Job Design and Analysis

BBA 5th
Dr. Aziz Javed

Job Design and Analysis

Chapter 2

Job design, information and personnel MGT Job Analysis

Job description
Job specification

skills and qualifications needed to perform it successfully. .Job analysis  Job analysis defines a job in terms of specific tasks and responsibilities and identifies the abilities.  Human resource planning or employment planning is the process by which an organisation attempts to ensure that it has the right number of qualified people in the right jobs at the right time.

Competitive advantage Any factors that allow an organization to differentiate its product or service from those of its competitors to increase market share.Globalization The tendency of firms to extend their sales or manufacturing to new markets abroad. .

. Employee recruitment is the process of seeking and attracting a pool of applicants from which qualified candidates for job vacancies within an organisation can be selected.  Employee selection involves choosing from the available candidates the individual predicted to be most likely to perform successfully in the job.

Cost leadership The enterprise aims to become the low-cost leader in an industry. Differentiation A firm seeks to be unique in its industry along dimensions that are widely valued by buyers. .

More productive teams are rewarded more than less productive groups .Individuals performing similar jobs for same firm are paid according to factors unique to employee. such as performance level or seniority  Team equity . Employee equity .

 Task: a unit of work activity performed by a worker within a limited time period   Duty: several related tasks that are performed by a worker Position: the set of all tasks & duties performed by a worker  Job: a group of identical positions .

Goal: Match Person & Job 9 Person KSAs Talents & Interests Motivation Job Tasks & Duties Rewards Job Outcomes Performance Satisfaction  Need information about the Person & about the Job .

Person/Job Match Introduction. Session 2: Strategy and Human Resources .

 Job Analysis: the process of collecting & analyzing information about jobs to write:  Job Description: a document that identifies the tasks & duties performed by a job  Job Specification: a document that identifies the qualifications required by a job  Most organizations combine the Job Description & the Job Specification into a single document for each job  Usually simply called a “Job Description” .

Luck “It certainly helps to be in the right place at the right time.” © 2008 by Prentice Hall 9-12 .

clerical. 3. laborers) MGT460 Winter 2005 . para-professional..5 Skill Levels 13 1a. elemental service.. 4. Skill level D (e.g. assisting. trades helpers. Senior management 1b. Professional Technical. Middle & other managers 2. intermediate sales) 5.g. skilled Skill level C (e.

  Determine who collects the information.   . Process the information.  Determine what information to collect. Determine how to collect the information.Steps in Job Analysis 14  Select jobs for analysis. Write job descriptions and job specifications (job analysis report).

equipment.Information Collected for Job Analysis 15  Actual work activities Tools. and other necessary work aids Job context Personal characteristics Behavior requirements Performance standards      .

Collecting Job Analysis Information 16     Observation Perform the job Interviews Questionnaires and checklists     Critical incidents Performance evaluations Diaries Variety of methods .

Uses of the Job Description 17  Recruiting Selection Orientation Training Employee evaluations Promotions and transfers      .

Job Description Elements 18  Job Title  Indicates job duties and organizational level  Job Identification  Distinguishes job from all other jobs  Job Duties  Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished  Job Specifications (job requirements)  Skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job MGT460 Winter 2005 .

 Career mobility (position[s] for which job holder may qualify next). .  Supervision exercised. if any (who reports to this employee). salary or wage).  Detailed list of duties and responsibilities.  Job summary (a synopsis of the job responsibilities). usually from one to three pages long.2 Contents of a Job Description A job description should be a formal.  Related meetings to be attended and reports to be filed. written document. It should include the following:  Date written.  Competency or position requirements.  Position title.  Job Status (full-time or part-time.  Required education and experience.  Principal contacts (in and outside the organization).  Supervision received (to whom the jobholder reports).Table 4.

organizational downsizing. or reengineering be a problem for job analysis?  What are issues with a future-oriented or a competency-based job analysis? MGT460 Winter 2005 .Job Analysis in a Changing Environment 20  How might rapid changes in technology.

8.4. 3.6719. and any special restaurant functions. 5.0. Qualifications: 1. Supervise operation of bar to maximize profitability. Reports to: Supervises: Date: Department: Division: Approved:  How could it be used for:      Job design? Recruiting? Selection? Performance appraisal? Training? Source (revised from): http://www2. Work to improve performance. organize. expenditures to ensure that they conform to budget limitations. 4. 2. Estimate food and beverage costs. Perform frequent checks to ensure consistent high quality of preparation and service.cfm/Nav/2. 9. with bookkeeper or other financial personnel. minimize legal liability. Work with other management personnel to plan marketing. direct. Tasks and Duties: 1. and profitable service of food and beverages. training. Direct hiring. polite manner for dealing with public as well as staff.0 . Enforce sanitary practices for food handling. and scheduling of food service personnel. Supervise portion control and quantities of preparation to minimize waste. Good organizational skills for dealing with diverse duties and staff. Review and monitor. 3. Pleasant. 2. 6. and maintenance of kitchen and dining areas. Perform other duties as assigned by management. Work with chefs and other personnel to plan menus that are flavorful and popular with customers. Investigate and resolve complaints concerning food quality and service. 7.edu/~schuman n/www/teach/sample_job_descrip. and coordinate the workers and resources of the restaurant for the efficient.0.mnsu. and conform to alcoholic beverage regulations. general cleanliness.com/Article. well-prepared.Example of a Job Description 21  Example of a Narrative Job Description: http://krypton.hrnext. pdf Restaurant Manager Job Summary: Plan. advertising. Bachelor of Science degree in hotel/restaurant management is desirable. Comply with all health and safety regulations. Work with chefs for efficient provisioning and purchasing of supplies. A combination of practical experience and education will be considered as an alternate.

Key Elements of the Job Description 22  Job identification data Job summary Job duties Job environment Job specifications Minimum qualifications      .

they provide little guidance to the jobholder.Problems with Job Descriptions 23   If poorly written.  They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success. reducing organizational flexibility. They are not always updated as job duties or specifications change. MGT460 Winter 2005 .  They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder.

 Job Design   Job Scope and Job Depth Approach to Job Design Physical Work Environment Work Schedules  Sociotechnical  The  Alternative  Flextime  Telecommuting  Job Sharing  Condensed Workweek .

Job Design Techniques 25  Job simplification Job enlargement Job enrichment Job rotation Team building     .

Employee Categories 26 Permanent:    30-40 hours/week on regular payroll receive benefits Alternative:    temporary part-time outsourced .

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copes with setbacks Performing: focuses on results. puts people first Presenting: communicates and networks effectively Analyzing: thinks clearly.The “Great Eight” Competencies         Leading: initiates action. follows rules Adapting: responds to change. gives direction Supporting: shows respect. shows understanding of organization Introduction. handles situations creatively Organizing: plans ahead. Session 2: Strategy and Human Resources . applies expertise Creating: thinks broadly.

Session 2: Strategy and Human Resources . duties and responsibilities  The actual things that people do on the job  Objectively observable  KSAOs  Knowledge: declarative (what’s a spreadsheet)  Skills: procedural (how do I run a spreadsheet)  Abilities: capacity to develop new knowledge and skills  Other traits: personality characteristics Introduction.What Do We Measure in Job Analysis?  Tasks.