New Paradigm

 Since the 19th Century, revolutionary

changes have been occurring at an unprecedented rate in science and technology with a profound impact on our lives  Inventions of ICs, computers, the Internet, discovery and complete mapping of the human genome, and many more have transformed the entire world  We have also learned from nature!

 Solid foundations of scientific understanding have

been laid to guide the improved usage and processing technology of natural fibers and the manufacturing of synthetic fibers  The technology has progressed so that manufactured fibers and their products surpass natural fibers in many aspects  Biological routes for synthesizing polymers or textile processing represent an environmentally friendly, sustainable way of utilizing natural resources

Textiles Materials for Every Need
 Optimized moisture  Increased abrasion

management Better heat flow control Improved thermal insulation Breathability High performance in hazard protection Environmental friendly

 

resistance Health control and healing aid Body control Easy care High aesthetic appeal Enhanced handle High/low visibility

ceramics. metal. or carbon to produce lightweight hybrids with incredible properties. and even form.Engineered Textiles  Engineered textiles are materials that are developed and/or designed for a special need or application where a very high performance is required  Engineered textiles may combine fabrics with glass. such as silicone coatings and holographic laminates. texture. Sophisticated finishes. transform color. .

Durability HIGH PERFORMANCE Appearance Retention Comfort Protection Engineered/Smart Textile Materials Sustainable Resource No Environmental Harm Safe Human Use .


and can intelligently function with environmental stimuli .be mimicked?  The skin has sensors that can detect pressure. ambient conditions. pain.Smart Technology  We are inspired to mimic nature in order to create clothing materials with higher levels of functions and smartness  Cloning silk fibers was a first step  Can the skin -a smart material.etc.

magnetic or other sources. memory-shaped and environmentresponsive textiles. . electrical. chemical.  SIT are no longer a science-fiction fantasy. thermal. there are in the market self-cleaning carpets. and anti-insomniac microfibers. such as those from mechanical. For example. Smart/interactive textiles (SIT) are materials and structures that sense and react to environmental conditions or stimuli.

react and adapt themselves accordingly.  Very smart materials. which can only sense the environmental condition or stimuli. and  Intelligent materials. which are those capable of responding or activated to perform a function in a manual or pre-programmed manner  How does a smart material work? . According to the manner of reaction. which sense and react to the condition or stimuli. which can sense.  Active smart materials. SIT can be divided into:  Passive smart materials.

Trigger or Stimuli The sensors provide a nerve Sensing system to detect signals CONTROLLING The processor analyzes and Processing evaluates the signals Response or Action The actuators act upon the Actuation detected and evaluated signal either directly or from a central control unit .

and nano-materials .Areas of R & D  For sensors .actuators:  photo-sensitive materials  fibre optics  conductive polymers  thermal sensitive materials  shape memory materials  intelligent coating materials  chemical responsive materials  micro-capsules  micro.

Areas of R & D (2)  For signal transmission. processing and control:   neural networks and control systems cognition theory and systems  For integrated processes and products:  wearable electronics and photonics  adaptive and responsive structures  bio-mimics  tissue engineering  chemical/drug releasing .

garment-washed anti-fungal properties. appearance for a natural look system to increase oxygen levels. the focus is on specialty products engineered for specific end-uses and on creative ways to market these products TM is Microdenier nylons are soft textile and Holofiber acan responsive A textured yarn achieve sumptuous with the a dull matte that works effects with energy multicolor inbody’s one dye bath. casual shirts. anti-microbial and fabrics a soft and blouses. One nylon build strength in the body only accepts acid dyes and rejects cationic ones. efficiencies improves and colorfastness with cotton feel and easy care blood circulation. It is a combination of two accelerate muscle recovery and modified nylons 6. Copper is dimensional stability. ease of dyeing improved processing contact with the skin. etc. for gradually absorbed upon direct transportability. moisture denims. a new comfort stretch Copper fibers have antiCopolymers of polyester provide fiber is with blended in hand. increases energy and has anti-arthritic properties .6.Fiber Focus Today. cotton shirts inflammatory. the other one acts the opposite way Lastol.

