ME170 Engineering Drawing Notes B

Part A 1. 2. 3. Part B 4. 5. 6. Part C

2D Drawing Principles: Coordinate Dimensioning & Tolerancing ANSI/ISO Tolerance Designation ANSI/ISO Classification of Limits and Fits Surface Properties Economics of Tolerances/Surface properties

7.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)

Attention to Detail
The engineering drawing is the specification for the component or assembly and is an important contractual document with many legal implications, every line and every comment is important.

Coordinate Dimensioning and Tolerancing
ANSI standard - ASME Y14.5M

The collective process of modeling, defining and describing geometric sizes and feature relationships, and providing all of the required technical information necessary to produce and inspect the part is called dimensioning and tolerancing.

The current National Standard for dimensioning and tolerancing in the United States is ASME Y14.5M - 1994.
DRAWN IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASME Y14.5M - 1994 REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP EDGES ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS R .06 UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED

Click here for link to ANSI website if you wish to purchase ASME Y14.5 - 2009

Dimensioning Scheme – deciding what,
where, and how to add dimensions to the drawing

20

Line Types
• Object Lines
thick thin thin

• Hidden Lines
• Center Lines • Phantom Lines • Dimension Lines Extension Lines Leader Lines

thin
thin

• Cutting Plane Line
• Sections - Hatching

thick

• Break Lines

thin

thick

Arrowheads
• Arrowheads are used as terminators on dimension lines. The points of the arrowheads on leader lines and dimension lines must make contact with the feature object line or extension lines which represent the feature being dimensioned. The standard size ratio for all arrowheads on mechanical drawings is 3:1 (length to width).
200

R 8.5

Of the four different arrowhead types that are authorized by the national standard, ASME Y14.2M – 1994, a filled arrowhead is the highest preference.

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5 mm) between the object lines and the beginning of each extension line.06 Dimensions should be placed outside the actual part outline.75 1. Dimensions should not be placed within the part boundaries unless greater clarity would result.Dimension Lines and Extension Lines Extension lines overlap dimension lines (beyond the point of the arrowheads) by a distance of roughly 2-3mm There should be a visible gap (~1. . 1.

750 Arrows in / dimension out .562 Arrows in / dimension in 1.250 Arrows out / dimension in . .Placement of Linear Dimensions Order of Preference 2.500 Arrows out / dimension out When there is not enough room between the extension lines to accommodate either the dimension value or the dimension lines they can be placed outside the extension lines as shown in the fourth example (use Flip Arrows in ProE).

• The use of reference dimensions on drawings should be minimized.500 1.000 (. production or inspection of parts.250 .Reference Dimensions Reference Dimension Symbol (X.500 (.750) • Reference dimensions are used on drawings to provide support information only.250 1.XXX) EXAMPLE 2.750) . • They are values that have been derived from other dimensions and therefore should not be used for calculation.500 . .

250 inches (6 mm) apart. Dimensions nearest the object outline should be at least .688 1.375 (10mm) Minimum Spacing 1.375 1.000 .250 4.312 Dimensions should be placed outside the actual part outline .875 . and succeeding parallel dimension lines should be at least .062 2.375 inches (10 mm) away from the object. followed by dimensions of greater length.438 1.250 (6mm) Minimum Spacing 1. .Location of Dimensions Shorter (intermediate) dimensions are placed closest to the outline of the part.

250 2.062 1.875 .250 In-line dimensions can share arrowheads with contiguous dimensions 1.438 1.000 1.312 Extension lines should not cross dimension lines if avoidable 1.875 .688 1.000 1.375 BETTER .375 1.688 1.062 2.Basic Dimensioning – Good Practice 4.438 1.312 4.

62 DP .250 x .375 .625 THRU .250 .Diameter Dimensions Holes and cutouts 1.375 .62 1.

25 . Cylindrical holes. .75 2.00 . external diameters are dimensioned in rectangular (or longitudinal) views. and cutouts that are irregular in shape would normally be dimensioned in views where their true geometric shape is shown.Diameter Dimensions Shafts and Holes • Whenever it is practical to do so. slotted holes.25 THRU 1.

875 18º 18º 18º 18º .Placement with Polar Coordinates To dimension features on a round or axisymmetric component 18º 3X 6X .50 .188 18º 3.562 .

