LIFE IS A NEVER ENDING PROCESS OF ONE CONFLICT AFTER ANOTHER

CONCEPT

The disagreement between two or more individuals or groups over an issue of mutual interest.
Sources
1.Goal Incongruency 2.Organizational Change 3.Personality Clashes

4.Difference in Value Sets
5.Threats to Status 6. Perceptual Difference

Is Conflict Desirable ?

HIGH B

LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE

A C

LOW LEVEL OF CONFLICT HIGH

Approach b) Approach-Avoid c) Avoid-Avoid .Classification of Conflicts 1. It results from role ambiguity Types a) Approach.Intrapersonal Conflict The conflict within oneself.

2. 4.Interpersonal Conflict The conflict between two individual. 3.Intergroup Conflict The conflict between the groups .Interagroup Conflict The conflict within the group. It results when someone threatens the self concept of another.

Personal Variable . Forces a.The Conflict Process 1. Communication b. Structure c.Potential Opposition or Incompatibility (Latent Conflict) Presence of potential conflict inducing force/s is/are necessary to trigger conflict.

i) Cognition (Percieved Conflict) The forces must be perceived as threatening if conflict is to develop.Intensions The individuals decide on the action that is to be taken to deal with the conflict by discovering the intensions behind the same.2.hostility. 3. fear or mistrust. ii) Personalization (Felt Conflict) Individuals become emotionally involved and parties experience feelings of threat . .

.Dominating/Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interest. regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict 3.Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict 2.Accomodating The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own.Five Conflict Handling Intensions 1.

4.Compromising A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something 5.Problem Solving/Collaborating A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties .

Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intensions High Cooperative Behavior Accommodating Problem Solving External Focus (Concern for others) Compromising Avoiding Dominating Low Uncooperative Low Behavior (Unassertive Behavior) Internal Focus (Concern for Self) High (Assertive Behavior) .

actions and reactions. 5. .Outcomes These are the consequences that result from interaction among conflicting parties.Behavior It is an attempt by one party to implement its intensions. It takes the form of statements.4.

playing down differences while emphasizing common interests .Avoidance 5.Creating shared goal 3.Open Discussion 2.Expansion of Resources 4.Superordinate Goals.Smoothing . Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques 1.Conflict Management The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.Problem Solving.

Using formal authority 8. transfer etc. Communication 2. . Authoritative Command. Altering Structural Variable-Job redesign.Behavioral Change Training 9. Conflict Stimulation Techniques 1. Altering Human Variables. Appointing a Devil’s Advocate -Designating a critic to purposely argue against the majority positions held by the group. Compromise 7.6. Bringing in Outsiders 3. Restructuring Organization 4.

NEGOTIATION It is a process in which one party agrees to exchange a product or service with another party in return for something .

a win –lose situation. ‘A’s Aspiration Range Settlement Range ‘B’s Aspiration Range ‘A’s Target Point ‘B’s Resistance Point ‘A’s Resistance Point ‘B’s Target Point .Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources.Approaches to Negotiation 1.

2. Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution .

You lose Integrative Variable I win.You win Convergent Long Term 3.Primary Motive Distributive Fixed I win.Focus of Relationship Short Term .Distributive Vs Integrative Bargaining Features 1.Primary Interest Opposed to Each Other 4.Available Resources 2.

Clarification & Justification 4.Defining Rules 3.Closure & Implementation .Negotiation Process 1.Preparation & Planning BATNA (Best Alternative To A Negotiated Agreement) The agreement that satisfies high priority objectives 2.Bargaining & Problem Solving 5.

Preparation & Planning Negotiator should understand : • the nature & background of the conflict • Circumstances that have lead up to the negotiation • Identify the goals he wants to achieve for his party • Attempt to identify the goals that the other party is seeking • Develop strategy • Offer a proposal equivalent to or more attractive than their BATNA ( Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement) .

Defining Rules Arrive at the negotiation table Discuss basic rules & procedures to be followed The person who will represent the party is identified The issues that should be discussed The order in which they should be taken up The time limit for each issue Strategy to be adopted in case of deadlock Parties put forward their demands & proposals .

Clarification & Justification Study each other’s demands Attempts to clarify any doubts May explain the rationale for certain demands Present documents in support of their position Involves justification of the demands but is not necessarily confrontational .

