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Field experiment

 Standard Test markets

 Site selection
 DAR – Day after recall

 Test marketing

 Controlled – store and Mini market Tests

 Electronic test markets

Advantages of field experiments

 Field experiments are higher in ecological validity as the research is

conducted in a natural setting.  Behaviour is likely to be relatively
unaffected compared with an experiment conducted in a laboratory.

 The findings are more generalisable to other settings

 The researcher still manipulates the independent variable

 They are reliable as“ structured using a standardised procedure and

Disadvantages of field experiments

 Compared to a laboratory experiment, field

experiments do not have the same amount of

 They are time consuming and expensive

 Field experiments raise serious ethical issues – it

is almost impossible to give informed consent in
Laboratory experimentation

 Experiments which are conducted in a

controlled environment

 Hawthorne experiments
Different experiments in laboratory

 1. Exposure in Advertising campaign

 Brand examination while shopping

 Measurements while shopping

 Competitive imagery measurement

 The experimenter has control over variables

 Experiments are reliable – the procedure is

standardized and therefore replicable

 It is the only method that determines cause and



 Laboratory experiments may lack

ecological validity.  As the setting is
artificial, the behaviour of participants
may be unnatural and the findings may
not be generalised to other settings.

 The independent and dependent variables

tend to be very narrow and specific.
 Psychologists have squeezed the study
of human life into a laboratory setting to
the extent that it is different from the
natural setting.
Differences between laboratory and Field
1. Degree of control is more 1. Degree of control is less
2. Whenever they are done they They don’t provide the same results
produce the same results

3. Weak in generalizability 3. Ability to predict results in actual

situations is called generalizability
4. They are less costlier 4. More costlier
5. Reactive errors between 5. Reactive errors are more.
experimental situations
depending on situations are less