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Welcome to the Schneider Electric

Seminar on

‘LV Power Concepts and Devices’

Division - Name - Date - Language 1


Agenda for the evening:

Topic Presenter Time

 LV Earthing Systems Asrar Mufti 6.15 to 6.50 pm


 LV Type Tested Panelboards Shanker Shetty 6.50 to 7.30 pm
 Break for Salah 7.30 to 7.50 pm
 LV Power Circuit Breakers Irfan Mufti 8.00 to 9.00 pm
 LV Final Distribution Boards Ibrahim Saleh 9.00 to 9.30 pm
 Wiring Devices Mohammad Al-Amoudi 9.30 to 10.00 pm
 Dinner 10.00 pm

Division - Name - Date - Language 2


LV Earthing Systems.
as per IEC 60364 Installation Standard.
Fire protection
Risk analysis - the origins of fires in buildings

 Studies carried out in Germany between 1980 and 1990


Fire 37 % Lightning 1 % Explosion 1 %

Accidents 7 %

E92446
Cigarettes 6 % Other 7 % Electricity 41 %

 41 % of fires are electrical in origin


 this risk is far from negligible
 it can be eliminated

Division - Name - Date - Language 4


Fire protection
Main cause

 Ageing of the installation results in:


 less effective insulation
 the risk of very small leakage currents
 Presence of humidity

Leakage
currents

Carbonisation Small
of insulation discharges
(dust)
E92461

E92462
 There is a real risk of fire starting at leakage currents of 300 mA

Division - Name - Date - Language 5


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Basic principle
IEC 60479-1 Effect of current on the human body
Time ms/current mA curve for AC current from
Zone 1 : perception 15 to 100 Hz
T(ms)
Zone 2 : unpleasant sensation
10 000
Zone 3 : muscular contractions b c1 c2 c3
(reversible effects) 5000
Zone 4 : risk of ventricular
fibrillation.(irreversible) 2000
1000
c1-c2 :prob. increases by 5%
500
c2-c3 :prob. increases by 50% 1 2 3 4
200
> c3 :prob. more than50 %
100
50

Body Impedance = 2000 Ohms.(Dry) 20


= 1000 Ohms.(Wet) 10
Max. Withstand Current = 25 mA 0,1 0,2 1 2 5 10 100 500 2000 5000 (mA)
0,5 mA 30 mA 1000

UL (MAX. TOUCH VOLTAGE) = 2000x 0.025 = 50 V (Dry Conditions)


= 1000x0.025 = 25 V (Wet Conditions)

Division - Name - Date - Language 6


Protection
of people Standard IEC 60479-1
Critical current thresholds

mA

1A Cardiac arrest

Irreversible cardiac
75 mA fibrillation

30 mA Breathing arrest

10mA Muscular contraction

0.5 mA Tingling
E92450

Division - Name - Date - Language 7


Protection
of people Standard IEC 60479-1
Effect of frequency

Current-sensitivity thresholds
(mA)
500

100

30
(f)
DC 50 100 1000
E92451

The human body is most sensitive to frequencies in the 50 Hz/60 Hz range

Division - Name - Date - Language 8


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Basic principle
Maximum Touch Voltage Time (Protection of people according to IEC 364)
Against Indirect Contact
with Automatic Disconnection of Supply
 Maximum touch voltage time in UL = 50 V  Maximum touch voltage time in UL = 25 V
conditions conditions (sockets/wet areas)

prospective maximum protective device prospective maximum protective device


touch disconnection time(Seconds) touch disconnection time(Seconds)
voltage (V) AC current DC current voltage (V) AC current DC current

< 50 5 5
25 5 5
50 5 5
50 0.48 5
75 0.60 5
75 0.30 2
90 0.45 5
90 0.25 0.80
120 0.34 5
110 0.18 0.50
150 0.27 1
150 0.12 0.25
220 0.17 0.4
230 0.05 0.06
280 0.12 0.3
280 0.02 0.02
350 0.08 0.2
500 0.04 0.1

Division - Name - Date - Language 9


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Basic principle
Protection of people, direct contact
Definition
 “Contact of persons or livestock with
live parts which may result in electric
shock”

Division - Name - Date - Language 10


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Basic principle
Protection of people, direct contact
 Types of protection

