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clause is a group of words that contain BOTH a subject AND a verb. There are two main types of clauses, an independent clause, and a dependent clause.


clauses contain a subject AND a verb AND contain a complete thought. Example: Jimmy ran.


clauses contain BOTH a subject and a verb BUT NOT A COMPLETE THOUGHT. They are introduced with a subordinating conjunction such as: because, although, since, if, etc. Example: Because Jimmy ran.

Noun Adjective Adverb


clauses act like a noun. They are introduced with: what, where, why, how, where, when, who whom, which, whose, whether, that, if. Examples: He knows that his business will be successful. That there is a hole in the ozone layer of the earths atmosphere is well known.


clauses act like adjectives. They are introduced by: who, whom, which, whose, that, where, when. Examples: Men who are not married are called bachelors. Last year we traveled to San Francisco, which is famous for its architecture.


clauses act like adverbs. There several types of adverbial clauses; they can describe time, place, cause, result, purpose, condition, or they can be a concession.


when, before, after, until, since, as soon as When he won the money, he decided to buy a car.


Subordinators: Example:

where, wherever

She drove wherever she wanted.

Subordinators: Example:

because, as, since

She got a parking ticket because she parked illegally.

Subordinators: Example:

so ... that, such ... that

He drove so fast that he got a speeding ticket.

Subordinators: Example:

so that, in order that

He drove fast so that he could get to work on time.

Subordinators: Example:

if, unless

If she hadnt won the lottery, she would have been very unhappy.


although, even though Example: Although she thought she was a good driver, she got a lot of tickets for speeding

phrase is a group of words that DOES NOT contain BOTH a subject and a verb.



Appositives Gerunds Infinitive

Absolute Prepositional


phrases contain a noun and all of its modifiers. There are three types of noun phrases: Appositives Gerunds Infinitive


rename or describes another

noun. Example: One of eleven brothers and sisters, Harriet was a moody and willful child. Bob, my best friend, works here. The boy looked at them, big black ugly insects.


phrases are noun phrases with a gerund (-ing) at the beginning. Example: I love baking cakes.


phrases use the infinitive form (to

____) Example: I love to bake cakes.


phrases can also be used as adverbial or adjectival phrase.


phrases have a participle (a verb acting as an adjective; cascading water, broken table, etc.) Example: Crushed to pieces by a sledgehammer, the computer no longer worked.


phrases are ALMOST complete sentences. They contain a subject, but are missing a verb. Example: My cake finally baking in the oven, I was free to rest for thirty minutes. She returned to her bench, her face showing all the unhappiness that had suddenly overtaken her. -An American Tragedy


phrases are phrases that contain a preposition at the beginning. Example: She sat around the house. In the dark room, she felt all her old fears return.


these clauses or phrases? A boy and his dog. Went to the store. I had a soda. The brown fox. The brown fox and quick dog. The boy laughed. Someone stole my purse. Stole my purse.


I go to the store. Suzie plays with her dog everyday. Jonathan runs three miles a day. Although I cant see him. After I go to the doctor. Since I got an A on the test. How do I get to the store? With he dog. To the store.