312 R14.750 R. and radii R.Radial Dimensions To indicate the size of fillets.25 R.562 .312 R. rounds.

35 Length o f Chord 90 or Length o f Arc 2 x 45Þ or 2 x 2 CHAM 103 2 x 45º 50 Chamfers 63º 63Þ 95 or Alternate .Angular Dimensions: 92 92Þ º To indicate the size of angular details appearing as either angular or linear dimensions.

For instance.250 THRU .375 CSK .12 X . the number of times the instruction applies is called out using the symbol X. .562 X 82º • The X symbol can also be used to indicate the word “by”. • When used to imply the word „by’. a space must precede and follow the X symbol. • If the same feature is repeated on the drawing (such as 8 holes of the same diameter and in a specified pattern).“Times” and “By” Symbol: X 8X . when a slot that has a given width by a specified length.12).12 X 45º CHAMFER . or a chamfer that has equal sides (.

5 X 45º CHAM .5M .25 10 82º CSK 1.Drawing Notes Notes should be concise and specific. and be complete and accurate in every detail.06 UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED Local Notes 4X 8.20 M10 X 1.1994 REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP EDGES ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS R . They should use appropriate technical language. They should be authored in such a way as to have only one possible interpretation. General Notes DRAWN IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASME Y14.

It has been proposed.625 OR .ASME/ANSI Hole Depth Symbol • Features such as blind holes and counterbores.375 .375 * This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. must have a depth called out to fully describe their geometry.625 . . Depth or Deep Symbol* EXAMPLE .

It has been proposed. . Note that this symbol is not used in the ISO (international) standard. The height of the symbol is equal to the letter height on the drawing. .375 .562 X 90º * This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard.ASME/ANSI Countersink Symbol Countersink Symbol* EXAMPLE • The symbol denotes a requirement for countersunk holes used to recess flathead screws. and the included angle is drawn at 90º.

312 . EXAMPLE .562 .375 OR * This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. .375 .ASME/ANSI Counterbore Symbol Counterbore Symbol* • This symbol denotes counterbored holes used to recess machine screw heads.562 .312 . It has been proposed.

Screw Threads ISO specify metric only: M 16 x 2 M 16 x 2 .2A Nominal Diameter (inches) Threads per inch Thread Series UNC = Unified Coarse UNF = Unified Fine Thread Type (optional) A=External B=Internal Class of fit (optional) Note: Use standard screw sizes only .4h .10 .UNC .10 .UNC 3/4 .5H Class of fit of mating thread (optional) Class of fit of this thread (optional) ISO metric designation Nominal Diameter (mm) Thread Pitch(mm) American Unified Threads: 3/4 .

Fasteners etc Many CAD models available on-line from standard catalogs Good idea to use to ensure that you are using a readily available fastener Click to go to McMaster-Carr online site .

Example Assembly 'A' Base 3 . Screws 'A' Lid Section 'A'-'A' .Threads and Screw Fastening Always a 'Cle arance Hole ' (typically scr e w ma jor Dia. + 10%) in at le ast one compone nt in a s cre w faste ne d joint.M12 Hex.

Threads and Screw Fastening (cont.75 x 15 DP MIN EQ SP on 120 PD Section 'A'-'A' 'A' .3 x 25 DP M12x1.) 'A' Base Detail 3 Holes 10.

) Lid Detail 'A' 3 Holes 12.Threads and Screw Fastening (cont.7 THRU  EQ SP on  120 PD Section 'A'-'A' 'A' .

A shaft of nominal diameter 10 mm may be measured to be an actual size of 9.X = ±.0005. the decimal place indicates the general tolerance given in the title block notes. Therefore. usually in the title block. or accuracy required. Tolerances . .XX = ±. In English Units . Note: Fractions and this type of general tolerancing is not permissible in ISO metric standards. Nominal Size: is the size used for general identification. .005. will depend on the function of the part and the particular feature being dimensioned. Actual Size: is the measured dimension. not the exact size. or tolerance.01.important to interchangeability and provision for replacement parts It is impossible to make parts to an exact size. must be specified for all dimensions on a drawing. typically of the form: "General tolerances ±. the range of permissible size. general tolerances are specified in a note.XXXX = ±0. General Tolerances: In ISO metric. .25 unless otherwise stated". .XXX = ±. typically: Fractions = ±1/16.975 mm. The tolerance.03. by the designer/draftsperson.