E36914
Insulation

Distance

IP2X or IPXXB 30 mA
TBT < 25 V

Division - Name - Date - Language 11


Protection
of people Standard IEC 60364
Indirect contact
 “Contact of persons or livestock
with exposed conductive parts
E92454
in case of a fault”

Division - Name - Date - Language 12


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Basic principle
Protection of people according to IEC 364
Protection against indirect contact with automatic disconnection of
supply

 Earthing of all the exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment and


all accessible conductive parts
 2 simultaneously accessible exposed conductive parts must be
connected to the same earth electrode
 Automatic disconnection by a protective device of the circuit in which a
dangerous insulation fault occurs
 The protective device must operate within a time that is compatible with
"Maximum Touch Voltage & Time-Safety requirements"

Division - Name - Date - Language 13


Earthing Systems - General rules according to IEC 60364 § 312.2

■ The Three Earthing Systems


1. T T
2. T N
3. I T

1st letter 2nd letter


Situation of installation frames
Situation of supply
T = Exposed frames directly earthed
T = Direct connection of
Transformer Neutral with the earth
N = Frames connected to the supply
point which is earthed,
I = Neutral unearthed or
• either by a separate Protective Earth
Impedance-earthed
conductor (S).
•Or combined with the Neutral (C)

Division - Name - Date - Language 14


Earthing systems

The different types

■ explanation of symbols according to IEC 617-11 (1983)

Neutral conductor (N)

Protective conductor (PE)


Combined protective and
neutral conductor (PEN)

Division - Name - Date - Language 15


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Earthing system technique
TT system
Definition

E36886
 The neutral point of the LV L1
transformer is directly L2
L3
connected to an earth N
electrode

Rn

Division - Name - Date - Language 16


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Earthing system technique
TT system
Definition

E36886
 The neutral point of the LV L1
transformer is directly L2
L3
connected to an earth N
electrode
 The exposed conductive
parts of the installation are
connected to an electrically
separate earth electrode

PE

Rn Ru

Division - Name - Date - Language 17


System earthing
arrangements Earth electrode

 "Deep" earth  Equivalent electrical circuit


 the earth does not act as an insulator  "Deep" earth is equipotential in nature…
 … whatever the distance!
11 Ω
1000 km

1Ω 15 Ω 10 Ω 10 Ω 5Ω
"Deep" earth

"Deep" earth

E92453
E92452

Division - Name - Date - Language 18


System earthing
arrangements Earth electrode
Well designed network

 At A
L1 → → → → →
L2 I1 + I2 + I3 + IN = IPE
L3
A N
 Well designed network

PE
→ IPE = 0
IPE = 0


→ → → →
I1 + I2 + I3 + IN = 0
 Current in the neutral
 does not depend on current IPE
 equal to unbalanced load
currents and/or 3rd order
harmonics (3 k)

→ →
IN = Iunbalance + I3k
E92457

Division - Name - Date - Language 19


System earthing
arrangements Earth electrode
Faulty distribution system

 Faulty distribution system


L1 →
L2 IPE ≠ 0
L3 →
A N → → → →
PE I1 + I2 + I3 + IN ≠ 0

IPE ≠ 0
 Current in the neutral
 does not depend on current IPE
 equal to unbalanced load
currents and/or 3rd order
harmonics (3 k)

→ →
IN = Iunbalance + I3k
E94409

 Measurement of current IPE can be used


 for protection of persons (values depend on the earthing arrangement)
 protection against fire hazards →
 However, it is necessary to detect the "true" IPE

Division - Name - Date - Language 20


System earthing
arrangements TT system
Earth-fault study

Value of fault current:


Uo = 230 V
L1
L2
Id = Uo / (Rn + Ru)
L3
N
= 230 / (10 + 10)
400 V/230 V = 11.5 A
Ud = Ru x If
= 10 x 11.5
Exposed
Id = 11,5 A
conductive = 115 V > UL = 50 V
part
 The fault current generates
Ud =
a dangerous touch voltage
115 V  The SCPD is usually not suitable
Load for eliminating this type of fault
Rn Ru
10 Ω 10 Ω
E95420

