Key UMTS Radio Design Strategy & Considerations

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Version 3.1

Content
1. 2. 3. 4. 3G and 2G Design Similarities 3G and 2G Design Differences CDMA Myths and Misconceptions Design Considerations

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Presentation Name - 1

Sample GSM Link Budget
• Basic link budget concept the same • Some parameters such as shadowing, inbuilding penetration, and body loss are independent of cellular technology

GSM UPLINK/DOWNLINK LINK BUDGET GSM900 Base Station Transmitter/Receiver
PA Max Output Rx Sensitivity Rx Sensitivity + Diversity Common Cable Losses Antenna Gain (ISO) Combiner Losses Slant loss EIRP PA Max Output Rx Sensitivity Common Cable Losses Antenna Gain (ISO.) 44.8 -110 -115 3.9 18 4.7 1.5 52.7 33 -102 0 0

GSM1800
44.8 -110 -115 3.9 18 4.7 1.5 52.7 30 -102 0 0 3.0 10 2.0 6.7 133.2 dB 135.0 dB 133.2 dB

Mobile Station Transmitter/Receiver

Margins
Body Losses Indoor Penetration Factor Overlapping Margin Shadow margin Total Uplink Budget Total Downlink Budget Worst Link Budget 3.0 10.0 2.0 6.7 136.2 dB 135.0 dB 135.0 dB

Maximum Allowable Path Loss

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Sample UMTS Link Budget
• Basic link budget concept the same • Some parameters are unique such as loading factor / interference margin and Eb/N0
UMTS UPLINK LINK BUDGET
CS12.2 CS 64 PS 64 PS 128 PS 384 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980 2170 2170 2170 2170 2170 3840 3840 3840 3840 3840 -108.2 -108.2 -108.2 -108.2 -108.2 12.2 64 64 128 384 25 17.8 17.8 14.8 10 User Equipment Transmitter Maximum UE TX power (dBm) / MEAN 21 21 21 21 21 UE TX antenna gain (dBi) 0 0 0 0 0 Total UE TX EIRP (dBm) 21 21 21 21 21 Base Station Receiver BS RX noise figure (dB) 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 BS RX Eb/No (dB) 7.7 5.4 4.0 3.4 3.4 BS RX sensitivity (dBm) -122.1 -117.2 -118.6 -116.2 -111.5 BS RX antenna gain (dBi) 18 18 18 18 18 Slant losses 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 BS RX cable & connector losses (dB) 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 Maximum allowable isotropic path loss (dB) 155.7 150.8 152.2 149.8 145 Margins Area Reliability desired 90.00% 90.00% 90.00% 90.00% 90.00% Edge Reliability 82.76% 82.76% 82.76% 82.76% 82.76% Total Standard deviation (dB) 8 8 8 8 8 Shadowing Margin (Including Soft Handover Gain) 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 Building/car penetration factor (dB) 10 10 10 10 10 Body loss (dB) 3 1 1 1 1 UL Interference margin due to traffic loading (dB) 3 3 3 3 3 Other margin/correction (dB) 0 0 0 0 0 Total required margin (dB) / UPLINK 18.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 Maximum Allowable Uplink Path Loss Available Uplink Link Budget (dB) 137.1 134.2 135.6 133.2 128.4 General RX Frequency band (MHz) TX Frequency band (MHz) Spreading bandwidth (kHz) Thermal noise (kTB) (dBm) Data rate (kb/s) Processing gain (dB)
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Propagation Models
• • • • The propagation models and propagation prediction tools used in GSM and UMTS network design are similar Hata model typically used for GSM900 is not suitable for UMTS which is in the range of 2GHz COST231 extended the applicability of the Hata model to higher frequencies including those of the GSM1800 and UMTS frequency bands The COST231 formula is:
L = (44.9 – 6.55log (hb)) log (d) + 46.3 + 33.9log (f) – 13.82log (hb) – a (hm) + Cm
– – – – – – – a(hm): antenna height gain correction factor
• a(hm) = (1.1log(f) – 0.7)hm – (1.56log(f)-0.8)sf

f: center frequency (MHz) hb: base station antenna height (m) hm: mobile antenna height (m) d: distance (km) Cm: environmental correction factor This model applies under the following conditions:
• • • • f: 1,500-2,000 MHz hb: 30-200 m hm: 1-10 m d: 1-20 km

Same model used for UMTS like in GSM1800 after applying a simple correction factor of 33.9log(fumts/fgsm).

