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Mechatronics in Engineering Design, Traditional and mechatronics design, Applications Pick and Place robots, Car park barriers, Bar code reader, Wind screen wiper using stepper motor control. Case studies Coin counters, Robot walking machine.

Design Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The need Analysis of the problem Preparation of a specification Generation of possible solutions Selections of a suitable solution Production of a detailed design Production of working drawings

Traditional an mechatronics design

Basis of the mechatronics approach is considered to lie in the inclusion of the disciplines of electronics, computer technology and control engineering. Microprocessors are increasingly finding a use in home appliances, cars, factory, machines, etc., as an embedded controller. Virtually every mechanical design can consider a microprocessor subsystem as a possible solution.

Car Parking Barrier

Car Parking Barrier PLC

Car Parking Barrier PLC

Car Parking Barrier PLC

Pick and Place Robot

Bar Code Technology This technology is mainly used for Automatic Data Capturing. This refers to the technologies that provide direct entry of data into a computer or other microprocessor controlled system without using a keyboard.

Bar Code Technology are being used increasingly to collect data in material handling and manufacturing applications.
In material handling, the applications include shipping and receiving, storage, sortation, order picking. and kitting of parts for assembly. Why Bar Code Technology ? Manual collection and entry of data. This typically involves recording the data on paper and later entering them into the computer by means of a keyboard. There are several drawbacks to this method: 1. Errors occur in both data collection and keyboard entry of the data when accomplished manually. The average error rate of manual keyboard entry is one error per 300 characters.

2. Time factor When manual methods are used, there is a time delay between when the activities and events occur and when the data on status are entered into the computer. In addition, manual methods are themselves inherently more time consuming than automated methods. 3. Labor cost. The full-time attention of human workers is required in manual data collection and entry, with the associated labor cost.

Bar code technologies consist of three principal components 1. Encoded data A code is a set of symbols or signals (usually) representing alphanumeric characters. When data are encoded, the characters are translated into a machine-readable code. (the encoded data are not readable by humans.) 2. Machine reader or scanner This device reads the encoded data, converting them to alternative form, usually an electrical analog signal. 3. Decoder This component transforms the electrical signal into digital data and finally back into the original alphanumeric characters.

Bar codes divide into two basic types (1) linear, in which the encoded data are read using a linear sweep of the scanner, and (2) Two-dimensional, in which the encoded data must be read in both directions. linear bar codes are currently the most widely used automatic identification and data collection technique. There are actually two forms of linear bar code syrnbologies.

(a) width-modulated in which the symbol consists of bars and spaces of varying width; and
(b) height-modulated, in which the symbol consists of evenly spaced bars of varying height.

The advantage of 2-D codes is their capacity to store much greater amounts of data at higher area densities.

Bar Code Reader

Procedure for check code digit:

In linear width-modulated bar code technology, the symbol consists of a sequence of wide and narrow colored bars separated by wide and narrow spaces (the colored bars are usually black and the spaces are white for high contrast). The pattern of bars and spaces is coded to represent numeric or alphanumeric characters. Bar code readers interpret the code by scanning and decoding the sequence of bars The reader consists of the scanner and decoder. The scanner emits a beam of light that is swept past the bar code (either manually or automatically) and senses light reflections to distinguish between the bars and spaces. The light reflections are sensed by a photodetector, which converts the spaces into an electrical signal and the bars into absence of an electrical signal. The width of the bars and spaces is indicated by the duration of the corresponding signals.

There are currently four different types of barcode scanners available. Each uses a slightly different technology for reading and decoding a barcode. There are pen type readers (i.e. barcode wands), laser scanners, CCD readers and camera based readers

Pen Type Readers Pen type readers consist of a light source and a photo diode that are placed next to each other in the tip of a pen or wand. To read a barcode, you drag the tip of the pen across all the bars in a steady even motion.

The photo diode measures the intensity of the light reflected back from the light source and generates a waveform that is used to measure the widths of the bars and spaces in the barcode.
Dark bars in the barcode absorb light and white spaces reflect light so that the voltage waveform generated by the photo diode is an exact duplicate of the bar and space pattern in the barcode. This waveform is decoded by the scanner in a manner similar to the way Morse code dots and dashes are decoded.

Laser Scanners Laser scanners work the same way as pen type readers except that they use a laser beam as the light source and typically employ either a reciprocating mirror or a rotating prism to scan the laser beam back and forth across the barcode CCD Readers CCD (Charge Coupled Device) readers use an array of hundreds of tiny light sensors lined up in a row in the head of the reader. Each sensor can be thought of as a single photo diode that measures the intensity of the light immediately in front of it. Each individual light sensor in the CCD reader is extremely small and because there are hundreds of sensors lined up in a row, a voltage pattern identical to the pattern in a barcode is generated in the reader by sequentially measuring the voltages across each sensor in the row. The important difference between a CCD reader and a pen or laser scanner is that the CCD reader is measuring emitted ambient light from the barcode whereas pen or laser scanners are measuring reflected light of a specific frequency originating from the scanner itself.

Camera Based Readers

The fourth and newest type of barcode reader currently available are camera based readers that use a small video camera to capture an image of a barcode. The reader then uses sophisticated digital image processing techniques to decode the barcode.
Video cameras use the same CCD technology as in a CCD barcode reader except that instead of having a single row of sensors, a video camera has hundreds of rows of sensors arranged in a two dimensional array so that they can generate an image.

Wind Screen Wiper

Coin counter

Coin counter

Coin counter

Robot walking machine

Robot walking machine

Robot walking machine

Robot walking machine

Robot walking machine