Division - Name - Date - Language 21


System earthing
arrangements TT system
Earth-fault study

Solution
Uo = 230 V
L1
L2
 The SCPD is usually not
L3 suitable for this type of fault
N
(ST setting at 25 A)
400/230 V
SCPD  A residual current device
25 A I∆ n = 5A specially designed for the
protection of persons
Exposed
conductive  Tripping conditions:
part
Max touch voltage < Safety curve
Ru x I∆ n < UL
(I∆ n is the setting of RCD)
Load  I∆ n = UL / Ru
Rn
10 Ω
Ru
10 Ω
= 50 /10
=5A
E95421

Division - Name - Date - Language 22


System earthing
arrangements TT system
Maximum disconnecting times

Standard IEC 60364 converts the exposure-time/current curves of


standard IEC 60479-1 into tables presenting the disconnecting-time
versus the nominal AC-voltage (Uo)

50 V < Uo ≤ 120 V 120 V < Uo ≤ 230 V 230 V < Uo ≤ 400 V Uo > 400 V

Disconnecting time (s) AC DC AC DC AC DC AC DC


TT system 0.3 5 0.2 0.4 0.07 0.2 0.04 0.1

From table 41 A of standard IEC 60364

Division - Name - Date - Language 23


SEAs and devices
Earth-leakage protection

 RCD technologies
 electromechanical
– no auxiliary power required
 electronic
– integrated in SCPD
(no auxiliary power required)
 separate from the SCPD
– auxiliary supply required
 RCDs are immune
 to nuisance tripping
 to DC currents
(class A as defined by IEC 755)

Division - Name - Date - Language 24


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Associated switchgear in TT
Earth leakage protection

E37522
 RCD
 electromechanical
– own current

Division - Name - Date - Language 25


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Associated switchgear in TT
Earth leakage protection

E37522
 RCD
 electromechanical
– own current
 electronic
– integrated in the voltage-
operated short-circuit protection
device

Division - Name - Date - Language 26


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Associated switchgear in TT
Earth leakage protection

E37522
 RCD technologies
 electromechanical
– own current
 electronic
– integrated in the voltage-
operated short-circuit protection
device
 separate from the short-circuit
protection device
– auxiliary supply

Division - Name - Date - Language 27


SEAs and devices
Devices for the TT system
Operating principle

Operating principle of residual


Tripping current devices requiring no
auxiliary supply (electronic)
Detection
Measurement
No aux. power Tripping
required

Detectio
n Earth-leakage
relay
M Measurement
E37508

Division - Name - Date - Language 28


SEAs and devices
Devices for the TT system
Selection of solutions
 Electromechanical technology for final distribution

 Application: protection of life and property in all sectors (industrial,


commercial and residential)

 Main characteristics: continuity of service and safe if neutral


conductor is cut
E37540

Division - Name - Date - Language 29


SEAs and devices
Devices for the TT system
Selection of solutions
 Electronic technology for power distribution

 Application: general protection from the main low voltage switchboard


to the secondary switchboard in industrial and large commercial
buildings

 Main characteristics:
 high-performance solutions
E37541

 wide range of settings (discrimination)


 miniaturisation
 solutions for complex installations
 qualified personnel (lead-sealable relays)

Division - Name - Date - Language 30


SEAs and devices
Devices for the TT system
Earth-leakage protection
 Discrimination
RCD1  vertical discrimination

– setting I∆ n1 > 2 I∆ n2
– time-delay settings
RCD2
RCD1 > RCD2
Caution. For an RCD not
E95454

integrated in the SCPD, RCD2


disconnecting time = tripping time
+ time delay
 horizontal discrimination
E95455

Division - Name - Date - Language 31


SEAs and devices
Applications
Coordination of RCDs

 Discrimination rules
CB1
 Two conditions: 1 I∆ n (RCD1) > 2 I∆ n (RCD2)
2 ∆ t (RCD1) > ∆ t (RCD2) + ∆ t (CB2)
RCD1
(including the disconnecting time)

 To implement condition 2, it is necessary to know the total breaking


CB2
time guaranteed for the CB2 + RCD2 combination or to run tests
on the combination
E94442

RCD2

Division - Name - Date - Language 32


SEAs and devices
Applications
Coordination of RCDs

 Discrimination rules
CB1
 Two conditions: 1 I∆ n (RCD1) > 2 I∆ n (RCD2)
2 setting (RCD1) ≥ setting (RCD2) +1
RCD1

