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MOTIVATION

Motives and their roles

Motive is an inner state that mobilizes bodily energy and directs it in selective fashion towards goals usually located in external environment. An inner force which reflects goaldirected arousal
MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY
Lars Perner, Instructor

Motivation:

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Roles

Defining basic strivings


E.g. safety, achievement or other desired state which the consumers want to achieve

Identifying goal objects


Products and services are the means by which they can satisfy their motives Motivational push influences consumers to identify products as goal objects e.g. promotion campaigns

Influencing choice criteria


Motives can also guide consumers in developing criteria for evaluating products. E.g. car buying motives can be many like convenience, transport, speed control, styling , mileage

Deciding other influences


Motives affect the determinants of perception, learning, personality and how people process information.

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

Motive combinations

Motive linking As motives can differ in how specific they are there is a possibility of linking to occur at various stages e.g. safety and durability

Motive bundling
Realization that the same product can satisfy various motives at the same approximate level of satisfaction e.g. for an automobile purchase ,a desire for transportation can bundle with motives for achievement, social recognition, safety etc
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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

Motive Conflict

Conflict is most likely when motive are of approximately same strength Three principal cases possible are Approach-avoidance Approach-approach Avoidance-avoidance

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

APPROACH-APPROACH CONFLICT

A situation occurs when there are 2 desirable alternatives ( decision to whether buy a computer or a home exercise centre) This conflict is said to be unstable Can resolve through exposure to information useful in evaluating the alternatives

consumer

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

AVOIDANCE AVOIDANCE CONFLICT

The situation occurs when consumers face choices between two alternatives booth are perceived to be negative in nature ( e.g. TV set is ill and two options are available either hefty repair bill or replacement)

consumer
RepairRs.8000/BSAD 112

MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

Often

stable in nature and may lead to search for information but often stop short of purchase commitment.

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

APPROACH AVOIDANCE CONFLICTS


Often

occur when making decisions on a single product in which both positive and negative aspects are involved

+ consumer

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

E.g.

to acquire a car, consumer may hesitate because of scarcity of sizeable amount of money required to purchase the car. Marketers have developed means to reduce the avoidance aspect of such conflicts.

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Risk Reduction Strategies

By the consumer
gathering information safe choices

By manufacturer/retailer
money-back guarantees warranties trial periods

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

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MOTIVATION, ABILITY, AND OPPORTUNITY

What do we need for behavior to take place?


Motivation Ability Opportunity

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Ability
Knowledge and experience Intelligence Education Age Resources Cognitive activity

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

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Opportunity
Time Amount of information Complexity Repetition

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Exposure, Attention, and Perception


What

is necessary to reach consumers?

Exposure (e.g., consumer must see your billboard) Attention (e.g., consumer must look at ad message) Perception (e.g., consumer must take in message)

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

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How Do You Gain Exposure?

E.g..
Research target group habits Computer screen savers Point-of-purchase displays

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

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Selective Exposure

How much attention are you likely to give to the following advertising encounters?
radio ad while driving ad in newspaper or magazine freeway billboard direct mail appeal

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

Lars Perner, Instructor

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How Can We Increase Consumers Exposure?


Repetition Wide presence

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

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Properties of Attention
Selective Capable of being divided Limited

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

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Some Determinants of Attention Given to Stimuli


Self-relevance

Pleasantness
Surprising

ness Ease of processing

3 7

9 6

= 81

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

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Self-Relevance
Needs, values, and goals Similarity of source

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

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Pleasantness of Stimuli
Attractive visuals Music Humor

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Surprising ness of Stimuli


Novelty Unexpectedness

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Ease of Processing
Prominence Concreteness Contrast

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MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY, AND ABILITY

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