PRESENTED BYHeemaal Kaul Manish Srivastava Heemaal Kaul


Introduction  Although feet were designed to walk barefoot on earth’s natural surfaces (grass. The way your feet are positioned provides the foundation for the body’s skeletal alignment. causing pain in the knees. they were not prepared to endure the concrete asphalt and steel that covers landscapes today. sand or gravel) . Whether you are standing still or in motion your feet are your first point of contact with the ground. . A flat shoes provides little arch or lateral support and even slight shifts instance over time could lead to misalignment. hips and back.

(flat foot) .Foot Types  Foot types  There are three types of foot Pes curve  Normal arch  Pes planus.

.The curvature is very less and these people are not advised to wear flip flops as they are more prone to health hazards related to muscles and tendons in the feet.

Walking postures .

Foot anthropometric study .

5 22.5 16.. Shoe Size (UK) 5 6 7 Inches 413⁄16 51⁄8 51⁄2 Centimetres 12 13 14 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 513⁄16 61⁄8 61⁄2 613⁄16 71⁄8 71⁄2 713⁄16 81⁄8 81⁄2 813⁄16 91⁄8 91⁄2 913⁄16 15 15.6 21.4 23 24 25 .1 20 20.5 18 19.5 17.Continued.


Dust might get accumulated in between toes and people can get allergy and infections. . it is less protected and the heels wouldn’t necessarily stay on the sole . it shifts and goes in opposite direction causing weird walking postures.Feet tend to shift from sole. it is important to clean one’s feet frequently. If they shift out .

The name flip flop originated of the sound it made by slapping between the sole of the foot and the floor while walking. .What are flip flops?  Flip flops are a type of open toed footwear typically worn in casual situations such as outside or at the beach.  They consist of a flat sole held loosely on the foot by a Y shape strap that passes between the first and the second toe.

Flip flops are made of plastic foams .  However one should be very careful and conscious about the material used because some of these can be very hazardous particularly when subjected to great heat and direct fire. .Materials  Flip flops are made from a wide variety of materials. This pair up is very impressive since they are more saleable rather than the plain ones. Material used are rubber . plastic . foam . leather . Some use different material in one pair to add creativity and class. suede and even fabric. special woods or a combination of different raw materials depending on kind. vinyl or polyurethane .

The main reasons for its popularity can be that it is comfortable . . it is considered to be the staple footwear. free to breathe and wont stink when you wear closed toe shoes all day. It is best suited for summers and places where it is mostly warm . They are very cheap too. Wearing flip flops is the next best thing to going bare foot.Popularity  Flip flops are most comfortable and easy to wear footwear. It’s a casual wear. simple design making it really easy to slip them on and off and no hassles with tying shoe laces. Feet would be exposed . so they feel cool . Flip flop started to become popular among teenagers and college students especially girls.

Available for any occasion.  The sound it creates while getting down the stairs is very irritating. . fancy. Disadvantages  Strain in walking  Feet can get really dusty and dirty  Chances of sun burns and rashes if worn in scorching heat  If strap is tight.Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Comfortable  Easy to wear.  Sweat less – gives a feeling close to being bare foot. shoe bite and rashes due to fiction and heat. You just need to slip it on. casual .  More breathing space  Airy.

legs and feet. the foot rolls further inward than normal when it hits the ground.  Ankle sprains or broken bones are also common injuries due to stepping off a curb or tumbling. resulting in pain in ankles .an action called over pronation .  A study said that flip flop wearers took shorter steps and these heels hit the ground with less vertical force that those wearing athletic shoes. Individuals with flat feet or other foot issues are advised to wear shoes with better support  Since they have spongy sole .the ankle bends but the flip flops neither hold on to support it. which is responsible for many foot problems and over pronation may also lead to flat feet.Health hazards  Walking for long periods in flip flops can be very tough on the feet . .

it ultimately changes one’s knee response to each step and it puts additional stress on ligaments . Since flip flops change the way the foot strikes the ground. . muscles and tendons in the knee. hip and back.Flip flops actually change the way your foot strikes the ground and alter mechanics at knee.

