Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition

Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College

Chapter 22
Lecture Outline*
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Chapter 22

Lymphatic System and Immunity

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Lymphatic System
• • • • • • • • Lymph Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissue Lymphatic nodules Lymph nodes Tonsils Spleen Thymus
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Functions of the Lymphatic System • Fluid balance – Excess interstitial fluid enters lymphatic capillaries and becomes lymph • Fat absorption – Absorption of fat and other substances from digestive tract • Defense – Microorganisms and other foreign substances are filtered from lymph by lymph nodes and from blood by spleen 22-4 .

Lymphatic Vessels • Carry lymph away from tissues • Lymphatic capillaries – More permeable than blood capillaries – Epithelium functions as series of one-way valves 22-5 .

subclavian. bronchomediastinal. lumbar • Lymphatic ducts: Right and thoracic which connect to large veins 22-6 . intestinal.Lymphatic Vessels • Lymphatic capillaries join to form • Lymphatic vessels – Have valves that ensure one-way flow • Lymph nodes: Distributed along vessels and filter lymph • Lymphatic trunks: Jugular.

Lymph Drainage Into Veins 22-7 .

Lymphatic Tissue and Nodules • Lymphatic tissue – Consists mainly of lymphocytes – Encapsulated or not • Lymphatic nodules – Numerous in loose connective tissue of digestive (Peyer’s patches). respiratory. reproductive systems 22-8 . urinary.

Tonsils • Large groups of lymphatic nodules in nasopharynx and oral cavity • Provide protection against bacteria and other harmful material • Groups – Palatine – Pharyngeal – Lingual 22-9 .

Lymph Nodes • Organized in cortex and medulla • Substances removed by phagocytosis or stimulate lymphocytes or both • Only structures to filter lymph 22-10 – Afferent and efferent vessels .

shock. intermediate • Functions – Destroys defective RBCs – Detects and responds to foreign substances – Limited reservoir for blood 22-11 . slow. death • Blood flows through at 3 different rates – Fast (most).Spleen • Located in left superior side of abdomen – Can be ruptured in traumatic abdominal injuries resulting in bleeding.

Spleen 22-12 .

Thymus • Located in superior mediastinum • Divisions: Cortex and medulla • Site of maturation of T cells 22-13 .

Immunity • Ability to resist damage from foreign substances as microorganisms and harmful chemicals • Categories – Innate or nonspecific resistance • Mechanical mechanisms: Prevent entry or remove microbes • Chemical mediators: Promote phagocytosis and inflammation • Cells: Involved in phagocytosis and production of chemicals – Adaptive or specific immunity • Specificity: Ability to recognize a particular substance • Memory: Ability to remember previous encounters with a particular substance and respond rapidly 22-14 .

saliva. mucous membranes. mucus • Chemical Mediators – Complement • Group of 20 proteins • Circulate in blood in inactive form • Become activated in cascade form: Classical or alternative pathway – Interferons • Prevent viral replication 22-15 .Mechanical Mechanisms and Chemical Mediators • Mechanical Mechanisms – Skin. tears.

Complement Cascade 22-16 .

Innate Immunity: Cells • White blood cells – Most important cellular components of immune system – Methods • Chemotaxis • Phagocytosis • Macrophages – Monocytes that leave blood. enter tissues – Large phagocytic cells • Basophils and mast cells – Promote inflammation • Eosinophils – Reduce inflammation • Neutrophils – Phagocytic and first cells to enter infected tissue • Natural killer cells – Lyse tumor and virusinfected cells 22-17 .

Inflammatory Response 22-18 .

fever and shock 22-19 . heat. pain. increased vascular permeability • Types – Local: Symptoms are redness. chemotactic attraction. swelling.Inflammatory Response • Tissue injury regardless of type can cause inflammation • Response initiated by chemical mediators that produce vasodilation. loss of function – Systemic: Symptoms are increase in neutrophil numbers.

introduced from outside • Self-antigens: Produced by body – Haptens: Small molecules and capable of combining • Types – Humoral or Antibody-mediated: B cells – Cell-mediated: T cells 22-20 . and remember a particular substance • Stimulants – Antigens: Large molecules • Foreign: Not produced by body.Adaptive Immunity • Involves the ability to recognize. respond to.

Origin and Development of Lymphocytes • B and T cells – Originate in red bone marrow – Move to lymphatic tissue from processing sites and continually circulate – Clones are small groups of identical lymphocytes 22-21 .

thymus) – Where lymphocytes mature into functional cells • Secondary lymphatic organs – Where lymphocytes produce an immune response 22-22 .Origin and Development of Lymphocytes • Positive selection – Ensures survival of lymphocytes that react against antigens • Negative selection – Eliminates lymphocytes that react against self-antigens • Primary lymphatic organs (red bone marrow.

Antigenic Determinants • Antigenic determinants – Specific regions of a given antigen recognized by a lymphocyte • Antigenic receptors – Surface of lymphocyte that combines with antigenic determinant 22-23 .

resulting in activation of immune cells 22-24 .Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) • Most lymphocyte activation involves glycoproteins of cell surfaces called MHC molecules – Class I molecules display antigens on surface of nucleated cells. resulting in destruction of cells – Class II molecules display antigens on surface of antigen-presenting cells.

Antigen Processing 22-25 .

Costimulation 22-26 .

Proliferation of Helper T Cells 22-27 .

Proliferation of B Cells 22-28 .

Lymphocyte Inhibition • Tolerance: To prevent the immune system from responding to self-antigens – Provoked by • Deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes • Preventing activation of lymphocytes • Activation of suppressor T cells 22-29 .

IgA. IgM. IgE.Antibody-Mediated Immunity • Antibodies or Immunoglobulins (Ig) – Classes: IgG. IgD – Structure • Variable region: Part that combines with anitgenic determinant of antigen • Constant region: Responsible for activities 22-30 .

Actions of Antibodies 22-31 .

Antibody Production 22-32 .

Cell-Mediated Immunity • Antigen activates effector T cells and produces memory T cells • Cytotoxic T cells lyse virus-infected cells. tumor cells. and tissue transplants • Cytotoxic T cells produce cytokines. which promote phagocytosis and inflammation 22-33 .

Interactions and Responses of Innate and Adaptive Immunity 22-34 .

Acquired Immunity • Active natural immunity – Results from natural exposure to an antigen • Active artificial immunity – Results from deliberate exposure to an antigen • Passive natural immunity – Results from transfer of antibodies from a mother to her fetus or baby • Passive artificial immunity – Results from transfer of antibodies (or cells) from an immune animal to a nonimmune one 22-35 .

Ways to Acquire Adaptive Immunity 22-36 .

Effects of Aging • Little effect on lymphatic system • Decreased ability of helper T cells to proliferate in response to antigens • Decreased primary and secondary antibody responses • Decreased ability of cell-mediated immunity to resist intracellular pathogens 22-37 .

Immune System Problems • Hypersensitivity reactions • Autoimmune disease • Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) • Transplantation – Acute rejection – Chronic rejection 22-38 .