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5 .Same Propagation Prediction Tool Nortel 2G/3G radio design tool: iPlanner • PC Windows2000/NT • Used for GSM. IS-95 CDMA. and UMTS RF design • « Traffic spreading » algorithm applied for CDMA-based technologies NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . cdma2000.

144. 2048 UDD64.UMTS Considerations in Planning Tool • UMTS capability – W-CDMA – Multi-services – Speech – Data: LCD64. 384. 2048 UMTS Cell Quality Coverage Planning of Maps ToolService – Multi-carriers – Multi-users • Coverage prediction – Pathloss calculations – Coverage based on design thresholds UMTS Cell Planning Tool • WCDMA simulations NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . 384. 144.6 .

7 .Summary of 2G & 3G Design Similarities • Same basic link budget concepts – Parameters such as shadowing. and body loss are independent of cellular technology • Same radio propagation and prediction tools can be used NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . in-building penetration.

3G and 2G Design Similarities 3G and 2G Design Differences CDMA Myths and Misconceptions Design Considerations NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . 2.Content 1. 3. 4.8 .

(At Higher Spectral Efficiency) – Cell capacity usually limited by Downlink. Self Adapts to Hotspots – Faster Handoff Processing essential • WCDMA RF Design for Voice & Packet Data – Interference Control Critical for all CDMA Technologies. GSM practice of balanced link budget not possible. – “Soft” Capacity Shared over Clusters of Cells.9 Coverage . – Coverage quality sensitive to traffic load.Key Differences in RF Design • WCDMA RF Characteristics compared to GSM – Coverage more Uplink Limited. Balance: Capacity Goal to Balance QOS. – All neighbor cells are attenuated Co Channel interferers. Cost NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL COST QOS Presentation Name . – Microcells can be Co Channel to Macro Layer. – Cloverleaf Pattern with 65 Deg Beam preferred for Macrocells with optimized azimuth . Capacity. Coverage.

voice quality.10 . Low antenna height variance – High antenna height variance may result in pilot pollution 3. Careful antenna selection to capture target traffic – Not just to increase RSSI as in GSM but to capture traffic from a specific spot 5. hardware provision. Consider a variety of radio bearers – Consider the trade-off between coverage and “guaranteed bearer” NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .CDMA RF Design Strategies (1/2) 1. data throughput and call drop rate – Weak Ec/Io and high soft HO rate may be sign of “no dominant server” 2. Server dominance is critical – Impact on radio capacity. low overall interference will result in capacity gain 4. call setup reliability. Locating sites near the traffic – Power control is central to CDMA-based technology.

User segmentation – User segmentation allows cost effective use of capacity 7. CDMA experience & engineering tools – The use of CDMA experience together with effective engineering tools will shorten the learning curve NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .11 . High power PA – In a asymmetric cell design use of high power PA reduces site count significantly 8. Repeater – Repeater is cost effective for addressing indoor or coldspot coverage extension – Engineering and optimization of repeater must be done only by experts to avoid polluting the network 10. Micro cell strategy – Carefully planning can allow effective use of micro cell in certain scenario 9.CDMA RF Design Strategies (2/2) 6.

CS64. The design target – including all margins – is 21 dBm or less.WCDMA Design Parameters Significant Parameters • The “most constraining” radio bearer (CS12.2. NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . The design target is often -12 dB. • Mobile transmit power. etc.12 .) because this impacts the required uplink Eb/N0 Less Significant Parameters • • • Downlink RSSI Downlink common pilot Ec Actual BLER • • Target BLER because this also impacts the required uplink Eb/N0 Common pilot Ec/I0 at the cell edge. PS64.

and “no dominant server” problems • Number of cells/radio links per user • Mobile transmit power • Capacity per cell NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .Optimization Metrics • Dropped calls and unsuccessful call attempts: plots. counts. pilot pollution.13 . uplink and downlink • Common pilot Ec/I0 only to indicate poorlyoptimized coverage. and percentages • Actual BLER.

