the system, there must be a fourth connection

(this is typically the neutral or earth connection).

N IA0

IB0

IC0

Zero Sequence Diagram (2)

3Ι A0

R V0 = 3IA0 .R

Zero sequence impedance of neutral to earth path

E

Z0 = V0 = 3R

IA0

Zero Sequence Diagram (3)

Generator Transformer

Line F

N

RT

R

System Single Line Diagram

E

3R 3RT V0

E0 (N0)

Zero Sequence Network

0 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 80

Network Connections

Interconnection of Sequence Networks (1)

F & N for external connections.

F1

POSITIVE

SEQUENCE

NETWORK

N1

I2

F2

NEGATIVE

SEQUENCE V2

NETWORK

N2

I0

F0

ZERO

SEQUENCE V0

NETWORK

N0

Interconnection of Sequence Networks (2)

For any given fault there are 6 quantities to be considered at the fault point

i.e. VA VB VC IA IB IC

Relationships between these for any type of fault can be converted into an

equivalent relationship between sequence components

V1, V2, V0 and I1, I2 , I0

This is possible if :-

1) Any 3 phase quantities are known (provided they are not all

voltages or all currents)

or 2) 2 are known and 2 others are known to have a specific

relationship.

From the relationship between sequence V’s and I’s, the manner in

which the isolation sequence networks are connected can be determined.

representation (in sequence terms) of the fault.

To derive the system constraints at the fault terminals :-

F

IA IB IC

VA VB VC

4 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 84

Line to Ground Fault on Phase ‘A’

IA IB IC

At fault point :-

VA = 0

VA VB VC VB = ?

VC = ?

IA = ?

IB = 0

IC = 0

Phase to Earth Fault on Phase ‘A’

At fault point

VA = 0 ; IB = 0 ; IC = 0

but VA = V1 + V 2 + V0

∴ V1 + V2 + V0 = 0 ------------------------- (1)

I0 = 1/3 (IA + IB + IC ) = 1/3 IA

I1 = 1/3 (IA + aIB + a2IC) = 1/3 IA

I2 = 1/3 (IA + a2IB + aIC) = 1/3 IA

∴ I1 = I2 = I0 = 1/3 IA ------------------------- (2)

To comply with (1) & (2)Ithe Fsequence networks must be connected in series :-

1 1

+ve

Seq

N/W V1

N1 I2

-ve F2

Seq V2

N/W

I0

N2

Zero F0

Seq V0

N/W

N0

6 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 86

Example : Phase to Earth Fault

SOURCE LINE F

A-G

132 kV ZL1 = 10Ω FAULT

2000 MVA IF

ZL0 = 35Ω

ZS1 = 8.7Ω

ZS0 = 8.7Ω

8.7 10 I1 F1

N1

8.7 10 I2 F2

N2

8.7 35 I0 F0

N0

√3 x 81.1

IF = IA = I1 + I2 + I0 = 3I0

= 2820 Amps

7 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 87

Earth Fault with Fault Resistance

I1 F1

POSITIVE

SEQUENCE

NETWORK V1

N1

I2 F2

NEGATIVE

SEQUENCE V2 3ZF

NETWORK

N2

I0 F0

ZERO

SEQUENCE V0

NETWORK

N0

Phase to Phase Fault:- B-C Phase

I1 I2 I0

F1 F2 F0

+ve -ve Zero

Seq V1 Seq V2 Seq V0

N/W N/W N/W

N1 N2 N0

Example : Phase to Phase Fault

SOURCE LINE F

B-C

132 kV ZL1 = ZL2 = 10Ω FAULT

2000 MVA

ZS1 = ZS2 =

8.7Ω

13200

0 8. 10 I1 F1

√3 7

N1

8. 10 I2 F2

7

N2

I1 = 132000 = 2037 Amps = a2I1 - aI1

√3 x 37.4 = (a2 - a) I1

I2 = -2037 Amps = (-j) . √3 x 2037

= 3529 Amps.

0 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 90

Phase to Phase Fault with Resistance

ZF

I1 I2

+ve F1 -ve F2

Seq V1 Seq V2

N/W N/W

N1 N2

I0

Zero F0

Seq V0

N/W

N0

Phase to Phase to Earth Fault:- B-C-E

I1 I2 I0

+ve F1 -ve F2 Zero F0

Seq V1 Seq Seq

V2 V0

N/W N/W N/W

N1 N2 N0

Phase to Phase to Earth Fault:-

B-C-E with Resistance

3ZF

I1 I2 I0

+ve F1 -ve F2 Zero F0

Seq V1 Seq V2 Seq

N/W V0

N/W N/W

N1 N2 N0

Maximum Fault Level

earthed systems

level for all fault types.