Bargaining & Problem Solving Initial list of demands is often intentionally made lengthy as each party will expect to sacrifice some of its demands in the form of concessions Should try to arrive at an integrative solution that benefits both of them The negotiator should Be willing to listen to the members of the other party & understand their concerns Avoid words & phrases that aggravate the situation Set aside critical issues for later Should break up if conflict intensifies & meet later .

Closure & Implementation Arrive at an agreement that is mutually acceptable Is the result of several rounds of discussions & reciprocal concessions Negotiation agreement is formally written & signed by both the parties Followed by the establishment of procedures to implement & monitor the implementation of the agreement .

Issues in the Negotiation Process • • • • Biases in decision making Personality traits Cultural differences Third party negotiation .

Personality Traits The studies have shown that negotiation strategies as well as the outcomes of negotiations are unaffected by an individual’s personality traits.Biases • Assuming there exists only win-lose solution • Frustrations arising from belief that the initial demands made by opponent are his final demands • Making decisions based on whatever information available rather than looking for relevant information • A know-it-all attitude & making commitments without considering their feasibility • Believing women negotiators are soft & make more concessions 2.1. .

Americans Impatient.3.North Americans Rely on objectives facts and logic.France More combative. end up quickly 4. indifferent. long term relationship 3.Cultural Differences 1. adhere to timelines Subjective feelings & emotions Use examples but no importance to timelines 5. 2.Chinese & Japanese Negotiate at length.Russians .Arabs 6.

4.Third Party Negotiation • Mediator – Uses logical reasoning & persuasion techniques – Suggests alternative solutions • Arbitrator – Has authority to enforce his decisions – Chosen voluntarily or imposed by law – Always result in settlement .

uses conflict management techniques – Encourages them to understand each other.• Conciliator – Informal communication link – Trusted – Tries to find solution that is acceptable • Consultant – Skilled person. develop a +ve attitude & build long term relationships – Motivates parties to find creative solutions – Acts as a facilitator while the parties attempt to find a solution .

Intergroup Relations If the organization is to function efficiently & effectively. the activities of all the different groups which specialize in different functions must be properly coordinated .

Factors Affecting Intergroup Relations 1.Interdependence • The extent to which a group is dependent on another group determines the degree of interaction & the type of relations that exist between them GOAL Pooled interdependence A B C Sequential interdependence Reciprocal interdependence .

2.Task Uncertainty • Routine Tasks – standardized operating procedures to be followed • Non Routine Tasks – customized approach for each task – Obtain information from various groups – Faced with unique problems that require ‘one of a kind’ response • The latter tend to interact more frequently than the former .

the nature of the tasks performed differs greatly from one work group to another • Differing goals & objectives create problems in coordination .3.Orientation of Time & Goal • Due to increasing specialization & differentiation of tasks.

Managing Intergroup Relations 1.Rules & Procedures • Formally establish • Simplest & least expensive • Minimizes the need for interaction & verbal communication • Works only when all possible interactions can be anticipated • The type of interaction must frequently occur to make it worth the while .

2.Hierarchy • When rules & procedures do not help in resolving differences it may be resolved by a common superior • It consumes valuable time of top management • Parties have no choice but to abode with the decision .

3.Planning • Goals are clearly specified. intergroup conflict decreases & coordination increases • Will fail if goals cannot be clearly defined . members of all groups know what is expected of them • As each group carries out its responsibilities.

promote communication & establish amicable relations between the conflicting groups • Will fail if information flow is too high & interaction is too frequent .Liaison Roles • A capable person is assigned • Ensures effective communication & coordination between 2 interdependent groups • Success depends on the ability of the person to skillfully resolve disputes.4.

5.Task Forces • To solve complex problems that demand multiple perspectives in order to arrive at a proper solution • A temporary group that exist only till the problem is solved • Useful when a project requires coordination among many groups. for a short duration .

Teams • To address day to day operational issues permanent teams are set up • Are cross-functional in nature & consist of members from various departments • Have dual responsibilities ( own department & team) .6.

7.Integrating Departments • Used in situations where relationships between groups are too complex for the above methods • Permanent departments which seek to integrate the various groups • Useful when groups have conflicting goals. face non-routine problems & when intergroup decisions have considerable impact on organizational performance .