CB2
Condition 2 is automatically obtained for (RCD2) +1 if RCD2
is combined with a circuit breaker/switch disconnector from
RCD2 the Multi 9 or Compact ranges
E94442

Division - Name - Date - Language 33


RCDs
Applications
Coordination of RCDs

 Discrimination rules with Vigirex upstream


CB1
Vigi
 Two conditions: 1 I∆ n (RCD1) > 1.5 I∆ n (RCD2)
2 setting (RCD1) ≥ setting (RCD2) +1
RCD1

CB2
Condition 2 is automatically obtained for (RCD2) +1 if RCD2
is combined with a circuit breaker/switch disconnector from
RCD2 the Multi 9 or Compact ranges
E94442

Division - Name - Date - Language 34


System earthing
arrangements Main features of the TT system

 Protection of persons:
 fault current is dangerous
 fault current is too weak to trigger the short-circuit protection devices
 protection must be practically instantaneous
•It is provided by a specially designed RCD device

 Fire protection:
 fault current is limited
 "naturally" managed by RCDs for the protection of persons

 Continuity of service:
 ensured by discrimination between the RCDs

Division - Name - Date - Language 35


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
TT Earthing System

Conclusion
 Fault current limited
 Dangerous touch voltage
 First fault tripping
 Human Protection ensured.
 No Risk of Fire.
 Continuity of Service
 simple design
 use of RCDs
 system easily extensible.

Division - Name - Date - Language 36


System earthing
arrangements TN system
Definition

 The neutral point of the LV


L1 transformer is directly connected
L2 to an earth electrode
L3
N
PE
 The exposed conductive parts
of the installation are connected
by the PE to the same earth
electrode

Rn
E95416

Division - Name - Date - Language 37


System earthing
arrangements TN-S system
Definition (cont.)

 The PE and neutral conductor


L1 are separate
L2
L3
N
PE

Rn
E95417

Division - Name - Date - Language 38


System earthing
arrangements TN-C system
Definition (cont.)

 A common conductor is used


L1 for both the PE and the neutral
L2 conductors (PEN)
L3
PEN

Rn
E95423

Division - Name - Date - Language 39


System earthing
arrangements TN-C-S system
Definition (cont.)

 In this TN sub-system:
L1 L1
L2  the upstream part is TN-C
L2
L3 L3 (with PEN)
N
PEN  the downstream part is TN-S
PE
(with PE and N)
Note. A TN-S system may not be
used upstream of a TN-C system

Rn
E95424

Division - Name - Date - Language 40


System earthing
arrangements TN system
Earth-fault study
 Consider the PH & PE Conductor are
Copper, 50 m Long with a X-section of 35
Uo = 230 V mm2. The Fault Current
L1
L2 Id =U0/(RPE +RPH)
L3 RPE= RPH=ρ . L/S
N
PE ρ =0.025 Ω -mm2/m for Cu.
400 V/230 V
RPE= RPH=0.025 x 50/35 = 32.14 mΩ
Id = 230/(2 x 0.3214) = 3578 A.

Id  The fault current is equal to a Ph/N short-


circuit

This Fault Current will generate a Touch


Exposed Voltage
conductive
part Uc Uc = RPE x Id = 3578 x 0.03214 = 115 V.
Since the fault current depends on the
Fault Length of the Lines, it is necessary to check
that the Fault Current is more than the
Protection Operating Threshold of the CB i.e
Rn
E95425

Id > Ia

Division - Name - Date - Language 41


System earthing
arrangements TN system The Value of the fault current is:
Earth-fault study (cont.) Id = 0.8.Uo. SPH
ρ .(1 + m).L
Uo = 230 V
L1 where m=Sph/Spe
L2
L3 L=Length of the Cond.
N
PE
400 V/230 V Lmax = 0.8Uo. SPH

ρ .(1 + m).Ia
Id If the length of the conductor is
greater than Lmax., it is necessary
to;
Exposed
conductive
Reduce Ia.
part Uc
Increase Spe.
Fault Install an RCD.

