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Concepts of precision and

Precise process is one with
narrow spread/std deviation.
Accurate process is one which
has process average close to
design values ,but variability may
be high
• Process A is centred at 15 cm with spread
+/-1.2 cm .
• Process B is centred at 15.3 cm with
spread of +/- .004
• Which is better and why? Pictorially
• Process A is accurate but not precise
• Process B is precise but not accurate. By
shifting the process average to the design
value it can be accurate. In the former
case, reducing variation is difficult
Process capability
• It indicates the spread of the process
about the mean. The purpose of process
capability improvement initiatives is to
minimise the process spread.
• According to Genichi Taguchi, any
deviation or spread is a loss to the
society ,amounting to squared values of
the deviation form target values.
Cp & Cpk

• Cp = (USL –LSL)/UCL – LCL

= (USL –LSL)/6 sigma
• Cpk= Lower of the two values .i.e
1) (mean-LSL) / 6sigma
2) (USL-mean) / 6sigma
Higher values above 1 for both Cp & Cpk indicate better
process capability
• Problem
• Ball bearings of X brand has the following
spec; 245 +/-0.85mm
• Two Processes are available
• see matrix in next slide
centre LCL UCL

Process A 244.90 244.15 245.65

Process B 244.98 244.16 245.80

• Which process will you recommend and
• Cp process A =1.133
• Cp process B=1.037
• Cpk process A =1.000
• Cpk process B =1.012
• A is precise due to high Cp while B is accurate
having close average
• Precise process is to be prefered
• Both process have low Cp & Cpk values.
Process variability needs further reduction
Concepts of six sigma

Fundamentally, it is a customer-focused
methodology that drives out waste, raises
levels of quality, and improves the financial
anytime performance of organizations to
breakthrough levels.
• Six Sigma’s target for perfection is to achieve no
more than 3.4 defects, errors or mistakes per
million opportunities whether it involves the
design and production of a product or a
customer-oriented service process.
• It is from this target that the “Six Sigma” name
originated. sigma is the symbol used to denote
the standard deviation or measure of variation
Table values of different sigma
levels ppm (ONE TAIL)
Off centre 3 sigma 4 sigma 5 sigma 6 sigma

0 sigma 1350 32 0.29 0.001

1 sigma 22832 1350 32 0.39

1.5 sigma 66803 6200 233 3.4

Mechanics of Six Sigma

The process begins with a breakthrough

in attitude. The leadership of
a company or organization must realize
that continuous improvement is no
longer sufficient to achieve strategic,
financial and operational goals
quickly. Breakthrough improvement is
chronic to the workings of the company
It would be foolish, however, to try to
achieve Six Sigma levels of performance for
every process in the organization. This is
because not all processes are equally important.
For example, the process for requesting
time-off or vacation is not as critical as the
order fulfillment process. What really counts
is significant improvement in the mission critical
areas – critical as defined by the customer, “critical-to-
quality” requirements or CTQs
Define, measure
Define – identify, evaluate and select
projects; prepare the mission; and select and
launch the team.

Measure – the size of theproblem, document the

process, identify key
Customer requirements, determine key product
characteristics and process parameters, document
potential failure modes and effects; theorise on the
causes or determinants of performance.
Analyze – plan for data the data, and
establish and confirm the “vital few”
determinants of performance.
Improve – design and carry out
to determine the mathematical
cause-effect relationships, and optimize the
Control – design controls, make
improvements, implement, and monitor.
There is another methodology for
designing and developing a new product,
service or process. Design for Six Sigma
follows the DMADV cycle. DMADV is
quality in the eyes of the customer. DMAIC
typically focuses on one CTQ, which is
related to the problem at hand.
Analyze – identifies alternative design
concepts and develops one or more into a
high-level design control mechanisms in place.
Project approach in implementation
• Cross functional team formed for specific
improvement projects
Six Sigma Project Teams are supported by
the leadership of each business unit through
the Champions. As influential members of
management, they are expected to promote the
application, acceptance and evolution of the
process within their business units.

They select projects, teams objectives, allocate

resources & mentor teams.They are normally the
owners of the process being improved
• Master Black Belt
• Fully trained experts in six sigma tools& methodsThe work across organisation to
develop teams,conduct training,lead change .Role of facilitator and trouble shooters
• Black belts Having been trained for 160 hours they do the technical analysis on full
time basis for the projectsThey help select members,assist in training, lead teams for
timely completion After project they work with functional managers to implement and
monitor solutions they develop and mentor green belts Highly motivated and
respected ,they are future business leaders
• Green belts
• Functional employees trained in
introductory tools. They work on projects
part time ,assisting black belts.Conduct
base analysis and give ideas for
improvement,To become green belt must
complete one six sigma project.
• Team members
• Individuals from functional as who support
the project The gather data conduct
experiments, due to their functional
domain knowledge of process details
Typically green belts are team leaders.
Black belt is staff expert
• Process mapping (value stream mapping)
• Pareto
• Ishikawa diagram
• Statistical tools like anova