Leveraging Nortel’s 8 Year CDMA Experience For UMTS Product and Engineering

Chang-Gang Zhang (张长钢) Sept. 2003


Version 3.1

Nortel UMTS Key Differentiators
• UMTS (W-CDMA) is fundamentally a CDMA technology • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with industry leading CDMA capacity and performance • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with 8 year solid experience in CDMA Product R&D • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with 8 year extensive experience in network Engineering

UMTS -- A CDMA Technology
Same Technical Characteristics Higher Bandwidth
UMTS 信道间隔 接入方式 双工方式 码片速率 基站同步方式 幀长 调制方式 切换 语音编码 功率控制
5MHz 单载波宽带直接序列 扩频cdma FDD

1.25MHz 单载波宽带直接序列扩 频cdma FDD 1.2288Mcps 同 同步需GPS 20ms等 QPSK(前向),BPSK( 后向) 软切换,频间切换,与 IS-95间的切换 可变速率 (based on voice activity) 开环,闭环(内环,外环) ,速率800Hz

异步(不需GPS), 步 10ms QPSK(前向),BPSK( 后向) 软切换,频间切换, 与GSM间的切换 自适应多速率 (based on RF condition) 闭环(内环,外环),速 率1500Hz


Nortel UMTS Key Differentiators
• UMTS (W-CDMA) is fundamentally a CDMA technology • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with industry leading CDMA capacity and performance • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with solid experience in CDMA Product R&D • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with extensive experience in network Engineering

• 16 个网络 • 8个国家

• 65个运营商 • 17 个国家 • 24%市场份额

• 15% 市场份额

北电网络是唯一在所有主要3G无线技术领域 都有投资和研发的厂商

13 Users/sector/carrier.6 Erlangs @ 1% GOS • Benefit Nortel product development and deployment to deliver high standard UMTS network from day one NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .24 Users/sector/carrier. 6.5 .30 Erlangs @ 1% GOS • Nortel 1XRTT Product has the highest capacity – 35 Users/Sector/carrier. 15. 24.61 Erlangs @ 1% GOS – EVRC .Nortel Industry Leadership in CDMA Capacity • Nortel has deployed CDMA (IS-95/CDMA2000) networks for 65 operators in 17 countries • Nortel has the highest capacity in 2nd Generation CDMA technology – 13k Vocoder .

6 0. revenue.6 1.8 1.8 0.2 1 0.2 0 KPI Improvement for CDMA 3G Voice CDMA2000 AF % CD % • CDMA2000 achieves 4 years IS-95 improvement in one year • Demonstrate experiences gained in product.Nortel Industry Leadership in CDMA Performance (commercial networks) CDMA IS-95 3 2.5 0 AF % CD % KPI Improvement for CDMA 2G 2 1.4 1.4 0.5 2 1.6 19990803 19990805 19990807 19990809 20030804 20030806 20030808 20020806 20020807 20020808 20020809 20020810 20030810 20030806 20030807 20030808 20030809 . lower cost NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .5 1 0. RF design and network optimization • Similar experiences apply to UMTS  Early maturity and high performance means CSAT.

7 90 Data Speed (kbps) NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL . under mobility (40km/h) QOSPI = 76. SCH SHO enabled (2). developed as part of trial. physical layer throughput recorded Results correlated reasonably well with empirical models.8kbps. mixed with commercial voice traffic Finite burst.CDMA 1xRTT Market Data Performance • Customer Field Throughput measurement in loaded network closes to theory with Nortel product – – – – Large cell cluster drive. based on available fwd power Max Data Throughput in 1xRTT Marketing Trial Footprint 100% Probability of Achieving Speed Mkt Trial (Actual) March 2002 (Actual) 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 10 20 30 40 50 c Mkt Trial (Theory) March 2002 (Theory) 60 70 80 NTCDMA .

8 .Nortel UMTS Key Differentiators • UMTS (W-CDMA) is fundamentally a CDMA technology • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with industry leading CDMA capacity and performance • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with solid experience in CDMA Product R&D • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with extensive experience in network Engineering NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

ensures high quality/capacity UMTS networks. 2 years ahead of most competitors. PA power management. – Field Proven Basic CDMA functions. 8 years of CDMA expertise built inside! Reuse of CDMA proven hardware and software NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA . – UMTS RF is 80% component to component compatible with CDMA – ASICs have been field proven avoiding any risk of hardware replacement – 45W MCPA • Univity RNC software – IntelligentRRM (iRM) taken from CDMA. Power control.9 . Strategy is much different from GSM network.How CDMA Was Leveraged in UMTS Access portfolio • Univity iBTS hardware – iBTS architecture base on CDMA Metrocell BTS. soft & softer handoff algorithms taken from CDMA ensure quality and capacity.

