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WHAT IS A STRUCTURE ? A system consist of a series of connected parts. FUNCTION OF STRUCTURE

To support loads and transmit them to the ground.

Roof (atap)

Slab (Plat lantai) Beam (Balok) Column (Kolom) Foundation

. Beam For example.STRUCTURAL FORMS 1. a beam may support a foot-path across a stream. or. beam as a part of a large framework Simple beam beam Building frame ..

2. for the same span and load. and their depth. Truss As spans increase. will be lighter. because of the skeletal nature of their construction. is larger than that of a beam but. Truss . For moderately large spans. trusses may be used. For example: the Warren truss shown is typical of those used in bridge construction. Trusses carry loads by developing axial forces in their members. other geometries form roof supports and also carry bridge decks. the use of beams to support bridge decks becomes uneconomical.

Berbagai bentuk struktur rangka .

beam rigid joint kolom Portal .3. Portal Portal frames are commonly used in building construction and generally comprise arrangements of beams and columns.

Portal .

Arches (lengkung) The use of trusses to support bridge decks becomes impracticable for longer than moderate spans. Bridge Deck Column Arch Arch Hanger Bridge Deck . In this Situation arches are often used.4.

and sometimes for short spans. Cables (kabel) For exceptionally long-span bridges. cables are used to support the bridge deck. Generally.5. The cables carry hangers from which the bridge deck is suspended . the cables pass over saddles on the tops of towers and are fixed at each end within the ground by massive anchor blocks.

Suspension bridge Cable stayed bridge .

SUPPORT SYSTEM The loads applied to a structure are transferred to its foundations by its supports. but .prevents translation in practice: represented for analysis purposes by the idealized form: . In practice supports may be complex. PIN SUPPORT (tumpuan sendi): Thus a support that: . in which case they are idealized into a form that may readily be analysed.allows rotation.

RH RV . tetapi tidak dapat menahan momen.TUMPUAN SENDI Tumpuan sendi dapat menahan gaya horisontal dan vertikal.

allows rotation.ROLLER SUPPORT (tumpuan rol): Thus a support that: . but .prevents translation in direction perpendicular to its bearing plate in practice: represented for analysis purposes by the idealized form: .

dan tidak dapat menahan momen .TUMPUAN ROL Tumpuan rol hanya dapat menahan gaya tegak lurus pada bidang tumpunya.

Baja Str.prevents translation and rotation in all directions in practice: represented for analysis purposes by the idealized form: Str.FIX SUPPORT (tumpuan jepit): Thus a support that: . Beton .


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION Resume: Support conditions and its characteristics .