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120712ChE128 6 Absorption Stripping (2)

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**Some important definitions
**

• In distillation, heat drives the separation of the more volatile from the

less volatile component; this unit op is always counter-current.

• In stripping/absorption, separation is induced by addition of a third

component; these unit ops can be either counter-current or co-current.

stripping: a volatile component of a liquid stream vaporizes into a

carrier gas stream

absorption: a soluble component of a gas stream dissolves in an

extracting liquid stream

- physical absorption: the desired component is soluble in the

extracting liquid

- chemical absorption: the desired component reacts with the

extracting liquid

• irreversible chemical absorption: generates product/waste

• reversible chemical absorption: solvent is recycled by stripping

Stripping and absorption are often used together.

Ex.: Integrated system for removing CO

2

from syn gas

stripper

MEA + CO

2

N

2

N

2

+ CO

2

MEA

H

2

, CO

MEA + CO

2

Gases in at the bottom.

Liquids in at the top.

(Why?)

solvent cooler

absorber

H

2

NCH

2

CH

2

OH

(MEA)

hot feed gas

H

2

, CO, CO

2

syn gas

heat

exchanger

Key simplifying assumptions

1. stripping gas/carrier gas is insoluble in solvent

2. solvent is non-volatile

- therefore all streams are either pure or binary

3. columns are isothermal and isobaric

4. heat of absorption is negligible

- therefore energy balance is automatically satisfied

Degrees of freedom analysis:

D.o.F. = C – P + 2 = 3 – 2 + 2 = 3

(A,B,C) (V,L)

When T, P are fixed (assumption 3), can specify only one more

variable: x

B

or y

B

Labeling streams

n

th

stage

Packed columns are used more often than tray (plate)

columns in absorption/stripping, because of low mass

transfer efficiencies.

HETP ≡ height (of packing) equivalent to a theoretical

plate.

H

E

T

H

E

T

P

L

n-1

x

n-1

V

n

y

n

L

n

x

n

V

n+1

y

n+1

x

n

, y

n

: mole fractions of solute A at equilibrium leaving the n

th

stage

V

n

: total gas flow rate = (moles solute A + moles carrier gas B) / time

L

n

: total liquid flow rate = (moles solute A + moles solvent C) / time

Fractional stages are possible with packed columns.

Since A is transferred in one direction only (liq → gas, or gas → liq), V and L

are not constant. Therefore CMO is not valid.

Using mole ratios

what is constant? G ≡ carrier gas flow rate, moles B/time

since B is presumed insoluble, G

n

= G

n+1

= G

S ≡ solvent flow rate, moles C/time

since C is presumed non-volatile, S

n

= S

n-1

= S

X

A

S ·

moles A

moles C

moles C

time

·

moles A

time

in liquid stream

Y

A

G·

moles A

moles B

moles B

time

·

moles A

time

in gas stream

Y

A

·

moles A in gas stream

moles B in gas stream

·

y

A

y

B

·

y

A

1 y

A

vapor mole ratio:

X

A

·

moles A in liquid stream

moles C in liquid stream

·

x

A

x

B

·

x

A

1 x

A

liquid mole ratio:

McCabe-Thiele analysis of stripping

feed

S, X

0

stripping gas

G, Y

N+1

G, Y

1

S, X

N

stage 1

stage N

stage j

S, X

j

G, Y

j+1

CMB: GY

j+1

+ SX

0

= GY

1

+ SX

j

operating line equation:

Y

j+1

= (S/G)X

j

+ [Y

1

– (S/G)X

0

]

slope = S/G Y

int

= [Y

1

– (S/G)X

0

]

analogous to operating line for stripping section

of distillation column

usually specified: X

0

, Y

N+1

, S/G, X

N

fast plotting of operating line:

• the point (X

N

, Y

N+1

) lies on the operating line

• calculate Y

1

from CMB

• the point (X

0

, Y

1

) also lies on the operating line

Ex.: Analysis of counter-current stripper

1. Plot VLE data as mole ratios

(unless x

0

< 0.05)

Note: y = x line has no use here.

2. Plot (X

N

, Y

N+1

) and (X

0

, Y

1

)

and draw operating line.

It will be below the VLE line.

N = 3

•(X

0

,Y

1

)

3. Step off stages (use

Murphree efficiencies if

available).

Given X

0

, X

N

, Y

N+1

and S/G, find N.

•(X

N

,Y

N+1

)

•

•

• 1

•

2

•

3

To find minimum stripping gas flow rate (G

min

):

1. Plot X

0

on VLE line (watch for earlier pinch point, if VLE is curved).