All of the above methods show that the dimension has: a Lower Limit = 39.97 mm an Upper Limit = 40.0.05 40 .Specific Tolerances Specific Tolerances indicate a special situation that cannot be covered by the general tolerance.01 +0.97 Limit Dimensions Unilateral Tolerance Limits are the maximum and minimum sizes permitted by the the tolerance.05 mm a Tolerance = 0.04 40. Specific tolerances are placed on the drawing with the dimension and have traditionally been expressed in a number of ways: +0. Design must not over specify as tolerances have an exponential affect on cost.03 Bilateral Tolerance 40. .05 39.08 mm Manufacturing must ensure that the dimensions are kept within the limits specified.

Shaft Min. Clearance SHAFT HOLE . Hole Hole Max. Clearance Max.Limits and Fits 1. Clearance Fits The largest permitted shaft diameter is smaller than the diameter of the smallest hole Max. Min. Shaft Min.

Shaft SHAFT HOLE . Transition Fits The diameter of the largest allowable hole is greater than that of the smallest shaft. Shaft Min. Interference Fits The minimum permitted diameter of the shaft is larger than the maximum diameter of the hole 3. Hole Hole Max. but the smallest hole is smaller than the largest shaft Max. Shaft Min. Hole Hole Max.Max. Interference SHAFT HOLE Interference or clearance Max. Min. Min. Interference 2. Shaft Min.

4 1.0.4 + 0.6 .6 -0 + 0.24 0.6 0.15 0.3 .95 -0 0.9 -0 + 1.1.0 .0.40 .24 .9 1.7 Class RC 3 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits Shaft f6 .1.3 -0 + 0.2 -0 Shaft e7 .1.55 Class RC 2 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits Hole H6 Shaft g5 .0.4 0. RC 5 Medium running fits are intended for higher running speeds.0.0 -0 Shaft e8 .0.6 0.8 2.1.7 1.2 -0 Shaft f7 .6 2.0.25 0.8 + 0.5 1.ANSI Extract from Table of Clearance Fits RC 1 Close sliding fits are intended for the accurate location of parts which must assemble without perceptible play.9 -0 + 1.1.25 .0 1.0. where accurate location and minimum play are desired.6 .1.5 -0 0.25 0.2 0.1. RC 6 Basic hole system.71 . Parts made to this fit move and turn easily but are not intended to run freely.45 .0.1 .0.1 + 0.1.7 .0.3 0.4 Class RC 6 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits 0. and in the larger sizes may seize with small temperature changes.3 .7 -0 0.0.19 1.0.9 .6 3.5 1.0 3.6 4.2 -0 Hole H7 0.1.55 .9 .8 .0.1.3.25 + 0.8 0.1.2 2. or both.25 .6 -0 + 0.0.65 -0 0.3 0.0.2 .0.97 .45 0.3 .1.0.Standard Limits and Fits -.1.2.0 .3 + 0.0 -0 + 1.97 1.4 0.1.25 .6 0. and are intended for precision work at slow speeds and light journal pressures.3 .2 0.55 -0 0.2 .6 .4 0.6 .8 .19 .1.6 2.6 1.0 0.3 Class RC 4 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits Hole H8 + 0.9 . but with greater maximum clearance than class RC 1.4 -0 + 1.4 -0 Shaft g4 .0. RC 3 Precision running fits are about the closest fits which can be expected to run freely.0. Limits are in thousandths of an inch.0.7 -0 + 0.0.6 .0. Class RC 1 Limits of Clearance Nominal Size Range in Inches 0 .0.71 0.35 .5 2.0.15 .8 2.0.3 .1 .1.0 -0 + 1.2 -0 + 0.8 0.2 .6 1.2 3.0 2.8 2.7 1.2 .6 + 0. RC 4 Close running fits are intended chiefly for running fits on accurate machinery with moderate surface speeds and journal pressures.0.0.3 1.5 .0.0.2 .25 -0 + 0.2 -0 + 1.7 .6 .45 .0 -0 + 1.6 .0.1.0.0.1 .4 .0.6 Class RC 5 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits Hole H8 + 0.2.0.1.5 1. but are not suitable where appreciable temperature differences are likely to be encountered.5 .85 -0 0. or heavy journal pressures.7 -0 + 0.12 -0 0.3 .0.2 -0 + 0.2.0.40 0.3 .5 .1.5 + 0.8 .9 .8 .15 0.0.6 0.55 .6 -0 + 2.3 + 0.2 .35 .0.3 .8 2.8 .0.95 -0 0.75 0.1 0.0 .1.0.0.4 .0.8 1.1 -0 Hole H9 + 1.3 0.15 + 0.15 . RC 2 Sliding fits are intended for accurate location.2 + 0.5 0.0 .3 0.0.95 0.3 1.12 .12 Standard Limits Hole H5 + 0.