10 .How CDMA Was Leveraged in UMTS Univity iBTS • Easier & cheaper PA upgrade costs – Easy expansion to second carrier without reengineering – 55% CAPEX savings for PA upgrade with 3 times less PAs than industry’s standard during network densification 356% PA PA PA PA TRM PA PA PA 180% PA PA Coupling Coupling Coupling 356% 246% 180% PA PA 246% Normal 100% No Solution Coupling Coupling Coupling Coupling Coupling Coupling OTSR PA PA 38% TRM PA 100% PA PA PA Coupling Coupling TRM PA Coupling 5Mhz 10Mhz 15Mhz Tx Diversity 5Mhz 10Mhz 15Mhz Tx Diversity Nortel Competitor CDMA experience minimize Capex and Opex NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

11 . – OTSR for initial network launch to minimize network cost for best performance.How CDMA Was Leveraged in UMTS Univity iBTS • Higher coverage – Nortel Networks Univity iBTS 45W PA offers 15% additional coverage. – Asymmetrical Design offer additional 25% coverage. CDMA experience minimize Capex and Opex NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA . – Boomer Cell • Up to 90W per Carrier • Higher coverage/capacity for higher data rates • Higher Capacity – One Cabinet Solution for 15MHz + Tx Diversity (20W per carrier per sector).

12 MobilKom / Airtel Launch Q4/2002 UMTS2000 .How CDMA Was Leveraged in UMTS MCPA in iBTS Competitors follow Mono/bi-carrier design The competition copies our strategy … Vendor E announces MCPA Vendor N announces MCPA Vendor E MCPA Vendor N Mono/bi carrier 1990s 2000 2001 late2002/3? Nortel Networks TDMA MCPA Nortel Networks First 3GPP iBTS Complete multi carrier design with continuing enhancements Cannes 2/2001 Airtel 12/2000 NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

net-meeting.How CDMA Was Leveraged in UMTS Univity RNC • Successful handovers – Nortel Networks is the first 3G vendor to supply full 3G mobility (soft/softer handover in packet and voice) meaning: • Less dropped calls • Less waste of call processing resources – First 3G vendor to perform 3G-to-2G handover calls on end to end 3GPP network Soft. secured and lossless 3G services Need 3G services without too much demand on QoS Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom CDMA experience ensures QoS. coverage & NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL maximizes profitability NTCDMA . Video Conference. Silver and Bronze) • Cost Reduction • Subscriber Satisfaction • Maximized Revenues College Student Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom Brown User Executive Gold User Willing to pay much more if his need is satisfied. reliable. ecommerse… Need high bandwidth. email. Softer & hard HO • Nortel’s Market Leading QoS – User Segmentations (Gold.13 .

How CDMA Was Leveraged in UMTS Boomer Cell • 增强前向链路 • 增强反向链路 • 解决时延问题 - 90W 功放 采用高性能塔顶低噪声放大器, 改善反向链路 采用增强型信道单元模块和软件 .话务信道搜索窗可调-.14 .径向切换 10倍于普通基站的覆盖范围 NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .扩大接入信道搜索窗 .

3 0.1 0.1 22:06:36 22:06:40 Time 22:06:45 22:06:49 22:06:53 NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .1 BTS Forward Power .5 0.1xRTT Voice Fast fading Log (distance) 22:06:32 -0.7 0.IS95 Voice 1.9 0.15 .Down Link Power Control (CDMA) • Fast power control is critical • CDMA DL power control is enhanced from 50Hz in IS-95 to 800Hz in CDMA-2000 • Nortel DL power control sync algorithm is key differentiator Fast Forward Power Control (1xRTT) vs Slow Forward Power Control (IS95) 1.3 Signal level (dB) Slow fading Path loss Forward Power (Watts) BTS Forward Power .

16 . Avg. Avg. (Average of DL SIR) NTCDMA . (Average of BestEcNo) 40 10 0 -30 NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL 6 per. Mov. (Average of DL TPC NORM) Average of DL TPC NORM Average of RL 2 Average of BestEcNo Average of BLR DTCH 4 per. Avg. Mov.Down Link Power Control (UMTS) • UMTS has implemented faster DL power control – UMTS power control speed at 1500Hz – Inner loop power update on per slot basis – Outer loop SIR update on per frame or TTI basis • Power Control sync is more important and challenge to implement 50 100 90 80 30 70 20 60 50 40 30 -10 20 -20 10 0 Average of DL SIR Average of RL 1 6 per. Mov.

