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 The purpose of computational physics is not

to crunch numbers but to gain insight.

 Exponential growth in computing power.
 We have redefined the class of problems
that we can solve.
 Supercomputers ---- Parallel machines.
 New algorithms and existing codes need
Many body problem.

I. Interaction
II. Model Space
III. Method
Two approaches

I. Mean Field.
II. Shell Model

H|ψ>=E |ψ>
 The nuclear Shell-Model is the most general microscopic
nuclear model and is in principle able to describe all
properties of nuclei.
 Nuclear Shell-Model calculations in large and realistic
single-particle (s.p.) model spaces are, however, very
difficult to make due to the extremely large Hilbert
space dimensions involved.
 The continuous increase in computing power has made
it possible to make progressively larger nuclear
calculations in restricted model spaces. Currently
existing nuclear SMC methods/programs make it
possible to calculate nuclear wave functions exactly in
the model spaces sd and pf and in pf5/2g9/2 model
space with some what truncated calculations.
Nucleons in a mean potential interacting through
residual interactions
 Single particle energy  ( SPE)
 Two-body interaction  ( TBME)

H = ∑ ε a na + ∑ +
V (abcd ; JT )AJT ( ab) AJT (cd )
a a ≤ b , c ≤ d , JT

na … number operators of orbit a


AabJT = (1 + δ ab ) −1/ 2  ca† cb† 
 Closed core + valence shell
 0ħω space
p-shell 4
He + 0p3/2, 0p1/2
sd-shell 16
O + 0d5/2, 1s1/2, 0d3/2
pf-shell 40
Ca + 0f7/2, 1p3/2, 1p1/2, 0f5/2

 nħω space
p-sd, sd-pf, …
For unstable nuclei, large deformation, …
9. OUR CODE (IUAC-KU) : J- scheme [2005-2006]
 The most basic SMC method is the m-scheme method that
uses bare Slater determinants of spherically symmetric s.p.
orbit configurations as its many-body basis states.
 The basic problem with the m-scheme SMC is that the
Slater determinant basis dimension is maximal and
therefore a lot of storage (from gigabytes to tens of
gigabytes) is needed for each calculated Lanczos basis
vector in large-scale calculations.
 A common method to reduce the large matrix dimensions
of the m-scheme SMC is to use the existing symmetries of
the nuclear Hamiltonian. The j-scheme SMC method uses
angular momentum projected many-body basis states, but
does not have good isospin, and is used in our code (To be
Compared to the m-scheme the j-scheme typically reduces the SMC dimensions
by two orders of magnitude for low-spin states and less for high-spin states.
This property makes it most suitable for low-spin states, such as the ground
states of double-even nuclei..
 The computer code is written in Fortran Language.
Compilation and execution requires a Fortran 77 compiler
(in build under lynx environment) and at least 3GB of RAM
for sd-shell of system hardware.
 Program Structure
 Input data files.
Program files.(basis.f, multibase.f , cfp.f etc)
Out-put files. ( *.out)
 Due to moderate Computational facility , we addressed
some problems in sd-shell.
 We were trying to address the structure of S33(16,17),Cl36(17,19) and P31(15,16)
with Si28(14,14) core.
 The neutron rich nuclei in the fp shell region are at the focus of attention of the
nuclear physics community at present.
 Unstable nuclei in this region exhibit many new phenomenon such as appearance of
new magic numbers and disappearance of well established ones, softening of core at
N=28, interplay of collective and single particle properties etc.
 Neutron rich fp shell nuclei are also of special interest in astrophysics such as the
electron capture rate in supernovae explosion.
 A large number of neutron rich nuclei can be populated by means of binary reactions
such as multi-nucleon transfer and deep inelastic collisions with stable beam. Such
reactions combined with modern detector arrays have increased substantially the
available data on nuclei far from stability
 Experimental data on the excited states of neutron rich unstable isotopes of Ca, Ti
and Cr has been made available in recent past (NNDC World Wide Web)
 For SMC – Shared system would be ideal
choice( many cores and a huge memory).
 We shall be also using HFODD, which solves
HFB equations in three dimensions 
with Skyrme Density Functional.
 The code is parallel and I am running it on two
core machine (laptop).
Leonardo da vinci