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Chapter 15 notes

The Chromosomal Basis of


Inheritance
Concept 15.1
In 1902 Sutton noted the parallels
between the behavior of chromosomes
and the behavior of Mendel’s factors.
Chromosomal theory of inheritance:
genes have specific loci on
chromosomes, and the chromosomes
undergo segregation and independent
assortment
Concept 15.1
Concept 15.1
Morgan traced a gene to a specific
chromosome
- Morgan used Drosophila “fruit
flies” for his experiments
- only 4 pairs of chromosomes
- wild type flies have red eyes
- white eyes is a mutant phenotype
Concept 15.1
- Morgan mated the white-eyed male
to a red-eyed female
- all F1 offspring were red-eyed
- The F2 offspring were not 3:1;
instead all females were red-eyed
while half of the males had red and
half had white eyes
- eye color was linked to the fly’s sex
Concept 15.1
Genes located on sex chromosomes
are called sex-linked genes
- Morgan’s evidence that a specific
gene is carried on the X
chromosome helped confirm the
chromosomal theory of inheritance.
Concept 15.1
Concept 15.2
linked genes: genes that are
located on the same chromosomes
and tend to be inherited together
- linked genes deviate from
expected Mendelian ratios
-ex. in flies body color and wing
shape are inherited together
Concept 15.2
Concept 15.2
Genetic recombination: the
production of new combinations of
traits inherited from two parents
yellow-round x green-wrinkled
YyRr x yyrr
Parental types: when the offspring
phenotypes are identical to the
parents
- ex ¼ YyRr, ¼ yyrr
Concept 15.2
Recombinants: when the offspring
phenotypes are new combinations
ex ¼ Yyrr, ¼ yyRr
When 50% of all offspring are
recombinants, we say there is a 50%
frequency of recombination
- 50% frequency is observed for
genes located on different
chromosomes
Concept 15.2
Geneticists can use recombination
data to map a chromosomes genetic
loci

Genetic map: an ordered list of the


genetic loci along a particular
chromosome
Linkage map: a genetic map based
on recombination frequencies
Concept 15.2
Map of body-color (b), wing-size (vg)
and cinnabar (cn)
- cn and b is 9%
- cn and vg is 9.5%
- b and vg is 17%
Concept 15.2
Concept 15.3
Sex-linked genes have unique
patterns of inheritance
- fathers pass sex-linked alleles to
daughters, but not sons
- mothers pass sex-linked alleles to
both sons and daughters
Concept 15.3
Because males only have one locus,
they cannot be heterozygous

Sex-linked disorders in humans


- muscular dystrophy: 1/3500
males in the US
- hemophilia: absence of proteins
for blood clotting
Concept 15.3
Concept 15.4
Nondisjunction: the members of a
pair of homologous chromosomes
do not move apart properly during
meiosis I or II.
- gametes are (n+1) or (n-1) if they
have too many or too few
chromosomes
Concept 15.4
Aneuploidy: having an abnormal
chromosome number
Trisomic: a chromosome in
triplicate (2n+1); ex. trisomy 21
(Down’s syndrome)
Monosomic: if a chromosome is
missing (2n-1)
Concept 15.4
Concept 15.4
Polyploidy: organisms that have more
than two complete chromosome sets
- triploidy (3n)
- tetraploidy (4n)

Polyploids are more normal in


appearance than aneuploids
Concept 15.4
Concept 15.4
Breakage of a chromosome can lead
to four types of changes in
chromosome structure
Deletion: occurs when a
chromosomal fragment lacking a
centromere is lost during cell
division
Concept 15.4
Duplication: a fragment becomes
attached as an extra segment to a
sister chromatid
Inversion: a chromosomal fragment
can reattach to the original
chromosome in reverse order
Translocation: the fragment joins a
nonhomologous chromosome
Concept 15.4
Concept 15.4
Alterations in chromosome number
and structure are associated with
several human disorders
- Down syndrome: 1/700 children
born; extra 21st chromosome
- Klinefelter syndrome: XXY male
- Turner syndrome: XO female
Concept 15.4
Concept 15.4
Concept 15.4