Ultrasonic Testing Part 2

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Ultrasonic Testing techniques
• Pulse Echo • Through Transmission • Transmission with Reflection

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Pulse Echo Technique
• Single probe sends and receives sound • Gives an indication of defect depth and dimensions • Not fail safe

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Defect Position
B

B A

No indication from defect A (wrong orientation)
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Through Transmission Technique Transmitting and receiving probes on opposite sides of the specimen Presence of defect indicated by reduction in transmission signal No indication of defect location Fail safe method Tx Rx Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

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Through Transmission Technique Advantages • Less attenuation • No probe ringing • No dead zone • Orientation does not matter Disadvantages • Defect not located • Defect can’t be identified • Vertical defects don’t show • Must be automated • Need access to both surfaces Name Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Transmission with Reflection T R Also known as: Tandem Technique or Pitch and Catch Technique Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

Ultrasonic Pulse • A short pulse of electricity is applied to a piezo-electric crystal • The crystal begins to vibration increases to maximum amplitude and then decays Maximum 10% of Maximum Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Pulse length Name .

1 or 2 cycles Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Long pulse 12 cycles Name .Pulse Length • The longer the pulse. the more penetrating the sound • The shorter the pulse the better the sensitivity and resolution Short pulse.

Ideal Pulse Length 5 cycles for weld testing Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

The Sound Beam • Dead Zone • Near Zone or Fresnel Zone • Far Zone or Fraunhofer Zone Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

The Sound Beam NZ Intensity varies Exponential Decay FZ Main Beam Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Distance Name .

The side lobes has multi minute main beams Two identical defects may give different amplitudes of signals Side Lobes Near Zone The main beam or the centre beam has the highest intensity of sound energy Main Lobe Any reflector hit by the main beam will reflect the high amount of energy Main Beam Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

Sound Beam Near Zone • Thickness measurement • Detection of defects • Sizing of large defects only Far Zone • Thickness measurement • Defect detection • Sizing of all defects Near zone length as small as possible Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

Near Zone D Near Zone  4 V  f 2 D f Near Zone  4V Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name 2 .

000  21.000.Near Zone • What is the near zone length of a 5MHz compression probe with a crystal diameter of 10mm in steel? D f Near Zone  4V 2 10  5.920.1mm Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name 2 .000  4  5.

Near Zone D Near Zone  4 2 D f  4V 2 • The bigger the diameter the bigger the near zone • The higher the frequency the bigger the near zone • The lower the velocity the bigger the near zone Should large diameter crystal probes have a high or low frequency? Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

Which of the above probes has the longest Near Zone ? 1 M Hz 1 M Hz 5 M Hz 5 M Hz Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

Near Zone D Near Zone  4 2 D f  4V 2 • The bigger the diameter the bigger the near zone • The higher the frequency the bigger the near zone • The lower the velocity the bigger the near zone Should large diameter crystal probes have a high or low frequency? Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

Beam Spread • In the far zone sound pulses spread out as they move away from the crystal /2   K KV Sine  or 2 D Df Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

22 20dB.K=1.K=1.08 6dB.K=0.56 Beam axis or Main Beam Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .Beam Spread  K KV Sine  or 2 D Df Edge.

a compression or a shear wave probe? Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .Beam Spread  K KV Sine  or 2 D Df • The bigger the diameter the smaller the beam spread • The higher the frequency the smaller the beam spread Which has the larger beam spread.

08  5920  5000  10 o  0.1278  7.5MHz compression wave probe in steel? KV Sine  2 Df 1.Beam Spread • What is the beam spread of a 10mm.35 Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name  .

Which of the above probes has the Largest Beam Spread ? 1 M Hz 1 M Hz 5 M Hz 5 M Hz Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

a compression or a shear wave probe? Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .Beam Spread  K KV Sine  or 2 D Df • The bigger the diameter the smaller the beam spread • The higher the frequency the smaller the beam spread Which has the larger beam spread.

Testing close to side walls Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

Sound at an Interface • Sound will be either transmitted across or reflected back Reflected Interface How much is reflected and transmitted depends upon the relative acoustic impedance of the 2 materials Transmitted Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

The Phenomenon of Sound REFLECTION REFRACTION DIFFRACTION Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

The Phenomenon of Sound REFLECTION REFRACTION DIFFRACTION Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

Law of Reflection • Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection 60o 60o Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

Inclined incidence(not at Incident o 90 ) Transmitted The sound is refracted due to differences in sound velocity in the 2 DIFFERENT materials Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

REFRACTION • Only occurs when: The incident angle is other than 0° 30° Water Steel Water Steel Steel Steel Refracted Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

REFRACTION • Only occurs when: The incident angle is other than 0° The Two Materials has different VELOCITIES 30° Steel Steel 30° Water Steel 30° 65° No Refraction Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Refracted Name .

Snell’s Law Normal Incident I Material 1 Material 2 R Refracted Sine I Vel in Material 1  Sine R Vel in Material 2 Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

4580 Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .4580  0.3 5960 0.Snell’s Law C 20 Sine I Vel in Material 1  Sine R Vel in Material 2 Perspex Steel 48.3 C Sine 20 2730  Sine 48.

565 R  34.4 C Sine 15 2730  Sine R 5960 5960 SinR  Sin15 2730 SinR  0.Snell’s Law C 15 Sine I Vel in Material 1  Sine R Vel in Material 2 Perspex Steel 34.4 Name Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Snell’s Law C 20 Perspex Steel 48.3 24 S Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name C .

Snell’s Law C C When an incident beam of sound approaches an interface of two different materials: REFRACTION occurs Perspex Steel There may be more than one waveform transmitted into the second material. example: Compression and Shear When a waveform changes into another waveform: MODE CHANGE S S Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd C C Name .

Snell’s Law C If the angle of Incident is increased the angle of refraction also increases Up to a point where the Compression Wave is at 90° from the Normal This happens at the FIRST CRITICAL ANGLE Perspex Steel 90° S Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd C Name .

4 Compression wave refracted at 90 degrees C 33 S Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .1st Critical Angle C 27.

2nd Critical Angle C 57 C S (Surface Wave) 90 Shear wave refracted at 90 degrees Shear wave becomes a surface wave Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

2 Sine I 2730  Sine 90 5960 Perspex C Steel Sin90  1 2730 SinI  5960 SinI  0.458 I  27.1st Critical Angle Calculation C 27.26 Name S Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

4 Perspex Steel Sine I 2730  Sine 90 3240 S Sin90  1 2730 SinI  3240 SinI  0.8425 I  57.4 Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .2nd Critical Angle Calculation C C 57.

And 2nd. Critical Angle: All waves are reflected out of the material. 90° Beyond the 2nd.1st. C Before the 1st. Critical Angle: Only SHEAR wave in the material. S C Between the 1st. Critical Angle: There are both Compression and Shear wave in the second material At the FIRST CRITICAL ANGLE Compression wave refracted at 90° Shear wave at 33 degrees in the material 2nd. NO wave in the material. Compression is reflected out of the material. 33° At the 2nd. Critical Angle: Shear is refracted to 90° and become SURFACE wave Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .

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70) • Stated angle is refracted angle in steel • No angle probe under 35.60. and more than 80: to avoid being 2 waves in the same material. One Defect Two Echoes C C S Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name S .Summary • Standard angle probes between 1st and 2nd critical angles (45.

5808  35.Snell’s Law • Calculate the 1st critical angle for a perspex/copper interface • V Comp perspex : 2730m/sec • V Comp copper : 4700m/sec 2730 SinI   0.5 4700 Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Name .