Rn
E95425

Division - Name - Date - Language 42


System earthing
arrangements TN system
Implementation

TN-S
Uo = 230 V
L1
L2 PE separate from the neutral
L3
N Protection of the neutral
PE
400 V/230 V
SN = SPH
– disconnected, not protected
SN < SPH
– disconnected, protected
Exposed
conductive
part

Load
E95426

Division - Name - Date - Language 43


System earthing
arrangements TN system
Implementation (cont.)

TN-C
Uo = 230 V L1
L2  PEN = protective conductor
L3 and neutral conductor
PE N

400 V/230 V
 Protection of the PEN
SPEN = SPH
the PEN must not be
disconnected
 The exposed conductive parts
Exposed of the substation, the LV neutral
conductive
part and the exposed conductive
parts of the loads are connected
Load to the same earth electrode
E95427

Division - Name - Date - Language 44


System earthing
arrangements TN system
Maximum disconnecting times
 The disconnecting time depends on the distribution-system voltage Uo

50 V < Uo ≤ 120 V 120 V < Uo ≤ 230 V 230 V < Uo ≤ 400 V Uo > 400 V

Disconnecting time (s) AC DC AC DC AC DC AC DC


TN system 0.8 5 0.4 5 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.1

Drawn from table 41 A of standard IEC 60364

Division - Name - Date - Language 45


SEAs and devices
Devices for the TN-S system
Protection by short-circuit protection devices

 Protection:
t
 for a given cross-section
and material (e.g. copper or
aluminium), the fault
t < 0.4 s current Id depends on the length
of the conductors
E95442

I
Id

 circuit breaker protection:


t setting of magnetic relay / ST

< 30 ms
E95449

I
Im Id

Division - Name - Date - Language 46


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Earthing system technique
TN system- Checking of the tripping conditions:

 The max. Length of any circuit of a TN-earthed installation is

L max = 0.8.Uo.Sph
ρ .(1+m).Ia
L = Length of the Conductor.
Sph= Cross-Sectional area of Ph. Cond.
ρ = resistivity in Ohm-mmsq/metre (22.5 mohm for Cu)
m = Ratio between Sph and SPE
Ia = Trip Current setting for Inst. Operation of CB.
 If the condition is not met
 reduce the magnetic setting

 install an RCD - LS (up to 250A)

 Increase Cross-Sectional area of the Cond.


 see pg. G20 for Tables.

Division - Name - Date - Language 47


SEAs and devices
Devices for the TN-S system
Protection by short-circuit protection devices
 If the conditions for correct protection are not met

Circuit breaker
low setting of magnetic relay/ST
or
installation of a standard RCD
or
increase the conductor cross-section

Division - Name - Date - Language 48


SEAs and devices
Applications
Protection of property
 Protection of motors (TN-S system)

MERLIN GERIN
R

E94458
 a low insulation fault can cause a short-circuit
 an RCD with a current setting between 3 and 30 A avoids this risk

Division - Name - Date - Language 49


SEAs and devices
Devices for the TN-S system
Summary

Earth-fault study
Uo = 230 V
L1
L2
 The fault current is equal to a
L3 phase/neutral short-circuit
N
400 V/230 V PE  The fault current generates a
SCPD tripping at
160 A dangerous touch voltage
RCD
 The circuit breaker trips
 Check the loop impedance
 Earth-leakage protection set to
Exposed
conductive 300 mA is recommended if
part
there is a risk of fire
Load

Rn
E95428

Division - Name - Date - Language 50


SEAs and devices
Devices for the TN-S system
Protection by short-circuit protection devices (SCPD)
t  Discrimination by circuit breakers
D1 D2
 current
∆1 LT and ST settings

I
E95450

Im1 Im2

t  time
D1 D2
intentional delay of the LT
∆ t and ST upstream protection
E95451

I
t  energy
D1 D2
comparison of energies (ST)
∆ I2 t
E95452

Division - Name - Date - Language 51


SEAs and devices
Devices for the TN-S system
Protection by short-circuit protection devices (SCPD)
 Merlin Gerin TN-S / 4P 3D, 4P 4D
TN-C / 3P 3D
type ranges
Masterpact
 circuit breakers

