You are on page 1of 8

What is

- Every year in the USA alone 2 million
people experience adverse drug
effects and more than a 100,000 die
from those reactions.

- Another horrible fact is that the drugs

in today’s society are only effective
in 60 % of the population.

What can we do to stop these adverse

drug effects? How can we develop
drugs that can be effective for


Current Clinical Methods
₋ Nico Test for personalised
regimen to quit smoking 
₋ Amplichip for CYP 450
₋ PCR based strategy for CYP 2D6
₋ Tratuzumab: first drug with
clinical application
₋ Thiopurines: immunomodulating
drugs for leukemia and chronic
inflammatory conditions
₋ Dosing considerations for other
drugs such as Ironitecan,
Warfarin, Tamoxifen, and
₋ FDA has labelled 10% of its
recently approved drugs with
pharmacogenomic information
Ongoing Research on
₋ Cytochrome P450
superfamily of enzymes

₋ Found all over the body but

major enzymatic activity
occurs in hepatic CYPs

₋ Bioactivation and metabolism

of approximately 75% of drugs
gives CYPs prominence in
pharmacogenetics research

₋ Pharmacogenetic research is
playing a major role in dosing
of Warfarin (an anticoagulant)
Pharmacogenetics vs
Main ethical concerns are
combination of the following: 
- Unequal distribution of
- Invasion of medical privacy
- Discrimination due to the
involvementtof genetic tests
- Research/business conflict-of-
Major Drugs Ineffective
For Many

…and harmful to some

Costs Impact
Increase in costs
     - New Techniques need to be developed
     - Requires new training
     - Requires new facilities
     - Segmentation of market result in a reduction of
revenue generated
     - Post marketing surveillance cost
     - Shelved drugs coming back to life.
     - Fewer legal liabilities.
     - Saving lives. 
Thank you for your
Group 13

Joe Hong
Tanvir Kahlon
Shereen Bart
Linnéa Kadfors
Traci Vogler
Jennifer Duncan
David Beshai
• Bioethics. (n.d.)  In The Free Dictionary. Retrieved from
• Barash, C.I. (2001). Ethical issues in pharmacogenetics. American Institute of Biological Sciences. Retrieved from
•, Genome programs of the U.S Department of Energy Office of Science, Human Genome Project Information.
(2008, September, 19). Pharmacogenomics. Retrived from
• Gettig, E. (2009). Personalized Medicine. Retrieved from
• Human Genome Project. (2008). Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues. Retrieved from

• Klug S. William & Cummings R. Michael & Spencer A. Charlotte. Essential of genetics 6th  edition. Retrieved from page. 437.
• Lazarou, J., Pomeranz, B. H., Corey, P. N., (1998). Incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions in Hospitalized Patients. JAMA. 279. 1200-5
• Murray, M. F. (2009). Will Plavix be the pharmacogenetics exemplar?. Retrieved from
• National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2009). Retrieved from 

• Nuffield Council on Bioethics. (2003). Pharmacogenetics Ethical Issues. Retrieved from
• Ross, A., Pharmacogenetics cut clinical trial costs. Retrieved from

• Stellenbosch University, Department of Biochemistry. (n.d). Ac Swart group (Image of cytochrome P450 oxidase). Retrieved from
• University of Liverpool. (n.d). Pharmacogenetics (Image of DNA and pills). Retrieved from

• White. M. T. (2000). Ethical Issues in Genetic Research. Retrieved from