MCTA for Multi Carrier Resource Pooling (CDMA) PCS Band • Nortel developed and implemented MCTA algorithm for multi carrier resource pooling • Support up to 9 carrier allocation • Support carrier allocation across different frequency band • Manage resources for both voice and data • Increase trunking efficiency for high capacity FWA F1 ① F2 ② ③ ④ ⑤ F3 F7 F7 F8 F7 F8 F9 ⑥ ⑦ F9 Cellular Band MCTA Erlang Gain 13k 8k/EVRC 13k 8k/EVRC 2 Carriers 12% 9% 10% 8% NTCDMA .17 Mobility 3 Carriers 16% 13% 13% 10% NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL .

in case of same priority. select the lowest loaded • GSM could be the last resort if all WCDMA carriers are overloaded GSM F2 Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom F1 NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .18 .iMCTA for UMTS Traffic Management • Similar algorithm applied to UMTS • Support up to 4 frequencies with load threshold and priority • Select highest priority first.

power) 60% Tv=80% 100% NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .19 . data at least 20% Voice Power (% of max. power) Td=40% 20% Voice and Data both guaranteed Voice is guaranteed at least 60%.RRM Balance Resources and QoS (CDMA) • Aggressive RRM in handling the resource allocation for voice and data is critical to achieve high – Capacity – Service availability – Quality 100% Max. Power line CEM GPSAM TRM CEM CEM CCM (0) TRM CEM TRM Data Power (% of max.

8kbps 153.20 9.6kbps .2kbps 38. Revenue Nortel is delivering this performance !!! NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA . customers will get desired bandwidth as they need it CSAT.4kbps 76.6kbps 19.RRM Balance Resources and QoS (CDMA) • • RRM algorithm and RRM parameter optimization delivers QoS Customer field measured bandwidth availability vs request demonstrate good performance 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 BW Request BW Available % With good RRM algorithm and optimized parameters.

Intelligent RRM for Managed QoS (UMTS) Managed QoS. Higher Capacity.21 . Differentiation NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

for call assignment NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA . etc. link quality. user QoS.22 .iRRM for Managed QoS (UMTS) Call Admission Control • Intelligent CAC in RRM by considering resources. cell loading.

23 .iRRM for Managed QoS (UMTS) Scheduling • Scheduling in RRM performs RB reconfiguration when link becomes weak for better resources utilization NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

reliable. net-meeting. e-mail. e-commerse… Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom 严先生 College Student 赵先生 Executive Need high bandwidth. Nortel has the best knowledge to implement UMTS QoS without impacting CDMA network stability. Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom Video Conference. On line chat and Music/Picture download… Only afford existing GSM monthly bill for 3G services. Silver and Bronze) Brown User Gold User Willing to pay much more if his need is satisfied. NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA . secured and lossless wireless services Need basic 3G services without too much demand on QoS Maximize UMTS network profitability. Entertainment Web Browsing.24 . With 8 years CDMA experience.iRRM for Managed QoS (UMTS) User Segmentations (Gold.

25 .Advanced Hard Handover Algorithm (CDMA) Nortel Multi Pilot Hard Handover • Multi Pilot Hard Handover greatly improves hard handover robustness – Multi carrier overlay creates carrier boundary – Hard handover takes place at carrier boundary – Single target hard handover experiences higher failure rate – Multi pilots provide multiple handover targets – Mobile enters soft handover immediately after hard handover – Increase hard handover success rate by 5% RTD threshold boundary Transiti on Cell F2 In-traffic Hard Handove r F1 F1 MPHHO functionality Know how to implement blind handover effectively in UMTS without major impact on capacity !! NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

– Interleaved sequences required to search GSM RSSI and BSIC • Blind Mode – Handover is triggered based on static pre-configured information – No measurement is performed – Target cell is pre-selected based on engineering experience NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .UMTS Hard Handover Compressed Mode vs Blind Mode • Compress Mode – Transmission gaps provided for UE to retune and search inter frequency handover candidates – UE transmits at x2 Rate immediately before and after gap using secondary spreading codes (non orthogonal) Other options include reduced interleaving on primary code.26 .