They can be imbedded into the weave of almost any fabric. The reflectors are smaller than a grain of sand and finer than a human hair. . During the day.Reflective Technology A technology has been created to convert proprietary materials into miniature reflectors that. The end result is a fabric that remains soft to the touch and retains its function and fashion. reflect oncoming light. the treated fabrics are indistinguishable from untreated fabrics. in a way that illuminates the full silhouette of a person. bicycle or any other object. when imbedded into fabric by the millions. such as automobile headlights.

actively cooling the wearer through evaporation. inner lining . The batting is sandwiched between a breathable outer shell fabric and a thermally conductive. and helping to maintain the core body temperature in high-heat environments It is a three-layer design that combines special hydrophilic and hydrophobic fibers into a fibrous batting core.Thermal Performance Enhancing Fabric Hydroweave® provides extraordinary protection against heat.

and evaporating it quickly on the face. spreading it over the fabric. 3XDRY® uses a special process to apply a hydrophilic finish on the back that wicks perspiration away from the body. which remains highly breathable. . The two functions are truly separated within the fabric.Flash Dried Fabrics 3XDRY® finishing technology was developed to provide a treatment that retains water resistance on the face of a fabric and increases wicking on the back. It also has a hydrophobic finish that repels water and dirt. The fabric dries six to eight times faster than untreated fabric. 3XDRY ® also incorporates a hygienic treatment to control odor.

and restraining and limiting that motion. and polycaprolactone (PCL). which provides flexibility and cushioning During a collision. which provides restraining properties. . elongating and cushioning the body as it absorbs the energy of its forward motion.Protective Flex The new ―smart response‖ fiber is proving to enhance passenger safety because of its unique energymanagement properties. Securus™ is the first in a new category of polyester copolymer fibers being developed for managed-load applications. It combines polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Securus fiber seat belts protect the passenger in a three-step process: holding the passenger securely in place.

the hydrogel releases water and contracts. which is embedded in an open-cell foam layer bonded to the inside of a closed-cell neoprene layer in a composite wet suit fabric with nylon or nylon/Lycra® outer and inner layers. If the water warms up past a transition temperature determined by the proportion of hydrophilic to hydrophobic components.Thermal Sensitivity SmartSkin™ hydrogel is a new technology involving a hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymer. . allowing more water to flush through the suit. SmartSkin absorbs cold water that has flushed into the suit and expands to close openings at the hands. feet and neck. Water trapped inside the suit heats up upon body contact. preventing more water from entering. This passive system constantly regulates the internal temperature — no batteries or mechanical action are needed.

storing. keeping the wearer’s skin temperature within a comfortable range. It recycles body heat by absorbing. Outlast was first developed for use in astronaut uniforms and as a protection for instruments against the severe temperature changes in outer space. hard shells. The technology is now used in apparel. Outlast is a paraffin wax compound that is micro-encapsulated into thousands of miniscule. impenetrable. distributing and releasing heat on a continuous basis.Phase Change Materials Outlast® temperature-regulating technology effectively recycles body heat. keeping the wearer’s skin temperature within a comfortable range. equipment and linens. . footwear.

The changes to the fibers are undetectable and do not affect the natural hand and breathability of the fabric . and the particles can be configured to imbue the fabric with various attributes. The change occurs at the molecular level.Nano Technology  Nano-particles are permanently attached to cotton or synthetic fibers. Nanotechnology combines the performance characteristics associated with synthetics with the hand and feel of cotton Nano-fibers attached to cotton fibers Nano-fibers cause liquids to roll off  Nano-fibers 1/1000 the size of a typical cotton fiber are attached to the individual fibers.

Clothing can extend the user’s senses. storing. augment the view of reality and provide useful information anytime and anywhere the user goes. A revolutionary new property of clothing is to exchange information.Clothing is now capable of recording. Application fields are: • Working: displaying helpful data. sending and displaying data. calling for help . connecting to the internet or to other people • Medicine: monitoring health parameters • Security: detecting danger.Wearable Technology Clothing is currently supposed to have more functions than just certain climatic protection and good look. analyzing. which is a new dimension if intelligent systems. These functions can be referred to wearing and durability properties.

The bicomponent fibers in Fossfibre are specially designed so that AgION is found only on the sheath. Ambient moisture in the air causes lowlevel release that effectively maintains an anti-microbial surface.Microbes Begone! An anti-microbial technology has been developed by which it embeds AgION™. As the humidity increases and the environment becomes ideal for bacteria growth. a silver-based inorganic zeolite. in a solution-dyed polyester Fossfibre® bicomponent fiber. providing controlled release for optimum exposure to the destructive bacteria. . Fossfibre with AgION is suitable for all textile applications in which anti-microbial protection is desired. The silver ions from the ceramic compound are released at a slow and steady rate. more silver is released.

depth of shade or optical transparency by application of an electrical or magnetic field could have applications in coatings. hue. . additives or stand alone fibers. it varies due to structural changes with the application of an electromagnetic field.Bio-mimics Fibers have been developed that can quickly change their color. The change in color is due to the absence of specific wavelengths of light. Varying the electrical or magnetic field changes the optical properties of certain oligomeric and molecular moieties by altering their absorption coefficients in the visible spectrum as a result of changes in their molecular structure.

