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Injuries in factories

 Public health is what we, as a society, do

collectively to assure the conditions for people

to be healthy." it is the responsibility of the

public health to prevent the injuries

By Dr Shamaila Alam

Roll no 23
INTRODUCTION

 Injuries result in major financial and

productivity loss to the nation while inflicting a

tremendous personal burden on the injured

and there families (world bank 1993)


Ways and places
 Injuries happen in a variety of ways and places.
 places
They happen while people are at home, at school, at
work, and while they are moving about in different forms of
transportation.
ways

motor vehicle crashes, pedestrian injury, bicycle crashes, occupa


sports injury, choking, and fires and burns.
A public health approach to injury
prevention.
 Taking a public health approach means focus on
prevention. and approaching the many different kinds of
injury causes with many different kinds of solutions .

 While the treatment of injured people is certainly


important, public health professionals believe that the
prevention of injuries should be our primary goal
TWO COMPONENTS OF
PRESENTATION
 As discussed before
the injury depends
ON two factors that is
INJURIES
ways and places. IN
FACTORIES

INJURIES FACTORIES

WAYS
PLACE
(TYPES)
Injury

Injury is damage or harm caused to the


structure or function of the body caused by
an outside agent or force, which may be
physical or chemical, and either by accident
or intentional
In general, injuries can be grouped into two
major categories: those that are
unintentional, and those that are intentional.
Types of injuries

Bruise is a hemorrhage under the skin caused by contusion.

 Wound: cuts and grazes are injuries to or through the skin, that cause bleeding (i.e., a laceration).

 Burns are injuries caused by excess heat, chemical exposure, or sometimes cold (frostbite).

 Chemical Burns

 Acids & Alkalies, Soaps, Detergents & Cleaning Compounds, and etc.
 Heat Burns

 Flame, Molten Metals, Petroleum Asphalts, Steam and Water

 Fractures are injuries to bones.

 Joint dislocation is a displacement of a bone from its normal joint, such as a dislocated shoulder or finger.

 Concussion is mild traumatic brain injury caused by a blow, without any penetration into the skull or brain. Sprain is an injury which occurs

to ligaments caused by a sudden over stretching; a strain injures muscles.

 Shock is a serious medical condition where the tissues cannot obtain sufficient oxygen and nutrients.

 Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery.


 Serious bodily injury is any injury or injuries to the body that substantially risks death of the victim.
COMMON WORKPLACE
INJURIES ARE

Factory based injuries


Heavy machinery/equipment based injuries

Office based injuries

Retail based injuries

Warehouse based injuries


Factory A plant consisting of one or more
building with facilities of manufacturing

Different types of factories Chemicals

factories , Food factory like sugar flour,

Railways like carriage factory ,Cotton

factory , Glass factory


Historical background
 Prior to Industrial Revolution
1. The Code of Hammerabi
 Mesopotamian Ruler allowed for a form of
workers compensation. (eye for an eye)
2. The Egyptians
 Continued this type of code.

3. Romans and public health


 Aqueducts, Sewer Systems, Public Baths,
Latrines, and Ventilated Houses
The Industrial Revolution
 Introduction of Machinery
 Substitution of Machines for People
 New methods of converting Raw Materials
 Division of Labor .
 Many industrial accidents in the 1900’s. In 1907
alone 3,200 were killed in mining accidents.
Safety Movement
In America no of milestones were
covered under safety movement


OSHAct
The Occupational Safety and Health
Act (OSHAct) was passed in 1970
Statistics on injuries in
factories
Statistics are available basically of
either accidents related injuries or
workplace injuries. Very less data is
available specifically for the injuries
in factories
WHO 250 million cases of injuries
per year at work worldwide
International Labor Organization
(ILO) In 2000/2001

 GLOBAL - WORK-RELATED
INJURIES AND DISEASES
 270 million accidents
 2 million work-related deaths
 160 million work related diseases
 4% of gross domestic product is lost
OH&S Australian statistics
$30 billion was spent on
payments to workers due to
workplace injuries
 200 workplace fatalities occurred
 14,000 work related injuries were
reported
Pakistan
 Health indicators of Pakistan, gateway paper 2
percentage of non fatal injuries by location ______ 4.7%
in factories
 In labor force survey 2007-2008 by federal bureau of
statistics percentage of injuries in factories are following
 Machine operator and plant assemblers 5.33%
 Industrial accident rate---6/1000worker
 Fatal industrial accident rate 0.15/1000 worker
(1991) federal bureau of statistics
 The prevalence of injuries in workers enrolled in social
security systems 21per1000personyears
Nigeria
 A study in Nigeria for in factories
fatal injuries
10 years between 1987
and 1996,
14
12
a total of
318310injuries were
no of deaths

8
reported,
6
of which 71 Series1

(2.2%)
4 were fatal
2
 The study
0 shows that
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petroleum causes the


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maximum fatalitiestype of factory
REPORTED ACCIDENTS
Epidemiological determinants
factory injuries
Environmental factors