3Ø Versus 1Ø Fault Level (1)

E XT

Xg

3Ø

Xg XT

E E

ΙF = ≡

Xg + XT Z1

Z1

E IF

3Ø Versus 1Ø Fault Level (2)

1Ø Xg XT

E Z1

Xg2 XT2

3E

ΙF =

Z2 = IF 2Z1 + Z0

Z1

Xg0 XT0

Z0

3Ø Versus 1Ø Fault Level (3)

E 3E 3E

3∅FAULTLEVEL = = =

Z1 3Z1 2Z1 + Z1

3E

1∅FAULTLEVEL =

2Z1 + Z0

∴ IF Z0 < Z1

Open Circuit & Double Faults

Series Faults (or Open Circuit Faults)

P2 Q2

P Q

N2

OPEN CIRCUIT FAULT ACROSS PQ NEGATIVE SEQUENCE NETWORK

P1 Q1 P0 Q0

N1 N0

Interconnection of Sequence Networks

I1

P1

POSITIVE

N1 SEQUENCE V1

NETWORK

Consider sequence Q1

networks as blocks with

fault terminals P & Q for

interconnections. I2

P2

NEGATIVE

N2 SEQUENCE V2

Unlike shunt faults, NETWORK

Q2

terminal N is not used for

interconnections.

I0

P0

ZERO

N3 SEQUENCE V0

NETWORK

Q0

Derive System Constraints at the Fault Terminals

will be applied across points P & Q on the 3 line conductors.

Fault terminal potentials Va, Vb, Vc will be across P and Q.

P Q

Va Ia

Va'

va

Vb Ib Vb'

vb

Vc Ic Vc'

vc

Open Circuit Fault On Phase A (1)

P Q

Va Ia Va'

va

Vb Ib Vb'

vb

Vc Ic Vc'

vc

At fault point :-

va = ?

vb = 0

vc = 0

Ia = 0

Ib = ?

02 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 102

Open Circuit Fault On Phase A (2)

At fault point

vb = 0 ; vc = 0 ; Ia = 0

v1 = 1/3 (va + ∝vb + ∝2vc ) = 1/3 va

v2 = 1/3 (va + ∝2vb + ∝vc ) = 1/3 va

Ia = I1 + I2 + I0 = 0 --------------------------- (2)

From equations (1) & (2) the sequence networks are connected in

parallel.

I1 I2 I0

+ve P1 -ve P2 Zero P0

Seq V1 Seq V2 Seq V0

N/W N/W N/W

Q1 Q2 Q0

Two Earth Faults on Phase ‘A’

at Different Locations

F F'

a-e a'-e

Va = 0 ; Ib = 0 ; Ic = 0

It can be shown that

Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia0

Va1 + Va2 + Va0 = 0

(2) At fault point F'

Va‘ = 0 ; Ib' = 0 ; Ic' = 0

It can be shown that

Ia'1 = Ia'2 = Ia'0

Va'1 + Va'2 + Va'0 = 0 104

F1 F'1

Ia1 Ia'1

Va1 Va'1

N1 N'1

F2 F’2

Ia2 Ia’2

Va2 Va’

2

N2 N’2

F0 F’0

Ia0 Ia’0

Va0 Va’

0

N0 N’0

F1 F'1

Ia1 Ia'1

Va1 Va'1

N1 N'1 INCORRECT

F2 F’2 CONNECTIONS

Ia2 Ia’2

Va2 Va’

Va2 ≠ Va2 '

2

Va1 ≠ Va1 '

N2 N’2

F0 F’0

Ia0 Ia’0

Va0 Va’

0

N0 N’0

F1 F'1

Ia1 Ia'1

Va1 Va'1

N1 N'1 Ia’2

F2 F’2

Ia2 Ia’2

1/1

Va’ Va’

Va2

2

2

N2 N’2

F0 F’0

Ia0 Ia’0 1/1

Va’ Va’

Va0

0

0

N0 N’0

07 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 107

Open Circuit & Ground Fault

P Q

Ia Va Va' Ia'

va

Ib Vb Vb' Ib'

vb

Ic Vc Vc' Ic'

vc

Open Circuit Fault At fault point :- Line to Ground Fault At fault point :-

va = ? Va' = 0

vb = 0 Vb' = ?

vC = 0 Vc' = ?

Ia = 0 Ia + I'a = ?

Ib = ? Ib + I'b = 0

Ic = ? Ic + I'c = 0

08 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 108

Ia1

P1 Q1

Ia1 Ia1 + Ia'1

Ia'1 Ia1 + Ia'1

1:1

va1

Va1 Va’ Va’

1 1

N1 Ia2

P2 Q2

Ia2 Ia’2 Ia2 + Ia’2 Ia2 + Ia’2

va2

Va2 Va’ Va’

2 2

N2 Ia0

P0 Q0

Ia0 Ia’0 Ia0 + Ia’0 Ia0 + Ia’0

va0

Va0 Va’ Va’

0 0

N0

09 > Fault Analysis – January 2004 109

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