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MOTORCYCLE

ACCIDENTS
Presented by
Dr Nazish Masud
Roll no 20
Definition
RTA’s are defined as a collision
involving at least one vehicle in
motion on a public or private road
that results in at least one person
being injured or killed
• Vehicle/vehicle
• Vehicle / Pedestrian
• Vehicle/ Animal Fixed obstacles
INTRODUCTION
• Transportation is a key element of the
global economy.
• The price we are paying in form of road
crash mortality and morbidity for such
benefits is too high
• Worldwide, accounting for over 1 million
deaths per year
• Ranked ninth among the world's
disease burdens.
Findings on Road Accidents

• Age group 15 to 40 years incur high


percentage of road accident causalities.
• In city and urban areas, two wheelers
account high traffic accidents.
• About 30 to 40% of the accidents occurs
after sunset (low traffic).
• Accidents are found to cluster at road
intersections in urban areas.
• In highways accident clusters are generally
on bridge approaches, road intersections.
GLOBALLY
WHO region Low- and middle- High-income
income countries countries

African Region 28.3 —


Eastern Mediterranean 26.4 19.0
Region
South-East Asia Region 18.6 —

Western Pacific Region 18.5 12.0

European Region 17.4 11.0


Region of the Americas 16.2 14.8

86% of deaths from RTAs occur in low/middle-income countries .


Motorcycle accidents
• UK casualties have risen by 17 % and 9
% of all casualties
• Nepal 43 % of the road accidents
• Death rate for Motorcyclist is 25 per
10,000 motorcycles.
• 50 percent of the victims of motorcycle
accidents are under the age of 25
Road Accidents and Vulnerable Road Users
400

350
Number of Casualties

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
Pedestrian Bicycle Motorcycle Car/van Minibus Bus T ruck

Minor 249 76 229 78 66 44 19


Serious 90 17 75 21 6 15 3
Fatal 42 4 19 3 4 4 3
Road Users

Pedestrians are most vulnerable followed by motorcycle users


IN Pakistan
• Pakistan have large road network of
259, 758km
• 0.015% of GDP/capita on road safety
in 1998
• In Karachi over 32,000 cases
recorded in 2008 alone.
• 45,000 taken lives in 90,000 road
accidents in the last nine years.
• An annual loss of Rs 5 million.
Burden of the problem
In Pakistan
• Two and three wheelers
69.07% of all vehicles
• 2004 Annual losses
2000 Million US$
• 2004 Annual losses
1.5% of GDP
• 2006 Pedestrian deaths
43.01%* of the total
• 2006 Motorcyclist death
32.05%* of the total
Motorcycle number in Pakistan

RISE IN THE NUMBER OF MOTORCYCLES OVER THE YEARS IN PAKISTAN


Vehicle Composition
Composition of vehicles in paklistan

23% cars

buses
4%
trucks
4%
69% Two and three
wheelers

2005-06 (Increase by 410%)


Motorcycle popularity
• Initial Low cost
• Fuel efficiency
• pleasure vehicle
• Affordable as compared to taxi , car
• Quality of roads
High risk group
Adolescents
• Risk Takers
• Strong Peer Influence
• Increased
Independence
• Impulsive
• Increased
Experimentation
Behaviors
Epidemiology
MOTORCYCLIST
• Mostly men 96 %
• Under 25 yr 50%
• lack of basic riding skills.
• Retro-reflective material
• no eye protection 73%
• use of a mobile phone while driving
• 1km/h is found to increase accident
frequency by 3%
Epidemiology cont..
• Itself provides virtually no protection
• 40% of speeding related fatalities
on a curve
• 3% due to a puncture flat
• Badly paved roads
• Fuel system leaks and spills 62%
INJURIES

• Major injuries 45%


• Head Injury 80%
• Groin injuries 13%
• ankle-foot, lower leg,
knee, and thigh-upper
leg