•X

0

2. Calculate G

min

= S / (S/G)

max

Rule-of-thumb: (S/G)

opt

≡ 0.7 (S/G)

max

Estimating fractional stages

Y

X

X

N

•

(X

3

, Y

4

)

(X

4

, Y

4

)

• •

VLE

op. line

X

3

X

N

X

4

•

•

•

·

X

N

X

3

X

4

X

3

fractional stage

requirement

McCabe-Thiele analysis of absorber

Solvent

S, X

0

feed

G, Y

N+1

G, Y

1

S, X

N

stage 1

stage N

stage k

S, X

k-1

G, Y

k

CMB: GY

N+1

+ SX

k-1

= GY

k

+ SX

N

operating line equation:

Y

k

= (S/G)X

k-1

+ [Y

N+1

– (S/G)X

N

]

slope = S/G Y

int

= [Y

N+1

– (S/G)X

N

]

analogous to operating line for rectifying section

of distillation column

usually specified: X

0

, Y

N+1

, S/G, Y

1

fast plotting of operating line:

• the point (X

0

, Y

1

) lies on the operating line

• calculate X

N

from CMB

• the point (X

N

, Y

N+1

) lies on the operating line

1. Convert VLE data to mole

ratios (unless x

0

< 0.05)

Note: y = x line has no use here.

2. Plot (X

0

, Y

1

) and (X

N

, Y

N+1

) and

draw operating line.

It will be above the VLE line

(because mass is transferred in

opposite direction, gas → liq).

N = 3

(X

N

,Y

N+1

)•

3. Step off stages (use

Murphree efficiencies if

available).

Given X

0

, Y

1

, Y

N+1

and S/G, find N.

(X

0

,Y

1

)•

• •

•

Find minimum extracting solvent flow rate (S

min

) for given G:

1. Plot Y

N+1

on VLE line (watch for earlier pinch point, if VLE is curved).

•

2

1

3

•

Y

N+1

•

Ex.: Analysis of counter-current absorber

2. Calculate S

min

= G • (S/G)

min

Rule-of-thumb: (S/G)

opt

≡ 1.4 (S/G)

min

Multiple non-interacting solutes

Multiple soluble components (A, D, E…) in solvent C, to be stripped using gas B,

OR

Multiple components (A, D, E…) in carrier gas B, to be absorbed using solvent C.

If streams are dilute and components do not interact with each other, assume VLE for

each component is independent.

Treat each as a single-component problem, and solve sequentially.

For dilute streams, Y

i

= y

i

/ (1 - y

i

) ≈ y

i

X

i

= x

i

/ (1 - x

i

) ≈ x

i

S/G ≈ L/V

Ex.: 2-component absorber

1

N

x

A,0

x

D,0

y

A,N+1

y

D,N+1

y

A,1

y

D,1

x

A,N

x

D,N

Separation of A requires N = 3.

(x

A,N

,y

A,N+1

)•

(x

A,0

,y

A,1

)•

• •

•

•

2

3

1

•

Specify y

A,N+1

, y

D,N+1

, x

A,0

, x

D,0

Specify L/V and y

A,1

. Find N and y

D,1

Separation of D must also

use N = 3 and same L/V.

Trial-and-error: guess y

D,1

(x

D,0

,y

D,1

)•

• •

•

•

•

2

3

1

(x

D,N

,y

D,N+1

)•

Probably a good idea to use a different graph for each component…

y

x

Irreversible absorption

Add reagent R to solvent. R reacts essentially irreversibly with

solute A to form non-volatile products

R + A(g) → R•A(l)

e.g., NaOH + H

2

S(g) → Na

2

S + H

2

O

Equilibrium lies far to the right: x

A

≅ 0 and y

A

≅ 0

Equation of the VLE line: y

A

= 0

Ex. Irreversible absorption

1

N

C + R

x

0

= 0

A + B

y

N+1

B

y

1

= 0

C + R•A

x

N

= 0

y

N+1

•

(x

0

,y

1

)•

Specify y

N+1

, x

0

, L/V.

