Stoichiometry
Review: Rates of Decay
Strontium90 is one of the
harmful radionuclides that result
from nuclear fission explosions. It
decays be byet emission with a
halflife of 28 years. How long
would it take for 99.0% of a given
sample released in an
atmospheric test of an atomic
bomb to disintegrate?
Law of Definite Composition
Different samples of a pure
compound always contain the
same elements in the same
proportion by mass
This corresponds to atoms of
these elements in fixed numerical
ratios
Law of Multiple Proportions
When two elements, A and B,
form more than one compound,
the ratios of the masses of
element B that combine with a
given mass of element A in each
of the compounds can be
expressed by small whole
numbers
Atomic Weights
Weighted average of the
masses of the constituent
isotopes if an element.
Tells us the atomic masses of
every known element.
Lower number on periodic
chart.
How do we know what the
values of these numbers are?
The Mole
A number of atoms, ions, or
molecules that is large enough to see
and handle.
A mole = number of things
Just like a dozen = 12 things
One mole = 6.022 x 10
23
things
Avogadros number = 6.022 x 10
23
Symbol for Avogadros number is N
A
.
The Mole
How do we know when we have a
mole?
count it out
weigh it out
Molar mass  mass in grams
numerically equal to the atomic
weight of the element in grams.
H has an atomic weight of 1.00794 g
1.00794 g of H atoms = 6.022 x 10
23
H
atoms
Mg has an atomic weight of
24.3050 g
24.3050 g of Mg atoms = 6.022 x 10
23
Mg
atoms
The Mole
Example: Calculate the mass
of a single Mg atom in grams
to 3 significant figures.
The Mole
Example: Calculate the
mass of a single Mg atom,
in grams, to 3 significant
figures.
Mg g 10 4.04
atoms Mg mol 1
Mg g 24.30
atoms Mg 10 6.022
atoms Mg mol 1
atom Mg 1 Mg g ?
23
23
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The Mole
Example: Calculate the
number of atoms in one
millionth of a gram of Mg
to 3 significant figures.
The Mole
Example: Calculate the
number of atoms in one
millionth of a gram of Mg to
3 significant figures.
atoms Mg 10 2.48
atoms Mg mol 1
atoms Mg 10 6.022
Mg g 24.30
Mg mol 1
Mg g 10 1.00 atoms Mg ?
16
23
6
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The Mole
Example: How many atoms
are contained in 1.67 moles
of Mg?
The Mole
Example: How many atoms
are contained in 1.67 moles
of Mg?
atoms Mg 10 1.00
Mg mol 1
atoms Mg 10 6.022
Mg mol 1.67 atoms Mg ?
24
23
=


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=
The Mole
Example: How many moles of
Mg atoms are present in 73.4 g
of Mg?
The Mole
Example: How many moles of
Mg atoms are present in 73.4
g of Mg?
Mg mol 02 . 3
Mg g 24.30
atoms Mg mol 1
Mg g 4 . 73 Mg mol ?
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Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
How do we calculate the molar
mass of a compound?
add atomic weights of each atom
The molar mass of propane, C
3
H
8
,
is:
amu 44.11 mass Molar
amu 8.08 amu 1.01 8 H 8
amu 36.03 amu 12.01 3 C 3
=
= =
= =
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
The molar mass of calcium nitrate,
Ca(NO
3
)
2
is:
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
amu 164.10 mass Molar
amu 96.00 amu 16.00 6 O 6
amu 28.02 amu 14.01 2 N 2
amu 40.08 amu 40.08 1 Ca 1
=
= =
= =
= =
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
One Mole of Contains
Cl
2
or 70.90g 6.022 x 10
23
Cl
2
molecules
2(6.022 x 10
23
) Cl
atoms
C
3
H
8
or
44.11 g 6.022 x 10
23
C
3
H
8
molecules
3 (6.022 x 10
23
) C
atoms
8 (6.022 x 10
23
) H
atoms
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: Calculate the number of
C
3
H
8
molecules in 74.6 g of
propane.