Compact

Multi 9

Circuit breakers also provide overload protection


for all low-voltage system earthing arrangements

Division - Name - Date - Language 52


SEAs and devices
Main features
TN-S system
 Protection of persons:
 fault current is dangerous
 fault current is usually high enough to trip the SCPDs
 tripping must be practically instantaneous
It is ensured by the magnetic settings on the SCPDs
 if the fault current is not high enough, RCDs may be used to ensure
protection
E37542

 Fire protection:
 fault current is high
 it must be managed by additional RCDs

 Continuity of service:
 ensured by discrimination between the short-circuit protection devices
and among RCDs

Division - Name - Date - Language 53


SEAs and devices
Main features
TN-C
 Protection of persons:
 fault current is dangerous
 fault current is usually high enough to be tripped by the SCPDs
 tripping must be practically instantaneous = same as TN-S
It is ensured by the magnetic settings on the SCPDs
 if the fault current is not high enough, the installation must be resized
E37544

 Fire protection:
 cannot be provided (TN-C not allowed where there is a risk of fire)

 Continuity of service:
 ensured by discrimination between the SCPDs = same as TN-S

Division - Name - Date - Language 54


System earthing
arrangements TN system
Conclusion
 High fault currents

 Dangerous touch voltage

 Tripping after first fault


 cost savings
 check on tripping conditions
 calculations required for extensions

Division - Name - Date - Language 55


System earthing
arrangements IT system
Definition

 The Neutral point of the LV


L1 transformer is Isolated, not
L2 connected to an earth electrode
L3
N  The exposed conductive parts
PE
of the loads are connected
by the PE conductor
to a common earth electrode
E95429

Division - Name - Date - Language 56


System earthing
arrangements IT system
Definition (cont.)
 The Neutral point of the LV
L1
transformer is Isolated and not
L2 connected to an earth
L3
N
electrode
PE
 The exposed conductive parts
of the loads are connected
by the PE conductor
to a common earth electrode
or to separate earth electrodes

PE PE
E95430

Division - Name - Date - Language 57


System earthing
arrangements IT system
Earth-fault study
 Under Normal operation, the
L1
System is earthed by its System
L2 Leakage Impedance.
L3

PE
E95431

Division - Name - Date - Language 58


System earthing
arrangements IT system
Earth-fault study (cont.)
 System leakage impedance
L1
L2
 If=U/Zt =230/3500 =0.065 A
L3 Uc=10 x0.065= 0.6V
PE Uc< UL(50V)
 The touch voltage is not
dangerous
 There is no risk of fire
 The fault does not cause
tripping but it must be indicated
E95432

Division - Name - Date - Language 59


System earthing
arrangements IT system
Signalling the first fault

 Detection principle:
L1
 emission of a specific zero
L2
L3 sequence signal
PE
E95433

Division - Name - Date - Language 60


System earthing
arrangements IT system
Signalling the first fault (cont.)

 Detection principle:
L1  emission of a specific zero
L2
L3 sequence signal
PE
 Fault-clearance principle:
 detection by toroid
and indication of the faulty
outgoer
E95434

Division - Name - Date - Language 61


SEAs and devices
Devices for the IT system
IMD 1st fault
 Principle
I inj  injection of current
L1
L2  tracking generator
L3
N  measurement of IR
PE

 IMD:(Insulation Monitoring
I inj Device)
 DC current: direct measurement
I inj I inj
of IR
 AC current: calculation of IR
RI
e
I inj

(IR) Insulation Resistance


E95435

Division - Name - Date - Language 62


SEAs and devices
Devices for the IT system
IMD 1st fault (cont.)
 Principle of the FTD (*)
L1  detection of fault current
L2
L3
N  Type of FTD (*):
 portable
 fixed
PE
E95436

(*) Fault Tracking Device

Division - Name - Date - Language 63


SEAs and devices
Devices for the IT system
IMD & FTD
 Merlin Gerin range
 IMD (*)

 FTD (**)

(*) Insulation Monitoring Device


(**) Fault Tracking Device

Division - Name - Date - Language 64


SEAs and devices
Devices for first fault
RCDs
 Typical leakage currents following a first fault

System leakage capacitance (µF) First-fault current I∆ n setting


1 70 mA 300 mA
5 360 mA 1A
30 2.17 A 5A

 Standardised rule
IEC 60364-5-53: The RCD current settings must be greater than twice the first-fault
current