A motorcyclist must abide by the same traffic rules and


regulations as other motorists
Safety measures
• Helmet:
This is the most important piece of
equipment. Safety helmets save lives by
reducing the extent of head injuries in
the event of a crash.
• DOT label on the helmet. The DOT label
on helmets constitutes the
manufacturer's certification that the
helmet conforms to the federal standard.
Existing Legal Provisions on Road Safety
1. Vehicle and Transportation Management Act, 1993
(VTMA)
• Transport and vehicle management and traffic control
• Insurance, education and Certification and enforcement
of traffic safety
1. Public Roads Act, 1975 (PRA)
• Manage and control encroachment in Right of Way
• Limitation of vehicle weight and control the movement
of overloaded vehicles
1. Local Self-Governance Act, 1999 (LSGA)
• Managing streetlights, clearing road from obstacles,
confiscation of stray animals
• Provide parking facilities, and control registration of
non-motorized vehicles
1. Roads Board Act, 2002 (RBA)
• Performance evaluation of roads through customer's
satisfaction survey
Road Safety Initiatives in Nepal
Traffic Legislation and
Enforcement
• Training manuals –

Road safety and Media


• Daily traffic update program
- FM radio since 1999.
- TV program since 2001. School Children participating in traffic education

Road Safety Education


• introduced at school level curriculum

• Educational institutions, NGOs, and


private sector are contributing in
educating road safety to the road users
reduced the accident rates by 75%.
Areas of Improvement
• Inadequate and narrow roads at urban
and city areas,
• Steep grades and sharp bends on
highways,
• Development and upgrading of roads
which are lagging behind as
compared with urbanization,
• High pressure of traffic during peak
hours
Way Forward: ( NRSS)
A) Safer People
• Conduct Education/ Awareness program in School
• Standardize driving tests,
• Enforce highway safety patrol and control traffic offences,
• Publish regular news about road accident and traffic
education through popular media.
B) Safer Roads
• Standard design for Road Safety
• Independent road safety audit
• Accidents continuously studied and remedial measures
applied, monitored, & evaluated.
Way Forward: cont..

D) Safety Management
• Human resources development,
• Incorporate information on road
accident record for accident analysis
• Standards applied to road service
centers (fuel service, rest rooms,
restaurant, telephone service,
emergency health service, vehicle
repair workshops etc.).
3 E’s of Accident Prevention

• Education
• Enforcement
• Enviormental Modification

The effect of all 3 combined is


synergistic.
STRATEGY
EDUCATION
• Identify a “Target” group
• used to increase the publics’
awareness
• slow process but more effective
GOALS & OBJECTIVES
GOAL
reducing the number of motorcycle
accidents, injuries, and fatalities
OBJECTIVES
1. the promotion of motorcycle safety
2. to reduce impaired motorcycle riding
by educating motorcyclists about the
dangers of impaired riding
Shift of paradigm
SECONDARY PRIMARY
PREVENTION PREVENTION

Prevention of Death & Prevention of


disability form injury
Injury
PROGRAM PHASES
1.Board Approves Funding
• Key Chains
• Pens
• Banners

2.Trademark
• Website
• Newsletter

3.Officers Training
• Introduction & Distribution of
Materials
Logo Development
Uses for
Logo
• Event Flyers
• Event Posters/Bars
• Informational Pieces
• Meeting Agendas
• Other Printed
Materials
Initial Promotional Items
Banners Key
Chains

State
Fatality
Maps
Pens
Mapping of the accidents site in
the cities Motorcycle
Fatalities
1
1 To December
13, 2007
1
111
1
1
2
1 2
1

3 2
7 2 1
2 3 2

1 3 1 3 3 4

1
1 1
1
2 1
2
2
2 5 4 4
1

5 6
1 8
1
3
2 2
3 5
Outcome indicators
• Accident rate
• Age standardized accident rate
• Motorcycle accident proportion
• Fine rate for over speeding
• Fine rate for not using Helmet.
• Accidents on Black Spots
Remember
It is easier to

BURY A
TRADITION
than to Bury a
THANK YOU