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: Calculate the number of
C
3
H
8
molecules in 74.6 g of
propane.
molecules 10 02 . 1
H C mole 1
molecules H C 10 6.022
H C g 44.11
H C mole 1
H C g 74.6 molecules H C ?
24
8 3
8 3
23
8 3
8 3
8 3 8 3
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Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: What is the mass of 10.0
billion propane molecules?
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
8 3
13
8 3
8 3
23
8 3
10
8 3
H C of g 10 32 . 7
H C mole 1
H C g 11 . 44
molecules 10 6.022
H C mole 1
molecules 10 1.00 molecules H C g ?
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=
Example: What is the mass of 10.0
billion propane molecules?
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: How many (a) moles, (b)
molecules, and (c) oxygen atoms are
contained in 60.0 g of ozone, O
3
? The
layer of ozone in the stratosphere is very
beneficial to life on earth.
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: How many (a) moles, (b) molecules,
and (c) oxygen atoms are contained in 60.0 g
of ozone, O
3
? The layer of ozone in the
stratosphere is very beneficial to life on earth.
(a)
moles 25 . 1
O g 0 . 48
mole 1
O g 0 . 60 O moles ?
3
3 3
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Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: How many (a) moles, (b) molecules,
and (c) oxygen atoms are contained in 60.0 g
of ozone, O
3
? The layer of ozone in the
stratosphere is very beneficial to life on earth.
(b)
3
23
23
3
O molecules 10 7.53
mole 1
molecules 10 6.022
moles 25 . 1 O molecules ?
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Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: How many (a) moles, (b) molecules,
and (c) oxygen atoms are contained in 60.0 g of
ozone, O
3
? The layer of ozone in the
stratosphere is very beneficial to life on earth.
(c)
O atoms 10 26 . 2
molecule O 1
atoms O 3
O molecules 10 7.53 atoms O ?
24
3
3
23
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Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: Calculate the number of
O atoms in 26.5 g of Li
2
CO
3
.
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example:Calculate the number of
O atoms in 26.5 g of Li
2
CO
3
.
atoms O 10 6.49
CO Li unit formula 1
atoms O 3
CO Li mol 1
CO Li units form. 10 6.022
CO Li g 73.8
CO Li mol 1
CO Li g 26.5 atoms O ?
23
3 2 3 2
3 2
23
3 2
3 2
3 2
=
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Occasionally, we will use millimoles.
Symbol  mmol
1000 mmol = 1 mol
For example: oxalic acid (COOH)
2
1 mol = 90.04 g
1 mmol = 0.09004 g or 90.04 mg
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: Calculate the number of
mmol in 0.234 g of oxalic acid,
(COOH)
2
.
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
Example: Calculate the number of
mmol in 0.234 g of oxalic acid,
(COOH)
2
.
2
2
2
2 2
(COOH) mmol 2.60
(COOH) g 0.09004
(COOH) mmol 1
(COOH) g 234 . 0 (COOH) mmol ?
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Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
% composition = mass of an
individual element in a compound
divided by the total mass of the
compound x 100%
Determine the percent
composition of C in C
3
H
8
.
81.68%
100%
g 44.11
g 12.01 3
100%
H C mass
C mass
C %
8 3
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=
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Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
What is the percent composition of H
in C
3
H
8
?
Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
What is the percent composition of H in
C
3
H
8
?
81.68% 100% 18.32%
or
% 18.32 100%
g 44.11
g 1.01 8
100%
H C
H 8
100%
H C mass
H mass
H %
8 3
8 3
=
=
=
=
Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
Example: Calculate the percent
composition of Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
to 3
significant figures.
Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
Example: Calculate the percent
composition of Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
to 3 sig.
fig.
100% Total
O 48.0% 100%
g 399.9
g 16.0 12
100%
) (SO Fe
O 12
O %
S 24.1% 100%
g 399.9
g 32.1 3
100%
) (SO Fe
S 3
S %
Fe 27.9% 100%
g 399.9
g 55.8 2
100%
) (SO Fe
Fe 2
Fe %
3 4 2
3 4 2
3 4 2
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