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Chapter 14

Students with Linguistics

and Cultural Differences
Ercilia Delancer and Kayley DeLorm

Students with Linguistics
and Cultural Differences

Are those who:

Speak standard English
Speak non-standard English
Are bilingual
Speak no English at all

Newcomers to the U.S.
Pacific Islanders
Middle Easterners
East Indians

Where do most of them
In major port cities in states such as:
New York

Are not all newcomers
Newcomers are quite different in terms of
social economic status as some come from
professional backgrounds and have high
earning potential while others come from
impoverish backgrounds and live at or near
the poverty line.
How many English
Language Learners do we
have in our classrooms?
There are about 5 million ELL students in the
United States.
42% of all classroom contain at least one ELL
The largest percentage of ELL is of
Latino/Hispanic descent.
All Latino/Hispanic Students
are the Same
A common misconception among teachers is
that all Latino/Hispanic students share the
same Spanish language use, culture and
social economic status.
Students from Mexico, Central and South
America differ significantly in all of these

Concerns about ELL
Insufficient time is devoted exclusively to
expanding knowledge of English vocabulary
and structure.
Ignorance about the student’s rich knowledge
of their first language
Disregard for bilingualism as students struggle
to retain their first language while acquiring
Approaches for Teaching
Immersion – English only instruction
Sheltered approach – First language instruction
at first while acquiring English.
Two-way bilingual – Instruction in both English
and the first language for the entire
Bilingual – Instruction in both first language
and English for ELLs only.
At-Risk Students
Physical Impairments
Emotional Disturbances
Drug Abuse
Often from Urban or Rural Areas
Successful Students…
Are read aloud to by older siblings
Come from homes with fair discipline
Have a home full of books
Come from an organized home
Have parents who keep up with current events
Have parents who read
Have parents who value education
Have parents who show an interest in their
children and their children’s interests
School Related Problems
Low- Expectations
Unavailable Resources (books, tutors, etc.)
Lack of help programs
Success for All
2 parts: Regular classroom reading and
Students grouped according to reading level
Small group instruction (15 students)
Uses basal reading material along with other
Progress checked every 8 weeks
Goal of Success for All?
This program tries to ensure that all students
learn to read the first time they are taught
Used in grades 1-3
America Reads
Tutoring program for at-risk students
Pairs at-risk students with college students on
government money
Illiteracy and Functional
Illiterate: an individual who lacks the ability to
read and write (p.476)
Functional Illiterate: older youths and adults
who read, but to such a limited extent that
they cannot understand basic written
information needed to function in their daily
life (p.476)

How many people in the
U.S. are Illiterate?
4% of U.S population (estimate) illiterate
5% of U.S population (estimate) functionally

How do we Determine
Reading Level….
 eh
Grade Completed….
 eh
Skills Mastered….
 hmmm
How to teach an adult to
Organic Primers
Song lyrics
Important! “Reading strategies advocated
throughout this book are appropriate for adult
clients. While suitable materials may be
different in format and content, adults must
still learn to identify unknown words and
comprehended the message.” (p.480)
The Important Stuff
Job applications