To each of these types of hole or shaft are applied 16 grades of tolerance.etc. D. 16. which makes each tolerance grade approximately 60% of its predecessor. e. B.0.. d.. 4. .. C. These letters define the position of the tolerance zone relative to the nominal size. b.ISO Tolerance Designation The ISO system provides for: • 21 types of holes (standard tolerances) designated by uppercase letters A.5.0.. and • 21 types of shafts designated by the lower case letters a. 6.the "Fundamental Tolerances": ITn = (0. designated by numbers IT1 to IT16 ..6. 1. 25. 2. E..etc.001 D) Pn where D is the mean of the range of diameters and Pn is the progression:1.. 10. c...45 x 3 D +0.etc..

all tolerances start at the nominal size and go positive by the amount designated by the IT number.45 x 3 40 +0.For Example: Experience has shown that the dimensional accuracy of manufactured parts is approximately proportional to the cube root of the size of the part.e. IT7 for diameters ranging 30. Example: A hole is specified as: 30 H7 x The H class of holes has limits of + + 0 .50 mm: Tolerance for IT7 = (0.001x 40) 16 = 0.025 mm Written on a drawing as 30 H7 +0. i.025 +0 .

Graphical illustration of ISO standard fits Hole Series – H hole Standard .

The H series (lower limit at nominal. The HOLE SYSTEM is commonly used because holes are more difficult to produce to a given size and are more difficult to inspect. However. Such a series of fits may be obtained using one of two standard systems: The Shaft Basis System: The Hole Basis System: For a given nominal size a series of fits is arranged for a given nominal size using a standard shaft and varying the limits on the hole.g.Selection of Fits and the ISO Hole Basis system From the above it will be realized that there are a very large number of combinations of hole deviation and tolerance with shaft deviation and tolerance. H7 reamers) and gauges are common for this standard. and a series of fits are obtained by only varying the limits on the shaft. . a given manufacturing organization will require a number of different types of fit ranging from tight drive fits to light running fits for bearings etc.00) is typically used and standard tooling (e. the limits on the hole are kept constant. 0. For a given nominal size.

high running speeds. but can be freely assembled and disassembled. accurate location. but good for large temperature variation. greater accuracy. Where accuracy is not essential. Suitable for precision location fits. Locational Clearance Fits. Provides snug fit for locating stationary parts. Shafts are expensive to manufacture since the clearances are small and they are not recommended for running fits except in precision equipment where the shaft loadings are very light. Suitable for loose pulleys and the looser fastener fits where freedom of assembly is of prime importance Free Running Fit. heavy journal pressures Close Running Fit. Sliding Fits. Suitable for lubricated bearing. Hole Shaft H11 H9 c11 d10 H8 f7 H7 g6 H7 h6 .ISO Standard "Hole Basis" Clearance Fits Type of Fit Loose Running Fits. where no substantial temperature difference is encountered.

i. assemblies. . cast iron etc. for accurate H7 location. Drive Fit Suitable as press fits in material of low modulus of elasticity such as light alloys. for example. ISO Standard "Hole Basis" Interference Fits Type of Fit Hole Shaft H7 H7 p6 s6 Press Fit. a compromise between clearance and interference Push Fits.. steel. of eliminating vibration.ISO Standard "Hole Basis” Transition Fits Type of Fit Hole Shaft k6 n6 Locational Transition Fits .e. Suitable as the standard press fit into ferrous. Transition fits averaging little or no H7 clearance and are recommended for location fits where a slight interferance can be tolerated for the purpose.

