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www.Vidyarthiplus.com EE 2353 HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING aculty Nam! " A.#AI$%NI&HA aculty 'od! " EE 5( )!

si*+atio+ " LE'T%RER )!partm!+t " EEE

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HIGH VOLTAGE TE&TING O ELE'TRI'AL A,,ARAT%&

TE&T& O IN&%LATOR&
type test to check the design features routine test to check the quality of the individual test piece. High voltage tests include (i) Power frequency tests (ii) impulse tests

TE&T& O IN&%LATOR&
POWE ! E"#E$%& 'E('( (a) )ry and wet flashover tests* a.c voltage of power frequency is applied across the insulator and increased at a uniform rate of +, per second of -.,of ther estimated test voltage. /f the test is conducted under normal conditions without any rain 0dry flashover test. /f the test is conducted under normal conditions of rain 0wet flashover test (1) )ry and wet withstand tests(one minute) 'he test piece should withstand the specified voltage which is applied under dry or wet conditions.

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/mpulse withstand voltage test /f the test o16ect has withstood the su1sequent applications of standard impulse voltage then it is passed the test /mpulse flashover test 'he average value 1etween 78, and 98, failure is taken:then the insulator surface should not 1e damaged. Pollution 'esting Pollution causes corrosion :deterioration of the material:partial discharges and radio interference.(alt fog test is done.

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Power frequency tests (a ) Power !actor=>oltage 'est >oltage is applied up to the line value in increasing steps and then reduced.'he capacitance and power factor are recorded in each step. (1) /nternal or Partial discharge 'est 'his id done 1y using internal or partial discharge arrangement. (c ) 2omentary Withstand 'est at Power frequency 'he 1ushing has to withstand the applied test voltage without flashover or puncture for ?8 sec. (d) One 2inute withstand 'est at Power !requency 'he 1ushing has to withstand the applied test voltage without flashover or puncture for @min. (d) >isi1le )ischarge 'est at Power !requency $o discharge should 1e visi1le when standard voltage is applied .
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!ull wave Withstand 'est 'he 1ushing is tested for either polarity voltages:. consecutive full wave is applied: /f the test o16ect has withstood the su1sequent applications of standard impulse voltage then it is passed the test. %hopped Wave Withstand and (witching (urge 'ests /t is same as full wave withstand test 1ut it is done for high voltage 1ushings(++8 k> and 788 k>)

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'HE 243 'E('( O$ <#(H/$; 'emperature ise and 'hermal (ta1ility 'ests 'emperature rise test is done at temperature 1elow 788% at a rated power frequency.'he steady temperature rise should not eAceed 7.8% . 'hermal sta1ility tests is done for 1ushing rated for @?+ k> a1ove.

TE&TING O I&OLATOR& AN) 'IR'%IT $REA1ER&


)ielectric tests Overvoltage withstand test of power frequency:lightning and switching impulse voltages. 'he impulse test impulse test and switching surge tests with switching over voltage are done. 'emperature and mechanical tests tu1e tests s are done.

TE&TING O I&OLATOR& AN) 'IR'%IT $REA1ER&


(hort circuit tests (a) )irect tests (1) using a short circuit generator as the source (c) using the power utility system as the source.

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(&$'HE'/% 'E('( O$ %/ %#/' < E4BE 4$) /(O34'O (a) )irect testing in the $etworks or in the !ields
'his is done during period of limited energy consumption or when the electrical energy is diverted to other sections of the network which are not connected to the circuit under the test. ( 1) )irect 'esting in short %ircuit 'est 3a1oratories 4 make switch initiates the short circuit and the master c.1 isolates the test device from the source at the end of predetermine time setnon a test controller.

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(&$'HE'/% 'E('( O$ %/ %#/' < E4BE 4$) /(O34'O


(c ) (ynthetic 'esting of %ircuit <reakers /n the initial period of the short circuit test:a.c current source supplies the heavy current at a low voltage:and r.ecoveryvoltage is simulated 1y a source of high voltage of small current capadcity. (d) %omposite 'esting 'he %.< is tested first for its rated 1reaking capacity at a reduced voltageand afterwards for rated voltage at a low current. ( e ) #nit 'esting When large %.< of very high voltage rating (++8 k> and a1ove) are to 1e tested and where more than one 1reak is provided per pole:the 1reaker is tested for one 1reak at its rated current and the estimated voltage.

