• It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy depending on the masses of the nuclei involved.Nuclear Fusion • Nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus. ..


.Nuclear Fusion • Iron and nickel nuclei have the largest binding energies per nucleon of all nuclei and therefore are the most stable.

• The fusion of nuclei heavier than them absorbs energy. .Nuclear Fusion • The fusion of two nuclei lighter than iron or nickel generally releases energy.

Complete the Reaction 1H element 4Be 6C 2He atomic number (protons) 1H 2He 1H 1H 2He 6C 4Be 2He 2He 8 O .

then the height needed to overcome the magnetic repelling force is proportional to that magnetic repelling force. . the gravitational pull and mass of the upper magnet are constant. The upper ring has a potential energy given by PE = mgh at its drop point which is converted into kinetic energy (KE = 1/2 mv2) As the magnet falls towards the lower magnet. Thermal energy is represented by the height that the upper magnet. Since Kinetic Energy = Potential Energy (ignoring frictional components).Energy needed for Fusion The thermal activity of a gas is described by its temperature measurement which is really an indication of its velocity/energy. The two magnets click lightly when the kinetic energy is just greater than the magnetic energy that holds them apart.

Energy needed for Fusion PE =mg x h2-h1 PE = KE = Fxh1 F=force of repulsion F=PE/h1 Upper Drop Position Ring Magnets Float Position Lower Magnet Wood Block h2 h1 .

Fusion Changes Mass to Energy E=mc2 .993 kg Helium 1kg Hydrogen .

Cookie Fusion • • • • • • • • • • • Procedure Cut 2 squares of wax paper 10 cm on a side Cut 5 cm wide slice of cookie dough (atom) Find the mass of the atom and record on the table Place the atom one cm away from the edge of a wax paper square Repeat step 2 thru 4 for a second atom Place the atoms about 2 cm from each other Place both atoms on a plate and microwave for 1 minute Remove the “new element” and let cool for 2 minutes Find the mass of the “new element” Complete the table .

Cookie Fusion Mass Before Cooking Atom 1 Atom 2 Mass After Cooking Total Difference .

How long ago did fusion generate the energy we now receive as sunlight? Fusion created the energy we receive today about a million years ago. Once sunlight emerges from the photosphere. This is the time it takes for photons and then convection to transport energy through the solar interior to the photosphere. it takes only about 8 minutes to reach Earth. .Learning Check What process creates energy in the Sun? Fusion of hydrogen into helium in the Sun’s core generates the Sun’s energy.

Learning Check .

used for electric power generation . with simultaneous release of large amounts of energy.NUCLEAR FISSION A reaction in which an atomic nucleus of a radioactive element splits by bombardment from an external source.

Nuclear Fission Neutron induced in U235 Fission is Exothermic The sum of the masses of the resulting nuclei is less than the original mass (about 0.1% less) The “missing mass” is converted to energy according to E=mc2 .

Neutrons may: 1 .Cause another fission by colliding with a U235 nucleus • Creates two smaller nuclides and free neutrons • The free neutrons potentially collide with nearby U235 nuclei • May cause the nuclide to split as well Each split (fission) is accompanied by a large quantity of E-N-E-R-G-Y 2 . we may achieve a chain reaction .Be absorbed in other material 3 .Lost in the system If sufficient neutrons are present.

U. Electrical Power Production by Source Source: EIA (2004) .S.

Nuclear Fuel Costs • Nuclear Fuel Costs Include – – – – Uranium Enrichment Manufacturing Waste Disposal • Total Nuclear Fuel Cost is Only About 0.5 cents per kilowatt-hour – Uranium accounts for only about 20% of this cost or 0.1 cents per kilowatt-hour – Increasing Uranium Cost has Minimal Impact .

. and energy is released in this process Nuclear fusion: Several small nuclei fuse together and release energy.Review Nuclear fission: A large nucleus splits into several small nuclei when impacted by a neutron.

Draw a Double Bubble Map of Fusion and Fission fusion fission Differences Similarities Differences .

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