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# Part Three – Relay Input Sources

## Wei-Jen Lee, Ph.D., PE

Professor of Electrical Engineering Dept.
The Univ. of Texas at Arlington
Introduction
• Protective relays require reasonably accurate
reproduction of the normal, tolerable, and
intolerable conditions in the power system fro
correct sensing and operation.
• This information input from the power system is
usually through current and voltage transformers.
• Some exceptions, such as temperature and
vibration relays, which receive their information
from other type of transducers.
Introduction
Introduction
Introduction
Equivalent Diagram for
Instrument Transformers
Current Transformers
• Typical CT ratio
50:5 100:5 150:5 200:5 250:5 300:5 400:5

## 4000:5 5000:5 6000:5

Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance on a symmetrical
AC component
• If the CT does not saturate, it is reasonable to assume
that Ie is negligible.
• However, the CT excitation current is never equal to
zero. Thus, it must be checked to assure that it does not
cause intolerable errors.
• This can be done by one of the three methods: 1) classic
transformer formula, 2) CT performance curves, or 3)
ANSI/IEEE accuracy classes for relaying.
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance check
• Classic analysis

## Vef = 4.44 * N * f * φ max

• The load of the CT consists of secondary resistance Rs, the
impedance of he connecting leads Zld, and the equipment
(relays and such) Zr. The voltage required by the burden (load)
is
Vef = I s * ( Rs + Z ld + Z r )
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance check
• CT characteristic curves
• The calculation of the performance with the equivalent circuit
of Fig. 5.6a is difficult.
• ANSI/IEEE (C53.71) classifies CTs that have significant
leakage flux within the transformer core as class T (class H
before 1968)
• The class C (class L before 1968) is CTs constructed to
minimize the leakage flux in the core that can represented by
the Fig. 5.6b.
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance check
• CT characteristic curves
• The knee or effective point of saturation is defined by
ANSI/IEEE standard as the intersection of the curve with 45o
tangent line.
• However, the IEC defines the knee as the intersection of
straight lines extended from the nonsaturated and saturated
parts of the exciting curve.
• The IEC knee is higher voltage than the ANSO curve.
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance check
• CT characteristic curves - Typical overcurrent ratio
curve for class T CT
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance check
• CT characteristic curves - Typical excitation curves for
a multiratio class C CT
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance check
• ANSI/IEEE standard accuracy class
• In many applications, the use of ANSI/IEEE accuracy class
designation is adequate to assure satisfactory relay
performance.
• Manufacturer’s test curves must be used for Class T CTs.
• For class C, the designations are followed by a number
indicating the secondary terminal voltage (Vgh) that the
transformer can deliver to a standard burden at 20 times the
rated secondary current without exceeding the 10% ratio
correction.
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance check
• ANSI/IEEE standard accuracy class
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance check
• ANSI/IEEE standard accuracy class
• For relaying, the voltage classes are 100, 200, 400, and 800,
corresponding to standard burdens of B-1, B-2, B-4, and B-8,
respectively.
• These burdens are at 0.5 power factor.
• If the current is lower, the burden can be higher in proportion.
• The lower voltage classes of 10, 20, and 50 with standard
burdens of B-0.1, B-0.2, and B-0.5 at 0.9 power factor are
primary for metering service and should be used very
cautiously for protection.
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance
• Two similar CTs connected in the primary circuit, with
the same ratio and their secondaries in series, will
increase the accuracy capability.
• Two similar CTs, with their secondaries in parallel,
provides an overall lower ratio with higher-ratio
individual CTs and their correspondingly higher
accuracy rating.
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance
• ANSI classification does not provide actual value of
error.
• Also, the accuracy class only applies to the full winding
and reduces proportionally when lower taps are
available and used.
Current Transformers
• Current transformer performance
• IEC specifies the accuracy of the current transformers
as: XX VA Class YY P ZZ
where
XX: Continuous VA (2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 30)
YY: Accuracy class (5 and 10%)
P: For protection
ZZ: Accuracy limit factor (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30)
Rated secondary amperes: 1, 2, and 5 A
Current Transformers
• Secondary burdens during faults
Current Transformers
• Secondary burdens during faults
Current Transformers
• Secondary burdens during faults
Current Transformers
• CT selection and performance evaluation for
phase faults
• Assumption
• Imax load = 90A, Imax fault= 2500A, and Imin. fault = 350A.
• CT ratio selection
• The conventional practice, over many years, has been that the
secondary current should be just under 5A for the maximum
load. Therefore, select CT ratio of 100/5 in this case.
Current Transformers
• CT selection and performance evaluation for
phase faults
• Select relay tap for the phase-overcurrent relay
• The tap should be higher than 4.5 A