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&4NTHETI' TE&T& ON 'IR'%IT $REA1ER AN) I&OLATOR


( f ) 'esting Procedure 'he %.< are tested for their 1reaking capacity < and making capacity 2and it is tested for following duty cycle (@) <=?=<=?=< at @8,of the rated symmetrical 1reaking capacity (+) <=?=<=?=< at ?8,of the rated symmetrical 1reaking capacity (?) <=?=<=?=< at 98,of the rated symmetrical 1reaking capacity (7) <=?=2<=?2<=2<8 at @8,of 1reaking capacity with the recovery voltage not less C., of the rated service voltage (g ) 4symmetrical 'ests One test cycle is repeated for the asymmetrical 1reaking capacity in which the d.c component at the instant of contact separation is not less than .8, of the a.c component

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TE&TING O 'A$LE&
)ifferent tests on ca1les are (i) mechanical tests like 1ending test:dripping and drainage test: and fire resistance and corrosion tests (ii) 'hermal duty tests (iii) )ielectric power factor tests (iv) Power frequency withstand voltage tests (v) impulse withstand voltage tests (vi) Partial discharge test (vii) 3ife eApectancy tests
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(a)

(1)

/nduced Over voltage 'est /t is tested for overvoltages 1y eAciting the secondary from a high frequency a.c source(@88 to 788 HD) to a1out twice the rated voltage. Partial )ischarge 'ests /t is done to assess the discharge magnitudes and radio interference levels.
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/2P#3(E 'E('/$; O! ' 4$(!O 2E ( (a ) Procedure for /mpulse 'esting (i) applying impulse voltage of magnitude -.,of the </3 (ii) one full wave voltage of @88, </3 (iii) two chopped waves of @88, </3 (iv) one full wave voltage of @88, </3 (v) one full wave of -., </3
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(1) )etection and 3ocation of fault during impulse testing 'he fault in a transformer insulation is located in impulse tests 1y any one of the following methods. (i) ;eneral o1servations (ii) >oltage oscillogram method (iii) $eutral current method (iv) 'ransferred surge current method

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5i 6 Power frequency spark over test
/t is a routine test. 'he test is conducted using a series resistance to limit the current in case a spark over occurs./t has to withstand @.. times the rated value of the voltage for . successive applications. (ii ) @88, standard impulse spark over test 'his test is conducted to ensure that the diverter operates positively when over voltage of impulse nature occur.'he test is done with 1oth positive and negative polarity waveforms.'he magnitude of the voltage at which @88, flashover occurs is the required spark over voltage.
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'his test is conducted on pro rated diverters of ratings in the range ? to @+ k> only.standard impulse currents of the rated magnitudes are applied:voltage across it is recorded. >@Erating of the complete unit >+Erating of the prorated unit tested > @Eresidual voltage of the complete unit > +Eresidual voltage of the complete unit >@F>+E > @F > +

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H/;H %# E$' /2P#3(E 'E(' O$ (# ;E )/>E 'E (


'he unit is said to pass the test if (i ) the power frequency sparkover voltage 1efore and after the test does not differ 1y more than @8, (ii) 'he voltage and current waveforms of the diverter do not differ in the + applications (iii) the non linear resistance elements do not show any puncture or flashover

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(a) (1) (c)

3ong )uration /mpulse %urrent 'est Operating )uty %ycle 'est Other tests are (@) mechanical tests like porosity test:temperature cycle tests (+) pressure relief test (?) the voltage withstand test on the insulator housing of the insulator (7) the switching surge flashover test (.) the pollution test
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IN&%LATION 'O7OR)INATION

4 gradation of system insulation and protective device operation is to 1e followed. (u1stations contain transformers and switchgear with non= self restoring insulation should 1e protected against flashover !or other apparatus which contain self restoring insulation may 1e allowed to flashover. 3ightning impulse withstand level known as <asic /nsulation 3evel(</3).>arious equipment and their component parts should have their </3 a1ove the system protective level 1y a margin which is determined with respect to air insulation.
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IN&%LATION 'O7OR)INATION

!or higher system voltages:switching surges are of higher magnitude compared to the lightning over voltages. 'he flashover voltage of a protective device is chosen such that it will not operate for switching overvoltage and other power frequency and its harmonic overvoltages.</3 has to higher. !or EH> systems:(witching /mpulse 3evel((/3) should 1e assigned to each protective device.

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