00 1 mm +60 0 + 75 0 + 90 0 + 11 0 0 + 13 0 0 + 16 0 0 + 16 0 0 + 19 0 0 +190 0 +220 0 +220 0 +250 0 +250 0 +250 0 +290 0 +290 0 +290 0 +320 0 +320 0 +360 0 +360 0 +400 0 +400 0 c11 0.00 1 mm +25 0 +30 0 +36 0 +43 0 +52 0 +62 0 +74 0 +87 0 d10 0.00 1 mm +14 0 +18 0 +22 0 +27 0 +33 0 +39 0 +46 0 +54 0 f7 0.00 1 mm -20 0 -30 -78 -40 -98 -50 -120 -65 -149 -80 -180 -100 -220 -120 -260 Tolerance H9 0.00 1 mm +10 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 +30 0 +35 0 g6 0.00 1 mm -14 -39 -20 -50 -25 -61 -32 -75 -40 -92 -50 -112 -60 -134 -72 -159 Tolerance H8 0.00 1 mm +25 0 +30 0 +36 0 +43 0 +52 0 +62 0 +76 0 +87 0 e9 0.ISO Clearance Fits Nominal Sizes Over mm –– 3 6 10 18 30 40 50 65 80 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 5 25 0 28 0 31 5 35 5 40 0 45 0 To mm 3 6 10 18 30 40 50 65 80 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 5 25 0 28 0 31 5 35 5 40 0 45 0 50 0 Tolerance H11 0.00 1 mm -6 -16 -10 -22 -13 -28 -16 -34 -20 -41 -25 -50 -30 -60 -36 -71 Tolerance H7 0.00 1 mm -6 0 -8 0 -9 0 -11 0 -13 0 -16 0 -19 0 -22 0 +100 0 -145 -305 +100 0 -84 -185 +63 0 -43 -83 +40 0 -14 -39 +40 0 -25 0 +115 0 -170 -355 +115 0 -100 -215 -72 0 -50 -96 +46 0 -15 -44 +46 0 -29 0 +130 0 +140 0 +155 0 -190 -400 -210 -440 -230 -480 +130 0 +140 0 +155 0 -190 -400 -135 -265 -135 -290 +130 0 +89 0 +97 0 -110 -240 -62 -119 -68 -131 +81 0 +57 0 +63 0 -96 -108 -18 -54 -20 -60 +52 0 +57 0 +63 0 -17 -49 -36 0 -40 0 .00 1 mm -60 -120 -70 -145 -80 -170 -95 -205 -110 -240 -120 -280 -130 -290 -130 -330 -150 -340 -170 -390 -180 -400 -200 -450 -210 -460 -230 -480 -240 -530 -260 -550 -280 -570 -300 -620 -330 -650 -360 -720 -400 -760 -440 84 0 -480 -850 Tolerance H9 0.00 1 mm -2 -8 -4 -12 -5 -14 -6 -17 -7 -20 -9 -25 -12 -34 -12 -34 Tolerance H7 0.00 1 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 +30 0 +35 0 h6 0.

001 mm +10 +4 +16 +8 +19 +10 +23 +12 +23 +15 +33 +17 +39 +20 +45 +23 +52 +27 10 18 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 280 315 355 400 450 500 ISO Transition Fits 18 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 280 315 355 400 450 +46 0 +33 +4 +46 0 +60 +34 +52 0 +57 0 +63 0 -32 +40 +4 +45 +5 +52 0 +57 0 +63 0 +36 +4 +73 +37 +80 +40 .001 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 +30 0 +35 0 +40 0 To mm 3 6 10 k6 0.001 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 25 0 +30 0 +35 0 +40 0 n6 0.001 mm +6 +0 +9 +1 +10 +1 +12 +1 +15 +2 +18 +2 +21 +2 +25 +3 +28 +3 H7 0.Nominal Sizes Over mm –– 3 6 Tolerance H7 0.

001 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 p6 0.001 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 +30 0 +30 0 +35 0 +35 0 +40 0 +40 0 +40 0 +46 0 +46 0 +46 0 +52 0 +52 0 +57 0 +57 0 +63 0 +63 0 s6 0.001 mm +20 +14 +27 +19 +32 +23 +39 +28 +48 +35 +59 +43 +72 +53 +78 +59 +93 +78 +101 +79 +117 +92 +125 +100 +133 +108 +151 +122 +159 +130 +169 +140 +198 +158 +202 +170 +226 +190 +244 +208 +272 +232 +292 +252 ISO Interference Fits 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 280 315 355 400 450 +30 0 +35 0 +51 +32 +59 +37 +40 0 +68 +43 +46 0 +79 +50 +52 0 +57 0 +63 0 +88 +56 +98 +62 +108 +68 .001 mm +12 +6 +20 +12 +24 +15 +29 +18 +35 +22 +42 +26 Tolerance H7 0.Nominal Sizes Over mm –– 3 6 10 18 30 To mm 3 6 10 18 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 280 315 355 400 450 500 Tolerance H7 0.