• Small tap 5 is selected
• Minimum fault of 350/20=17.5 A, and 17.5/5=3.5 times the
minimum relay pick up. This is desirable for any possible fault
restriction.
• If tap 6 is selected, then the margin above the load is greater
(6/4.5=1.33), but a smaller margin (17.5/6=2.9) above the
relay pick up.
Current Transformers
• CT selection and performance evaluation for phase
faults
• Determine the total secondary burden
• The total connected secondary load determination must include all
of the impedance between the CTs and the equipment in the phase
circuit.
• Assume tap 5 is used and the burden is 2.64 VA at 5A and 580 VA
at 20X. Also, the lead from the CT to relay is 0.4Ω .
• The total secondary impedance at pick up:
Relay burden 2.64/52 = 0.106Ω
Lead resistance = 0.40Ω
Total impedance to CT terminals = 0.506Ω at 5A
Current Transformers
• CT selection and performance evaluation for phase
faults
• Determine the total secondary burden
• The total secondary impedance at 20X:
Relay burden 580/1002 = 0.058Ω
Lead resistance = 0.40Ω
Total impedance to CT terminals = 0.458Ω at 100A
• It is frequently practical to add the burden impedance and the
current algebraically (they should be combined phasorally)
• Burdens are generally near unity power factor; hence Is tends to be
near unity power factor. Ie (the excitation current) is around 90o
lagging. Combine Is and Ie at right angle is a good approximation.
Current Transformers
• CT selection and performance evaluation for
phase faults
• Determine the CT performance
• When using a class T CT
• Use the provided curves.
• Use actual relay burden (0.506 or 0.458 in this case)
• When using a class C CT and performance by ANSI/IEEE
standard
• If a 600/5 multiratio CT with C100 rating is selected.
Vgh = (2500/20)*0.458 = 57.25 V
• The C100 600/5 CT on the 100/5 tap can only develop,
Vgh = (100/600)*100 = 16.67 V
• This is not a good selection
Current Transformers
• CT selection and performance evaluation for
phase faults
• Determine the CT performance
• When using a class C CT and performance by ANSI/IEEE
standard
• An alternative is to use the 400/5 tap on the 600/5 C100 CT.
• The secondary CT current at maximum load is (90/80=1.125A)
• Tap 1.5 is selected.
• Assume the relay burden at 100 A is 1.56Ω .
• Total CT burden is equal to 1.96Ω (1.56Ω +0.40Ω )
Vgh = (2500/80)*1.96=61.25 V
• The CT capability on the 400/5 tap is
Vgh = (400/600)*100 = 66.7 V
Current Transformers
• CT selection and performance evaluation for
phase faults
• Determine the CT performance
• When using a class C CT and performance with CT excitation
curve
Current Transformers
• CT selection and performance evaluation for
phase faults
• Determine the CT performance
• When using a class C CT and performance with CT excitation
curve
• An alternative is to use the 400/5 tap on the 600/5 C100 CT.
• The CT secondary resistance is 0.211Ω (Check figure)
• Total impedance to excitation point ef.= 2.171Ω
• The 1.5 A to develop voltage in the relay is
Vef = 1.5 * 2.171 = 3.26 V
Ie = 0.024 A
• The pick up current is either120 or 122.92 A, which is much
smaller than 350 A.
Current Transformers
• CT selection and performance evaluation for
phase faults
• Determine the CT performance
• When using a class C CT and performance with CT excitation
curve
• For maximum fault current
Vef = (2500/80)*2.171 = 67.84
Ie = 0.16 A
• Although this is near the knee of the saturation curve, the
excitation current does not significantly decrease the fault
current to the relay.
Current Transformers
• Performance evaluation for ground relays
Current Transformers
• Effect of unenergized CTs on performance
Current Transformers
• Effect of unenergized CTs on performance
• Fault happens at phase A. Unfaulted CTs do not have
current.
• Assumption:
• 100:5 tap of a C100, 600:5 multiratio CT is used.
• The secondary resistance of the CT, the leads, and the phase
relay is 0.63 Ω .
• The ground relay has 16 Ω on its 0.5A tap at 68o lag.
• 8 V (0.5A*16 Ω ) will be established at the ground relay.
• This voltage, less the small drop through the phase relay
circuit, will appear across the secondary of the CTs at
phase B & C
Current Transformers
• Effect of unenergized CTs on performance
• It will have 0.38A flows through Ze of the Phase B & C
CTs.
• The current at phase A CT secondary terminal is 1.26 A
or 1.24 A.
• The exciting current of phase A CT is 0.41 A
• It requires 33.4 A ((0.41+1.26)*20) primary current to
pick up the ground relay.
• Only 10 A primary current required to pick up the
ground relay if the exciting currents were neglected.
Current Transformers
• Effect of unenergized CTs on performance
Current Transformers
• Flux summation
Current Transformers
• CT performance on the DC component
Current Transformers
• Saturation on Symmetrical AC current input
Current Transformers
• Saturation by the DC offset of the Primary AC
current
Voltage Transformers
• Voltage Transformer (VT) or Capacitor Coupled
Voltage Transformer (CCVT)
• Typical output voltage is 120 V line-to-line or 69.3
V per phase.
Voltage Transformers
• Typical VT ratio

## 1000:1 2000:1 3000:1 4500:1

Voltage Transformers
TO HV POWER CIRCUIT

2
• Internal configuration of C1 4 5 6

CCVT
X1
1

X2
C2

Resistor A

8
Resistor B
X3
Y1
A
B
3 C Y2
D

L1 E
L2 F
L3 G Y3
L4 K
L5 M
L6
N 7
L7
L8 O P1

P2

## 1. CHOKE COIL & GAP 9

2. FERRORESONANCE SUPPRESSOR
3. SERIES REACTOR
4. INTERMEDIATE TRANSFORMER
5. HARMONIC SUPPRESSION CIRCUIT
6. SECONDARY TERMINAL BOARD
7. PROTECTIVE GAP
8. VOLT. TAP. GROUND SWITCH
9. DRAIN COIL, GAP & GROUND SWITCH
New Development
• Low signal level optical CT
• Hall Effect current transducer