ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM [ ABS

]
An Advance Braking Technology
By:

Koushik Paul

Roll No.- 6O Mech. Engg.[3rd Year] Bengal College Of Engineering & Technology

=1/2mv² . Kinetic energy translated to heat energy.Introduction To Brakes  It is one of the most important device.E.  Used to retard or stop the vehicle.  K.  Kinetic energy increases with the square of the velocity.

take the evasive action and still be in control of the vehicle in any road condition at any speed and under any load.Introduction to ABS  Wheel lockup during braking causes skidding which in turn cause a loss of traction and vehicle control change direction. the driver can brake hard.  This reduces the steering ability to  With ABS system. So the car slides out of control. .

In 1960 A fully mechanical system used in the Ferguson P99 racing car.   The German Companies BOSCH & Mercedes-Benz pioneered the first electronic version for use on Mercedes-Benz Cars in1936. in automobile use. the Jensen FF and the Ford Zodiac.History of abs  ABS was first developed for AirCraft in1929 by French Automobile & Aircraft Pioneer Gabriel Voisin. In 1975 Ford also introduced ABS on the Lincoln Continental Mark III and the Ford LTD station wagon. but saw no further use. somewhat unreliable.  . the system proved expensive and. called “Sure Trak”.

.  In 1988 BMW became the world's first motorcycle manufacturer to introduce an electronic/hydraulic ABS system. this on their BMW K100.  In 1992 Honda launched its first ABS system this on the ST1100 Pan European.History of abs  In 1978 Bosch And Mercedes-Benz Introduced the first completely Electronic 4-Wheel MultiChannel ABS system in trucks and the Mercedes-Benz S-Class.

construction A-Wheel Speed Sensor B-ABS control Module C-pressure Release Valves D-Brake caliper .

 There is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the ABS. In position one. isolating that brake from the master cylinder. where a situation arises such as an impending wheel lock. In position two. the valve is open. pressure from the master cylinder is passed right through to the brake. This prevents the pressure from rising further should the driver push the the brake pedal harder. The electronic control unit monitors record the rotating speed of four wheels on a constant basis and when this system finds a vehicle wheel rotating speed slower than the other three.Working principle o f abs  Anti lock braking system is made up of a central (ECU) Electronic Control Unit and four wheel speed sensors connected to each wheel of vehicle and two hydraulic valves located in the brake hydraulics. the valve releases some of the pressure from the brake. In position three. III. On some systems. the valve has three positions: I. . II. the valve blocks the line.

 By this process. This complete process performed by the ABS system is repeated continuously throughout the drive on mostly uneven roads and can be easily detected by the driver of the car with the help of brake pedal pulsation. . the lower speed wheel starts turning faster than other three wheels and when the electronic control unit finds that the wheel is turning faster than the other three. automatically brake hydraulic pressure to the affected wheel is increased by the ABS system so that braking force is reapplied and the wheel slows down.Working principle o f abs The ABS system causes the valves to constantly reduce hydraulic pressure to brakes of the significantly lowered speed wheel thereby causing reduction of braking force on the affected wheel.

Abs Diagram diagram provides both a closeup view & an example of where the brakes are located. This .  Now let's put the parts together to see how anti-lock brakes work as a whole.

Types of abs There are mainly three types of ABS used in the car. Three-channel. The speed sensor for the rear wheels is located in the rear axle. and one speed sensor. This system is commonly found on pickup trucks with rear-wheel ABS. Four-channel. It has one valve.  One-channel. four-sensor ABS: This is the best scheme. commonly found on pickup trucks with four-wheel ABS. three-sensor ABS: This scheme. has a speed sensor and a valve for each of the front wheels. There is a speed sensor on all four wheels and a separate valve for all four wheels. located in the rear axle. with one valve and one sensor for both rear wheels. one-sensor ABS: . With this setup. the controller monitors each wheel individually to make sure it is achieving maximum braking force. which controls both rear wheels.

How abs works in car Now lets see how ABS works in a car with an animation. .

% of using vehicle Vs year 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 .

.Application in indian car  Maruti Suzuki Swift  Maruti Suzuki Ritz  Skoda Superb  Honda Accord  Honda City  Hyundai Verna  Hyundai i20 etc.