Continued  Flip flops can cause over use of tendons in the feet . leading to tendonitis. who often have poor circulation and feeling in their feet . bruises or stubbed toes.  The open toed nature of the thongs may result in cuts. the lack of an ankle strap that holds the foot in place is also a common injury as this causes wearers to scrunch their toes in an effort to keep the flip flops in place . wearing flip flops can expose them not only to injury but infection too. scrapes . .  For people with diabetes .  Those with balance issues may find it hard to feel secure while wearing rubbery flip flops. resulting in tendonitis .

 The arch of the foot is over stressed because there is no under line support from a shoe. . the unstructured shoes can add strain to feet that are already stressed with carrying extra weight. spotting. All the body weight gets put on that arch (plantas fascisticinflammation of the soft tissues on the bottom of the feet). and teenagers tend to use them most of the time.Continued  Those suffering from obesity. This habit can lead to many health issues.  Flip flops are opted for every occasion now .

During winters or cold climate. flip flops are generally avoided yet few youngsters dare to wear them and wear them with toe socks. While walking feet and the flip flops tend to go in two different directions . During rainy season it is avoided as it splashes water (dirt) all over the lower part of your leg. During summers it is preferred due to the choice of exposing your feet. If one is wearing a denim. it can spoil clothing. and your feet sweat less due to space for breathing. It happens due to the slamming of the slipper or ground and heels.Effects of environment  Environment and weather has a major role in the usage of flip flops.

 There are more chances of the user tumbling or falling  It will be very difficult to walk and balance  If they are loose you will feel compelled to grip the thong strap between your toes with each step.Importance of using right shoe size IF THE SHOE IS LARGER THAN YOUR SIZE Your feet wouldn’t be placed in the flip flop always. . Doing this for a longer time can lead to maladies such as blisters and hammer toes. it will tend to move out of the sole which can lead to cuts and bruises.

Continued IF THE FLIP FLOP SIZE IS SMALLER THAN YOUR FEET It can cause shoe bite. cuts and scarps  During really hot summers. there are high chances of blisters. it can tend to cause skin infections below the strap. due to friction. heat and sweat . rashes and itching  It will be painful and very uncomfortable to walk if it very tight  If the heels are peeping out of the sole.

 Lack of ankle strap leads to injuries  Scrunching of toes in order to keep flip flop in place.rubbing during walking  Open toed nature makes the toes vulnerable to cuts.  Flip flop wearers take shorter steps and heels the ground with less vertical force than those wearing athletic shoes.  Ankle sprain is a common injury  Frictional issues by the straps.  Overuse of tendons in one’s feet results in tendonitis. resulting in pain in the ankles. scarps and bruises .Ergonomical issues  Walking on for long period can be tough on feet. legs and feet.

Solutions .

Cushioned padding comfortable wearing. This is provided for grip. This also ensures that the heel doesn’t move out of the slipper for Cushion support on the base to provide arc support which reduces strain while walking. . This feature is to reduce the problem of more stress while working as the sole would be attached to the foot.These two protrusions are given such that it would clasp the calcaneus bone when one slips into the flip flops.

For arc support and comfortable wearing This is elevated so that the toes are protected. wall etc. . Sometimes there is a tendency to hit the toes against table . Plastic or rubber would cause blackening of skin. Broader straps with cushion padding below for comfort wearing.

The form of the strap is such that the smaller toes wouldn’t hit anything while walking as it is enclosed.The straps are made broader with cushion padding below for comfortable wearing. .

one tends to take longer foot steps and this causes strain in heel and backbone. When someone wears the slippers it stretches and rightly fit the feet. If one wears loose flip flops . This avoids the flip flops to become loose. .The knot is made of soft leather or fabric which has elastic in it.