You are on page 1of 31

# EXTERNAL FAULT

BB

INTERNAL FAULT
IF

BB

i1 i2 i3 i4

∑ i = if

EXTERNAL FAULT

LV HV

I1/_0º I2/_0º

## Current difference is not equal to zero but it

less than the setting value – due to CT
.class error

|I1/_0º – I2 /_0º | =0

INTERNAL FAULT

I1/_0º
I2 /__180º

## |I1/_0º – I2 /_180º | = |I1 +I2|

Operating conditions of transformer
Diff relay

Operating conditions of transformer
Diff relay
A) Through-fault current under healthy
conditions or on an external fault:
• I2 reverses its direction (I2 = –I1) .
• Both currents are equal in magnitude |I2| = |I1|.
• IDiff = |I1 + I2| = |I1 – I1| = 0 .
• IRest = |I1| + |I2| = |I1| + |I1| = 2·|I1| .
• No tripping effect (IDiff = 0); restraint current
(IRest) corresponds to twice the through flowing
current.
Operating conditions of transformer
Diff relay
B) Internal fault, fed from each end (with
equal currents ):
• In this case, I2 = I1 in direction .
• In magnitude |I2| = |I1| .
• IDiff = |I1 + I2| = |I1 + I1| = 2·|I1| .
• IRest = |I1| + |I2| = |I1| + |I1| = 2·|I1| .
• Tripping effect (IDiff) and restraining (IRest)
quantities are equal and correspond to the
total fault current.
Operating conditions of transformer
Diff relay
C) Internal fault, fed from one end only:
• In this case, I2 = 0
• IDiff = |I1 + I2| = |I1 + 0| = |I1|
• IRest = |I1| + |I2| = |I1| + 0 = |I1|
• Tripping effect (IDiff) and restraining
(IRest) quantities are equal and
correspond to the fault current fed from
one side.
Metro cell REF REF
R R
stabilizing

At Turn to turn occur , diff relay cannot operate due to low current . REF relay will operate by
voltage according to the setting

EXTERNAL FAULT

I2/_0º
I1/_0º

## Current difference is not equal to zero but it

less than the setting value – due to CT
.class error

|I1/_0º – I2 /_0º | =0

INTERNAL FAULT

I1/_0º I2 /__180º

## |I1/_0º – I2 /_180º | = |I1 +I2|

Problems in Diffrential Protection

## For transformer , current from both CTs may not equal- 2

. due to changing tap changing position

For cables , current from both CT’s may not equal due- 3
. to capacitive current

THE SOLUSION

## Idiff I restrain = I stabilizing

SEESAW

I diff I restrain = I stabilizing

SEESAW

s s
I2 I1

s s
I2 I1

## = I1| + |I2 | |IRESTRAIN

I RESTRAIN is the algebraic sum of I1 and I2 . The current passing through
restrain coil is DC . It is converted from AC to DC through bridge rectifier

T = 2 sec
T = 1.5 sec
A B C
T = 1 sec
T = 0.5 sec Z5
T = 0 sec Z4
%Z2 120 Z3 200%
Z1 85%

21

## Relay will not

respond

T = 2 sec
T = 1.5 sec
A B C
T = 0.5 sec
T = 1 sec
Z5
T = 0 sec Z4
%Z2 120 Z3 200%
Z1 85%

21

)Permissive under – reach zone 1 extension ( PUR Z1X

A B C
SEND

Z1X
Z1 85%
Z1 85% %Z2 120

## 21 Both relays will 21

not respond
Z2 = Z1X
Both breakers will trip instantaneously with no effect of
SEND
:Summary : The distance relay will signal
operate at Z1 time if
. Fault occur at Z1- 1
Fault occur out of Z1 and inside Z1X (DISTANCE PICK UP) + Receive SEND- 2
.signal from remote end distance relay
)Permissive under – reach zone 1 extension ( PUR Z1X

It is used with over head lines (OHL) for more than 20 km , and it is not
advisable to be used in short distances of over head lines (less than 20
km )

S/S A S/S B

ARCING
RESISTANCE

)Permissive under – reach zone 1 extension ( PUR Z1X

A B C

Z1X
Z1 85%

21 21

## Arcing resistance is added to line impedance when fault is in the middle

of the line which cause increase in line impedance . So then both relays
.will see the fault as Z2 and give delay tripping

A B C
NO SEND

Z1X
Z1 85% %Z2 120

21 T = 0.5 sec 21

)Permissive under reach Transfer trip ( PUTT

A B C
SEND

Z1 85%
Z1 85% %Z2 120

not respond

## Both breakers will trip instantaneously with no effect of

SEND
:Summary : The distance relay will signal
operate at Z1 time if
. Fault occur at Z1- 1
Fault occur out of Z1 (DISTANCE PICK UP) + Receive SEND signal from- 2
.remote end distance relay
)Permissive over reach Transfer trip ( POTT

A B C
SEND

ZOR
Z1 85%
Z1 85% %Z2 120

## 21 Both relays will 21

not respond and
relay A will trip at
Z2 will trip instantaneously with no effect of
Both breakers
SEND
:Summary : The distance relay will signal
operate at Z1 time if
. Fault occur at Z1- 1
Fault occur out of Z1 and inside ZOR (DISTANCE PICK UP) + Receive SEND- 2
.signal from remote end distance relay
)Permissive over reach Transfer trip ( POTT
ECHO FEATURE

A B C
ECHO
SEND

ZOR
Z1 85% %Z2 120

21 21

Z2 = ZOR

)Permissive over reach Transfer trip ( POTT
WEEK INFEED FEATURE

KV 110 KV
KV
KV
KV110
80
90
77
A B C
SEND

ZOR
Z1 85% %Z2 120
G

21 21

## WEEK INFEED UNIT

Z2 = ZOR OPERATED

Pelec
Generator Out of Step
due to prolong of fault
without WEEK END
FEED function

Pmech

δ
Blocking Over Reach

A Blocking B C
Signal

ZOR
Z1 85%
Z1 85% %Z2 120

21 21 21

Z2
Z1 = ZOR Z1 = ZOR

NO EVOLVING )Auto Reclosure (AR
FAULT OCCURE
A B

Z1 85%

+
+ Time Time Time
+ +
+ +
AR
Dist
AR CB Reclosing
trip AR Reclaim
cycleTRIP command
STARTING
TC CC starting time
expired
_ _

EVOLVING )Auto Reclosure (AR
FAULT OCCURE A B

Z1 85%

+
+ Time Time Time
+ +
+ +
AR
Dist
AR CB Reclosing
trip AR
cycleTRIP command
STARTING
TC CC starting

_ _