•Being hit by moving objects


•falls from a height
•Poorly maintained equipment
•Unsafe machinery
•Exposure to hazardous chemicals
•Extreme temperatures
•Lack of protective equipment
Other conditions that contribute to
accidents:
Fatigue
Noise
Lack of proper light
Personal factors/determinants
 Age child and young workers below the age of 25 years.
 drugs ,smoking
 Lack of experience
 Eagerness to please
 Lack of training in OH&S

 Lack of supervision
 Risk taking behavior
 Psychosocial factors
 Emotional tension
 Stress and boredom
Laws and Regulations on
occupational health and safety
 The main law governing OHS is the Factories Act 1934 Chapter 3. The Hazardous
Occupation Rules of 1978 regulate certain occupations as hazardous
 Occupational injuries are a neglected area of health policy in Pakistan. Neither
National Health Policy approved by the Federal Cabinet on December 17th 1997,
nor National Health Policy – The Way Forward, promulgated by the Ministry of
Health in 2001; even mention the term “Occupational injuries.
 National action plan for prevention and control of non –communicable diseases.
 Action Agenda has been given, with priority action areas defined
Social security department
 Only comprehensive health coverage system
for the labor workforce in Pakistan.
 It provide a range of curative health care
facilities primarily through its network of
hospitals and dispensaries and medical
benefits to those under its cover
 lack of focus on preventive health care which
should be hallmarks of occupational health.
Safety Coalition strategy

Ways types)
INJURIES
IN
Curative strategy FACTORIES

Place (factories) INJURIES FACTORIES

WAYS
PLACE
preventive (TYPES)

strategy
Safety Coalition strategy
Mission statement
 We recognize that injuries of all types are a
public health issue. and
 Injury Prevention is a Men’s Health Issue

Vision
 To create a culture of safety in all the
factories of Pakistan
The strategy will have two parts
Curative strategy and preventive strategy

Strategy

Curative Preventive
strategy strategy

Risk Wellness
safety legislation
prevention Of workers
Curative strategy
Key strategy
 To provide trauma treatment to all the injured workers without delay.
Key activities
 First aid boxes mandatory in every building of the
factory
 Ambulance facility to be provided by the factory
 For Trauma treatment, hospitals to be on the panel for
every factory.
 SOP should be made for the process of the referral to
the tertiary care hospital. Treatment of trauma is
responsibility of the factory.
Preventive strategy
Key strategy
 The main strategy aimed to ensure
adequate safety measures and to
promote health and welfare of workers
employed in factories.
 The strategy aimed to provide the best
possible human-friendly environment
Preventive strategy. Its activities are
covered under these 4 headings

Legislation
Wellness of workers

OH&S

A safe workplace Risk Management


Risk management
 Identify the hazard
What is a hazard?
Anything or any action that can lead to
someone developing an illness or being
injured .Hazards can arise from
 1 The work environment To ensure that the factory
building, machinery installed there in and other
appliances (Electrical and Gas supplies etc.) are
safe properly secured and guarded
2.Poor work design all passages
are open and clear while the work
is in progress.
3. When using machinery and substances.
personal protective equipment (PPE)
should be used . Company personnel are
educated and instructed through notice,
lecturers and training courses etc. Enabling
them to use safety equipment as and when
necessary.
4. To ensure that the storage of the
materials particularly of the hazardous
chemicals are properly and securely done.
A Safe Workplace
 Fencing of machines of all sorts is compulsory,
 No person shall be employed in any factory to lift, carry or
move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause him injury
 Emergency exits to be marked.
 Fire extinguishers/fire house cabinet.
 Emergency alarms be placed
 Danger sign boards to be placed
 Proper light and ventilation
 Important telephone no to be displayed
Wellness of workers
 Capacity building( use and safety of machine)
 Annual leave with wages
 By health care provider
Better nutrition
Regular exercise programs
Abstinence from smoking and alcohol
Workload and stress counselling and stress
management programs.
Annual physical exams
First aid
Legislation legislation and its enforcement
to ensure safe worker places.

 Safety committees to be formed in every factory who will ensure safety through
Capacity building
Mandatory Training and education on OSH on yearly basis
Health education for workers.
Training of worker before joining the factory
Preparedness
Emergency response
 Free trauma treatment for injured worker
 At least two percent of income from every industry should be spent to provide OSH
protection.
 Warning signs in local language to be displayed in the premises of the factory
 Government inspectors for safety to visit six monthly.
 Include preventive health in the mandate of organizations
dealing with worksite safety
 All injuries in the factory to be reported to occupational health
and safety council
 Minimum wages should be defined.
 No of hours for the workers to be196hours /month.
 Free trauma treatment for injured worker
 At least two percent of income from every industry should be
spent to provide OSH protection.
Policy
 Develop a sustainable and comprehensive
system for injury data in factories collection in
Pakistan
 Develop occupational and health council
 Research by OHandS
 Integrate factory injury prevention as a part of
NCD behavioral change communication
 Multi sectoral collaboration for maintaining
safety and health of the workers
Conclusion
Indicators made for evaluation
should be measured so that
effectiveness of policy, legislation
and strategy can be determined