The most frequently used textile-based scaffolds are non-woven structures. Such an engineering approach would solve the severe shortage problem associated with organ transplants. .Tissue Engineering Tissue engineering uses living cells and their extracellular components with textile-based biomaterial scaffolds to develop biological tissues for human body repair. because then there is no permanent foreign-body tissue reaction toward the scaffolds and. over time. preferably of biodegradable materials. Textile-based scaffolds have been used for such tissue engineering purposes. The scaffolds provide support for cellular attachment and subsequent controlled proliferation into predefined tissue shapes. there is more volume space into which the engineered tissue can grow.


and woven composites (passive systems)  Protective clothing can greatly improve performance by adding smart/interactive features  Smart thermal protective clothing:      Detection of vital signals Global Positioning System (GPS) Wireless. thermal-stable fibers. hands-free communication Cooling – warming system Incorporated warning signaling .Implications for Research  Protective textile materials benefit from the development of a myriad of high-performance.

3-layer interlock woven structure Multi-layered woven structures can increase thermal and fire protection by adding controlled air gaps. and physiological comfort air gaps 5-layer interlock woven structure In a structured layered system. They can be tailored to provide other features such as an anti-static system. smart features may be added and supported by the matrix formed .

the system can detect the extent of falls. Used in conjunction with a wireless-enabled radio system.Detection of Vital Signals Sensatex is developing a SmartShirt™ System specifically for the protection of public safety personnel. namely firefighters. police officers. the SmartShirt™ can monitor the health and safety of public safety personnel/victims trapped in a building or underneath rubble with the ability to detect the exact location of victims through positioning capability. it also offers twoway voice communication . and the presence of hazardous gases. In addition to monitoring vital signs. and rescue teams.

Global Positioning System (GPS) Textiles integrated with sensory devices driven by a GPS can detect a user’s exact location anytime and in any weather. GPS can provide added safety for firefighters and emergency personnel by facilitating offsite monitoring of vitals . Interactive electronic textiles with integrated GPS enhance safety by quickly locating the wearer and allowing the suit to be heated.

these currents can transmit data at speed equivalent to a 2400-baud modem .Wireless. hands-free communication Fabric area networks (FANs) enable electronic devices to exchange digital information. power. FANs use wireless RF communication links using currents measuring one nanoamp. and control signals within the user’s personal space and remote locations.

The heat is then transferred via a flexible heat pipe to the atmosphere with the help of an evaporative cooling heat exchanger. alive in the searing temperatures of deserts. . It is designed to be worn by personnel underneath NBC (nuclear. mines and major fires. firefighters.Cooling – Warming System A new high-tech vest has been developed to help keep soldiers. The vest uses a personal cooling system (PCS). which is based on heat pipe technology which works by collecting body heat through vapor filled cavities in a vest worn on the body. etc. body armor and other protective clothing. The heat exchanger is similar in principle to a bush fridge where a cold cloth is put over a container and the temperature drop caused by evaporation keeps the food cool. biological and chemical) clothing.

If vital signals were below critical values.Warning Signaling A combination of sensors and small flexible light emitting displays (FLED) can receive and respond to stimuli from the body. a flashing red light. temperature. and a wireless communication system could send a distress signal to a remote location. respiration. a FLED would automatically display. The sensors can monitor EKG. for example. enabling a warning signal to be displayed or sent. . and pulse oximetry readings. heart rate.

or spun from the fleece of animals  And the future promises even more!  What new capacities should we expect as a result of future developments in smart/interactive textiles? . modified and tailored in ways far beyond the performance limit of fibers drawn from the silkworm cocoon. grown in the fields.What Lies Ahead?  The range and variety of high performance textiles that have been developed to meet present and future requirements are now considerable  Textile materials are now combined.

cognition and holism  The new capability of tera scale takes us three orders of magnitude beyond the present general-purpose and generally accessible computing capabilities. complexity. They should include tera and nano scale magnitudes. and fleets of medical nano-robots smaller than a human cell to eliminate cancers. infections. The technology of nano scale takes us three orders of magnitude below the size of most of today’s humanmade devices   It allows to arrange molecules inexpensively in most of the ways permitted by physical laws It lets make supercomputers that fit on the head of a fiber. clogged arteries .

etc  Fabrics and composites integrated with optical fibers sensors are used to monitor bridges and buildings  Garments integrated with sensors and motherboards can detect and transmit injury and health information of the wearer . helmets. Fibers are relentlessly replacing traditional materials in many more applications. to construction materials for moon-based space stations  Heat generating/storing fibers/fabrics are now being used in skiwear. to artificial organs. From super-absorbent diapers. shoes.

textiles are imparted with very high energy absorption capacity and other functions such as stain proofing. etc. . abrasion resistance. are grown from textile scaffolds made from biodegradable fibers  Integrated with nano-materials. like ears and noses. Clothing with its own senses and brain are integrated with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and mobile phone technology to provide the position of the wearer and directions  Biological tissues and organs. light emission.