Required: x

N

= y

1

= 0

VLE

Only one theoretical

equilibrium stage required …

(x

1

,y

1

)

•

(A + R•A)

y

x

Ex.: Irreversible absorption with low efficiency

1

N

C + R

x

0

= 0

A + B

y

N+1

B

y

1

≠ 0

A + R•A

x

N

= 0

y

N+1

•

(x

0

,y

1

)•

Specify y

N+1

, x

0

, L/V, y

1

≠ 0

VLE

More than one actual

equilibrium stage required …

(A + R•A)

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

2

6

5

4

3

1

•

•

•

E

MV

= 0.25

y

x

Co-current cascade

• can use higher vapor velocity to increase mass transfer rate

• can use smaller diameter column without risk of flooding

• generally used for irreversible absorption

(x

1

,y

1

)

•

Specify y

0

, x

0

= 0, x

N

, y

N

= 0

(A + R•A)

L, x

0

V, y

N

V, y

0

L, x

N

j

L, x

j

V, y

j

y ·

L

V

x + y

0

+

L

V

x

0

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

Vy

0

+Lx

0

·Vy

j

+Lx

j

(x

0

,y

0

)•

VLE

Only one theoretical

equilibrium stage required, if

the reaction is irreversible

and mass transfer is fast …

x

VLE for dilute streams

Obtain the slope, m, from Henry’s Law:

P

B

= H

B

x

B

where y

B

= P

B

/P

total

P

B

is the partial pressure of B, and H

B

is the Henry’s Law constant.

Note: H

B

= H

B

(T), like an equilibrium constant.

When streams are dilute, VLE data can

be approximated by a straight line.

y = mx

Analytical solution, when both VLE and op. line are straight

(x

0

,y

1

)•

•(x

1

,y

1

)

(x

1

,y

2

) •

•(x

2

,y

2

)

(y)

1

= y

2

- y

1

(x

2

,y

3

) •

(y)

2

y

( )

j

· y

j +1

y

j

change in vapor composition between

adjacent stages:

special case: if L/V = m, then (y)

j

= y.

y

1

+ y

2

+ y

3

+ … = y

N+1

– y

1

= Ny

y

j +1

·

L

V

x

j

+ y

1

L

V

x

0

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

CMB:

y

j

· mx

j

VLE:

N ·

x

0

x

N

x

N

L

V

( )

1

y

N+1

OR

general case: L/V ≠ m, then (y)

j

≠ (y)

j+1

Kremser equation: L/V ≠ m

y

j

· mx

j

use VLE:

y

( )

j

·

L

V

m

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

y

j

m

+ y

1

L

V

x

0

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

·

L

mV

1

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

y

j

+ y

1

L

V

x

0

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

y

( )

j +1

·

L

mV

1

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

y

j +1

+ y

1

L

V

x

0

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

y

( )

j +1

y

( )

j

·

L

mV

1

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

y

j +1

y

j

( )

·

L

mV

1

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

y

( )

j

y

( )

j +1

·

L

mV

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

y

( )

j

· A y

( )

j

where A = L/mV ≡ absorption factor

y

N+1

y

1

· y

( )

1

+ y

( )

2

+ y

( )

3

+ y

( )

4

+... · y

( )

1

1+ A+ A

2

+ A

3

+...

( )

· y

( )

1

1 A

N

1 A

y

N+1

y

1

y

( )

1

·

y

N+1

y

N

A y

( )

0

·

1 A

N

1 A

where y

0

= mx

0

y

N+1

y

1

y

1

y

0

·

A A

N+1

1 A

Kremser equation:

➠

Other forms of Kremser equation

N ·

ln 1 S

1

( )

x

0

x

N+1

x

N

x

N+1

÷

÷

+S

1

lnS

More forms shown in Wankat, chapter 12.4

x

N

x

N+1

x

0

x

N+1

·

1 S

1 S

(N+1)

where S = mV/L ≡ stripping factor,

and x

N+1

= y

N+1

/m

For liquid phase compositions

(stripper columns):

y

N+1

y

1

y

1

y

0

·

A A

N+1

1 A

For gas phase compositions

(absorber columns):

N ·

ln 1 A

1

( )

y

N+1

y

0

y

1

y

0

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

+ A

1

é

ë

ê

ê

ù

û

ú

ú

lnA

solve for N:

N ·

ln 1 A

1

( )

y

N+1

y

0

y

1

y

0

æ

è

ç

ö

ø

÷

+ A

1

é

ë

ê

ê

ù

û

ú

ú

ln 1+ E

MV

A

1

1

( )

é

ë

ù

û

include Murphree vapor efficiency:

Counter-current column sizing

Height:

1. measure HETP

2. measure E

MV

3. obtain N

Diameter:

1. key parameter is V, total gas flow rate (not constant)

2. V

j

is largest at the top of a stripper column, or at the

bottom of an absorber column

3. calculate D using same procedure as distillation column

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