Division - Name - Date - Language 65


SEAs and devices
Protection plan for second fault
IT system with interconnected exposed conductive parts (ECP)

Study of the 2nd earth fault


L1
L2  The SCPD protection trips
L3
N
 protection is ensured by
PE the same circuit breaker
Id1 Id2 as for TN-S, mais
– 4P 4t is compulsory

 Check the loop impedance


Merlin Gerin circuit breakers
are appropriate for protection
in IT systems
E95437

Division - Name - Date - Language 66


SEAs and devices
Devices for second fault
IT system with ECPs not interconnected

Study of 2nd earth fault


L1
L2  Same principle as TT system
L3
N (length of conductors)
 Protection provided by RCDs
(same switchgear as TT)

CPI
E95438

Division - Name - Date - Language 67


SEAs and devices
Protection plan for second fault
IT system

Maximum disconnecting times for IT systems for the 2nd fault

50 V < Uo ≤ 120 V 120 V < Uo ≤ 230 V 230 V < Uo ≤ 400 V Uo > 400 V

Disconnecting time (s) AC DC AC DC AC DC AC DC


IT system 0.8 5 0.4 5 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.1

Drawn from table 41 A of standard IEC 60364

Division - Name - Date - Language 68


SEAs and devices
Main characteristics of the IT system

 Protection of persons:
 the insulation fault is not dangerous

•Protection is ensured by the IT system itself, however


a maintenance strategy is required
A second fault is dangerous and protection must be ensured
by the magnetic setting of the SCPD ’s or the RCDs

 Fire protection: the fault current is close to zero

 Continuity of service is total

Division - Name - Date - Language 69


System earthing
arrangements IT system
Conclusion
 First-fault current is very weak
 First-fault touch voltage is very weak
 Dangerous touch voltage in the event of a double fault
 Tripping after the second fault
 Optimal safety when first fault occurs

 Continuity of service when first fault occurs

 Use of IMD for fault tracking

 Check on tripping conditions

 Calculations necessary for extensions

Division - Name - Date - Language 70


Low Voltage Earthing Systems
Earthing system technique
IT system
Conclusion
 First fault current very weak
 First fault touch voltage very weak
 Dangerous touch voltage if there is a double fault
 Second fault tripping
 optimal safety when first fault occurs
 continuity of service when first fault occurs
 use of PIM for fault tracking
 checking of tripping conditions
 calculations necessary for extensions

Division - Name - Date - Language 71


Fire protection
Standard IEC 60364

 Standard IEC 60364, section 3-32, defines premises presenting


a risk of fire (BE2) or explosion (BE3)
 Standard IEC 60364, section 4-48, deals with premises where
IE C 603 64
there is a risk of fire
 imposes use of a 500 mA RCD device
 recommends use of a TT or IT system for the electrical installation
E94550

on such premises
 prohibits use of a TN-C system

In TT, IT and TN-S systems, a 300 mA RCD eliminates


the risk of fire

Division - Name - Date - Language 72


Selection of a system earthing arrangement

6 selection criteria
 Protection of persons
 Protection of equipment
 Continuity of the power supply
 Effects of disturbances
 Easy implementation
 Economic analysis

Division - Name - Date - Language 73


System earthing
arrangements Selection of a system earthing arrangement
Conclusion
 Facility managers need a dependable electrical distribution
 IEC 364 offers solutions which:
 optimally protect persons (systems, RCDs, neutral switching, etc.)
E37521

 minimise the risk of fire (TT, IT systems, RCDs)

 protect property by limiting leakage/fault currents (IT, TT, TN-S with


RCDs)
 Mixing of system earthing arrangements is the means to provide
optimum solutions to the needs of operators

IEC 364 means a dependable, high-performance installation

Division - Name - Date - Language 74


Low Voltage Earthling Systems

Earthing Systems Comparison.

E00000
Criterion TT TN-S TN-C IT
Protection of people XXXX XXX XX XXXX

Protection against Fire XXXX XXX X XX


Ease of Implementation XXX X X X
Continuity of service XX XX XX XXXX
Upgradable installation XXXX XX XX XX
Cost Saving XX XXX XXXX X

XXXX=Excellent XXX=Good XX=Average X=Caution

Division - Name - Date - Language 75