0% -90 -95 5.5 32 74.4% -85 -95 11.1 17.UMTS Hard Handover Compressed Mode Impact • Capacity decreases in larger clusters • Tolerable if UMTS deployed initially in small clusters with low traffic expectations • “Blind Hard Handover” to alternate carrier should be considered Based on simulations RSSI CM Measurement Trigger (dBm) GSM Border Handoff Thresh (dBm) % Users in Compressed Mode % PA Power on Secondary Codes Carried Voice Traffic (Erlangs) % Erlang Capacity -95 0 0 42 100.27 .5% RSSI trigger level has a huge impact on the applicability of Compressed Mode. it is not the best compromise to guarantee handoff reliability NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .8 33 23 53.

Nortel UMTS Key Differentiators • UMTS (W-CDMA) is fundamentally a CDMA technology • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with industry leading CDMA capacity and performance • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with 8 years solid experience in CDMA Product R&D • Nortel is the only leading UMTS (W-CDMA) vendor with 8 years extensive experience in network Engineering NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .28 .

• Unlike FDMA/TDMA systems.Network Engineering Experience CDMA RF Optimization  Good RF Design plus subsequent antenna changes are the main impacting factors that influence Network Performance. access parameters. Parameter settings are mainly dictated by the network through analysis of trace data and traffic. power management NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA . cannot choose whether to use it or not. Seeking optimal operation point in multi dimensional space Main aspects to control are handoff thresholds.29 . power control. parameters are less used to influence system Everything is co-channel therefore. power allocations. if signal is present.


31 .Pilot Pollution Control UMTS RF Engineering Network coverage control optimization comparison before and after NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

32 Old OH Power .(PPilot + PPage + PSync ) PLink * SPU 60 % Traffic Power 80 % Power Per User 40 % 20 % Increased traffic capacity New OH Power 0% NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .Down Link Power Management (CDMA) • CDMA capacity is down link power limited in capacity deployment • Optimizing power allocation to the various channels is crucial • Nortel has optimized early CDMA overhead power of about 40% down to less than 20% • Power per traffic channel has also greatly reduced Improved Power utilization equals increased Traffic Capacity N= 100 % PCallBlock .

Down Link Power Management (UMTS) UMTS RF Engineering • Nortel UMTS DL power management function has taken advantage of CDMA experience and offers customer great flexibility and control for optimization • Our initial parameter setting provides good start • Nortel experience will help customers to reach optimum balance between capacity and performance CDMA experience helps UMTS engineering for increased Traffic Capacity NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .33 .

34 .Soft Handoff Gain Benefits • Soft handover gain is manifested in a lower average mobile transmit power • Soft handover is an important tool to extend cell coverage • Soft handover in transition zones must be carefully planned Reliability 1 0.2 0 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 Log(Signal Power) Soft HO extends coverage. 0.6 0.4 0.8 Single Server Two Servers (50% correlation) Two Servers (0% correlation) SHO Gain @ 90% Rel. reduce cell count NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Required link margin for two servers @ 90% reliability Required link margin for one server @ 90% reliability NTCDMA .9 0.

35 .Soft Handoff Control (CDMA) • Soft handoff enhances link robust but cost resources • Soft handoff optimization before/after achieves better tradeoff • Nortel Soft handoff control algorithm helps save radio resources and gain up to 27% capacity from field measurement NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

Soft Handover Control (UMTS) UMTS RF Engineering • Based on CDMA experience Nortel implemented relative threshold based active set management in UMTS • Rich experience in soft handover control CPICH Ec/No 0 Best measured Cell Drop threshold 0 CPICH Ec/N0 Best measured Cell Add threshold Area where monitored cell are valid candidates to be -20 in the next (dB) active set (dB) -20 Area where current active set cells are no longer valid candidates to be in the active set NTCDMA .36 NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL .

Soft Handover Control (UMTS) UMTS RF Engineering • Optimization reduces average SHO links before/after NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .37 .