Flanged Sintered Bronze Plain Bearing .

.

http://www.com .McMasterCarr.

skf.com/portal/skf/home/products?maincatalogue=1&lang=en&newlink=1 .On-line Interactive Catalogs http://www.

or aesthetically unacceptable (e. rotating or sliding action impaired).Smallest Shaft Size The 'Tolerance Build-up Problem' Where the combined dimension of several mating parts results in an unacceptable condition: generally non-functional (e.g.'Worst Case Method' for correct fit in all cases. if manufactured to specification Allowance The minimum allowable difference between mating parts: Allowance = Smallest Hole Size . or parts will not assemble.g. inconsistent gaps around car doors) 'Shaft in hole' Terminology Hole Shaft .Tolerance Calculation .Largest Shaft Size Clearance The maximum allowable difference between mating parts: Clearance = Largest Hole Size .

125 Smallest feature size = 9. Clearance = Largest Hole Size (A) – Smallest Shaft Size (B) A If dimension with tolerance is 10 + 0. Allowance = Smallest Hole Size (A) – Largest Shaft Size (B) 2.125 Lid on Box Example Largest feature size = 10.875 B .Shaft in Hole Example Worst Case Tolerancing A B 1.125 .0.

01 2.25 .16) – Largest Shaft Size (76. Allowance = Smallest Hole Size (76.25 Worst Case Tolerancing: X 1.16 +.25) – Smallest Shaft Size (76. Clearance = Largest Hole Size (76.01 <0.25 A +. Example 76 +.Tensioner Assy.25 >0.01but but =< 0.Tolerance Calculation .15) = 0.00) = 0.15 B76 +0 AxialClearance Clearance Axial by by design must Design must be be => 0.25 Š.

4 HDN to 65 HRC 0.4 With Roughness Value (Typically Ra µm or µ”) With Machining Allowance 2 Material Removal by Machining Hardness Harden = HDN .125 DP . HRA etc or Ra or Rc Brinell = BNL 0.may see symbol Heat Treat = H/T Rockwell = HRC.Surface Properties Texture and Hardness Surface Finish Basic Surface Texture Symbol 0.

die and investment casting. shaping. and die casting Machining. injection molding. stamping. sand casting. lapping. planing 3. reaming.2 µm (125µ”) 1. honing Lapping.4 µm (16µ”) 0. polishing. injection molding.Comparative Roughness Values Roughness Ra 25 µm (1000 µ”) 12. milling.3 µm (250µ”) Typical Processes Flame Cutting Sawing. rough turning.8 µm (32µ”) 0. polishing 0. turning. honing. Grinding.5 µm (500µ”) 6. 0. lapping . investment casting Diamond Turning. honing. milling.6 µm (63µ”) and stamping Rough machining.2 µm (8µ”) Grinding.1 µm (4µ”) Superfinishing. drilling. fine turning & milling. forging.

4 µm (16 µ”) 303 Stainless: (natural surface hardness 5 HRC ). 0. typ..2µm (8 µ”) 440 Stainless: (natural circa 15 HRC).2µm (8 µ”) . 0. Hardness and Surface Finish Specs. e. springs etc.g.4µm (16 µ”) Better Finish.Some Common Steel. 0. 1060 axles. High Carbon (> 60%): High wear. gears. e. 0. high strength.. hardening not required Common Types 1020 1040.25 mm deep min.125 mm deep min. con-rods etc. Ground Bearing Shaft Examples: 1080 General Purpose 1060: Surface HDN to 55 HRC 0. Longer Life 1020: Case HDN to 65 HRC 0. Common Steel Specs: (10xx series: xx = % carbon) Mild steel (low carbon = up to 30 %): Low cost general purpose applications. Medium Carbon (up to 60%): requiring higher strength. cutting tools.g.

Specifying Welds on Drawings Weld all Around Weld on other side 6 30-50 Pitch Length Weld on arrow side Width of weld 20 6 10 20 = Weld 6mm fillet weld this side only 6 20-10 = 6 = Weld 6mm fillet weld both sides 3 = .

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