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What is

Pharmacogenetics?
- Every year in the USA alone 2 million
people experience adverse drug
effects and more than a 100,000 die
from those reactions.

- Another horrible fact is that the drugs


in today’s society are only effective
in 60 % of the population.

What can we do to stop these adverse


drug effects? How can we develop
drugs that can be effective for
everyone?

THE ANSWER IS PHARMACOGENETICS


Current Clinical Methods
₋ Nico Test for personalised
regimen to quit smoking 
₋ Amplichip for CYP 450
₋ PCR based strategy for CYP 2D6
genotyping
₋ Tratuzumab: first drug with
clinical application
₋ Thiopurines: immunomodulating
drugs for leukemia and chronic
inflammatory conditions
₋ Dosing considerations for other
drugs such as Ironitecan,
Warfarin, Tamoxifen, and
Abacavir
₋ FDA has labelled 10% of its
recently approved drugs with
pharmacogenomic information
Ongoing Research on
CYP
₋ Cytochrome P450
superfamily of enzymes

₋ Found all over the body but


major enzymatic activity
occurs in hepatic CYPs

₋ Bioactivation and metabolism


of approximately 75% of drugs
gives CYPs prominence in
pharmacogenetics research

₋ Pharmacogenetic research is
playing a major role in dosing
of Warfarin (an anticoagulant)
Pharmacogenetics vs
Bioethics
Main ethical concerns are
combination of the following: 
 
- Unequal distribution of
benefits/resources
 
- Invasion of medical privacy
 
- Discrimination due to the
involvementtof genetic tests
 
- Research/business conflict-of-
interest
Major Drugs Ineffective
For Many

…and harmful to some


Costs Impact
Increase in costs
     - New Techniques need to be developed
     - Requires new training
     - Requires new facilities
     - Segmentation of market result in a reduction of
revenue generated
     - Post marketing surveillance cost
 
Benefits
     - Shelved drugs coming back to life.
     - Fewer legal liabilities.
     - Saving lives. 
Thank you for your
attention
Group 13

Joe Hong
Tanvir Kahlon
Shereen Bart
Linnéa Kadfors
Traci Vogler
Jennifer Duncan
David Beshai
References
• Bioethics. (n.d.)  In The Free Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com
 
• Barash, C.I. (2001). Ethical issues in pharmacogenetics. American Institute of Biological Sciences. Retrieved from
http://www.actionbioscience.org/genomic/barash.html
 
• Genomics.energy.gov, Genome programs of the U.S Department of Energy Office of Science, Human Genome Project Information.
(2008, September, 19). Pharmacogenomics. Retrived from
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/pharma.shtml
   
• Gettig, E. (2009). Personalized Medicine. Retrieved from http://mostgene.org/2009_conference/personalized_meds_Gettig.pdf
   
• Human Genome Project. (2008). Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues. Retrieved from
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml

• Klug S. William & Cummings R. Michael & Spencer A. Charlotte. Essential of genetics 6th  edition. Retrieved from page. 437.
 
• Lazarou, J., Pomeranz, B. H., Corey, P. N., (1998). Incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions in Hospitalized Patients. JAMA. 279. 1200-5
   
• Murray, M. F. (2009). Will Plavix be the pharmacogenetics exemplar?. Retrieved from
http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/202479739.html
  
• National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.nice.org.uk/ 

• Nuffield Council on Bioethics. (2003). Pharmacogenetics Ethical Issues. Retrieved from


http://nuffieldbioethics.org/go/ourwork/pharmacogenetics/introduction
 
• Ross, A., Pharmacogenetics cut clinical trial costs. Retrieved from http://www.ngpharma.com/article/The-genetic-advantage/

• Stellenbosch University, Department of Biochemistry. (n.d). Ac Swart group (Image of cytochrome P450 oxidase). Retrieved from
http://www0.sun.ac.za/biochem/Imagine/Media/Pictures/220px-CytP450Oxidase-1OG2.png
 
• University of Liverpool. (n.d). Pharmacogenetics (Image of DNA and pills). Retrieved from 
http://liv.ac.uk/pharmacogenetics/dna_and_pills.jpg

• White. M. T. (2000). Ethical Issues in Genetic Research. Retrieved from http://poynter.indiana.edu/sas/res/genetics.pdf