38 .Engineering CDMA Data Network Multiple Protocol Layers and Network Nodes Involved • Lower layer optimization same as voice – – – Interference control Power control Handoff control IP PPP HDLC RLP MUX RS232 RS232 IS2000 IS2000 ACN BCN T1 Client MT BTS RLP MUX ACN BCN RS422 L2TP UDP IP Enet 10BT L2TP UDP IP L2 L1 PDSN Server L1 L1 L2 L2 IP App App TCP IP PPP HDLC TCP IP BSC R-P Pi NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

39 .Engineering CDMA Data Network TCP Parameters Optimization Increasing RTO value may significantly increase TCP throughput Re-sent segments from previous burst Single burst NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

etc.2.8 {1.1} {1.6 0.40 .3} or {2.4} {3.2} or {4.2.Engineering CDMA Data Network RLP Parameters Optimization • If number of NAKs to recover a missing RLP frame to 6 • There are several possibilities: {1.2. • For each setting there is a trade-off between RLP frame delay and residual RLP frame error 1 0.3} {1.4 0.2 0 0% 20% 40% FE R 60% 80% 100% NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .}.1.0} Normalized Throughput 0.

RF resources and throughput Trash PDSN DCR Q MaxSecondsToBufferCall FwdBuffHigh FwdBuffLow DCR Q Buffer Size FLOW Control RLP Q BufferThreshold_R4 BufferThreshold_R3 BufferThreshold_R2 BufferThreshold_R1 BufferThreshold_Release Data rate Nortel is Experienced in optimizing performance of Data Network NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .41 . RLP Buffer Threshold Optimization • Balance delay.Engineering CDMA Data Network PCU Buffer.

Similar UMTS Protocol Layers Beneficial from CDMA data experience Access Network Application TCP/UDP IP PDCP PDCP Core Network Application TCP/UDP IP Iu PS UP GTP-U UDP IP AAL5 ATM Iu PS L1 Iu PS Iu PS UP GTP-U UDP IP AAL5 ATM Iu PS L1 GTP-U UDP IP L2 L1 GTP-U UDP IP L2 L1 RLC MAC W-CDMA RF W-CDMA RF Frame Protocol AAL2 ATM Iub L1 Uu Iub RLC MAC Frame Protocol AAL2 ATM Iub L1 Gn SRNC BTS UE NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .42 SGSN GGSN .

Engineering UMTS Data Network Understand TCP Principles • • • TCP is designed for high reliable transmission medium with assumption that data segment losses are due to network congestion TCP over radio demonstrates very different behaviors Bandwidth oscillation can largely impact TCP performance NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .43 .

44 .e. 1460 bytes NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA . i.e.Engineering UMTS Data Network TCP/IP Parameters Optimization • • • MSS. MTU controls a TCP segmentation or packet size For smaller MSS the overhead of TCP/IP headers (40 bytes) becomes more important and wastes more bandwidth Larger MSS causes unnecessary segmentation and longer delay CDMA data optimization experience leads to the discovery of UMTS optimal MSS value. i.

45 .Engineering UMTS Data Network TCP Parameters Optimization • TCP fast retransmit and recover mechanism is used to avoid waiting for the RTO to detect packet loss and to avoid TCP falling into slow-start NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

46 .Engineering UMTS Data Network TCP RLC Interaction • • • High TCP anticipation may overflow RLC buffer and cause TCP packets lost The RTO timer will expire and TCP without receiving ACKS will consider this as network congestion TCP will go into slow-start and retransmit the oldest packet not ACKed NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .

47 . and better throughput NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA . high value means less status report request.Engineering UMTS Data Network RLC Parameters Optimization • RLC throughput has dependency on the TimerStatusProhibit.

Engineering UMTS Data Network RLC Parameters Optimization • RLC throughput is sensitive to how often to poll the receiver • Too often wastes bandwidth but detects packet loss early • Less frequently saves bandwidth but detects packet loss too late • Need to identify a balance NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .48 .

Nortel UMTS Optimization Tool • Big contributor to achieve high capacity & performances Test UE interfaced to: .Agilent Viper .Qualcomm QXDM IU Protocol Analyzer (Optional) RNC Call Trace Logs OAM Mobile logs Site Configuration & Nortel Specific Datafill RFO Analysis Engine Manual Datafill modifications Using Nortel OCAN Based on Similar CDMA tool for UMTS optimization !! NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA .49 .

design proprietary algorithms. develop optimization tools  Best trade off among performance. the performances of the CDMA network built by Nortel speaks for itself !! NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL NTCDMA . build and optimize UMTS network better and faster than anyone else. capacity & resource utilization  High performance and lower maintenance  Low added equipment investment and opex Nortel has the ability and strength to design.50 .Summary Any technology/network take time and money to reach optimum operation –> speed to achieve is critical !!  Nortel has accumulated 8+ years CDMA experiences  Great asset absorbed in our UMTS product design and development  Know-how in tweaking key performance parameters.

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