14 .9 0.4 0.8 Single Server Two Servers (50% correlation) Two Servers (0% correlation) SHO Gain @ 90% Rel.Soft Handover Gain • Soft handover gain is manifested in a lower average mobile transmit power • Soft handover is an important tool to extend cell coverage • Soft handover in transition zones must be carefully planned Reliability 1 0. 0.6 0.2 0 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 Log(Signal Power) Required link margin for two servers @ 90% reliability Soft HO gain is unique to WCDMA NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Required link margin for one server @ 90% reliability Presentation Name .

UMTS design calls for an optimum cell size for a maximum capacity. Optimal Cell Size determined by Capacity-Coverage Tradeoff NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . and downlink capacity is deduced.15 .Capacity-Coverage Tradeoff Capacity Cell splitting : site densification Zone B Optimal cell size for capacity and coverage GSM UMTS Too big cell Coverage – capacity trade-off Zone C Too much interference Killed capacity Zone D Hardware upgrade Zone A Cell size (Km) • • • • Capacity-coverage trade-off represents the relationship between the cell size used for design versus the capacity the cell is able to offer. The larger the cell. the smaller the uplink capacity by definition….but also the bigger the power needed per user. PA power being the shared resource. cell size is defined to guarantee a certain quality of coverage. In GSM. hence the smaller the downlink capacity. In UMTS cell size is defined by the uplink link budget for a maximum uplink capacity.

16 . iBTS Sensitivity Power Path loss DL Path loss UL Power UE Sensitivity The UL range is limited by low UE TX power (Max = 250mW. NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . while the iBTS can transmit at higher power to achieve much higher throughput over the same distance on the downlink. Min<1 miW). unlike a 20W solution.Asymmetric Model @384kbpsDL & 64kbps UL (already conditioned by cell size) The 45W amplifier provides the necessary power.

Up to 40% reduction in cell sites possible with Asymmetric Cell Design NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .17 . thus reducing site count.High Power PA Benefit for Asymmetric Cell Design • With asymmetric call profile cell coverage can be enhanced using high power PA.

STSR3 市中心(CBD).中城市 OTSR–SRST2 20W SCPA 100% (STSR1) 100% (STSR1) 100% (STSR1) 100% (STSR2) 100% (STSR1) 100% (STSR2) 100% (STSR3) 38% (OTSR) 38% (OTSR) 96% (STSR1) 55% (STSR2) 96% (STSR1) 55% (STSR2) 75% (STSR3) STSR1 .商业步 TD 行街. 展览馆) 55% (STSR2) 100% (STSR2) 75% (STSR3) 100% (STSR3) 37% (STSR3TD) 100% (STSR3TD) NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .高速公路 OTSR 郊外. 开发区.高架公路 大.Economics Comparison (Based on High Power PA) 覆盖环境 基站类型 PA cost / Capacity 45W MCPA 农村.旅游点. 覆盖 STSR2–STSR3 热点(体育馆.18 .小城.山区.

19 . Cell capacity is limited by downlink • Asymmetric Design resulting in 40% reduction in site counts NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .Summary of 2G & 3G Design Differences • Coverage + Interference analysis required to deliver good network performance • Uniform antenna height more crucial to prevent network performance degradation such as Pilot pollution • Soft Handover resulting in effective coverage gain • Maximum optimal cell size determined by Capacity-Coverage tradeoffs – Cell coverage is limited by uplink.

3.Content 1. 4. 2.20 . 3G and 2G Design Similarities 3G and 2G Design Differences CDMA Myths and Misconceptions Design Considerations NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .

the smaller the cell. NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .21 BTS .WCDMA Cell Loading Effect BS Receiver Lowest Despread Signal Maximum Noise Floor Processing Gain Receiver sensitivity (x kbps) Processing Gain Eb/No Eb/No UE1 x kbps UE2 x kbps Cell Breathing x kbps UE3 x kbps UE4 The more loaded the cell.

Effective service area does not change in full load per design. • Link budgets include numerous margins such as cell loading.Cell Breathing UE 1 UE 2 x kbps x kbps Cell Breathing UE UE 3 4 x kbps x kbps BTS Cell breathing effects: Nullified by the RF design process Cell breathing not a significant issue • Cell breathing accounted for in design.22 . Cell Breathing effects can be captured by including cell loading factor in the link budget NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . shadowing margin. cell loading and in-building penetration margin. body-loss margin.

interference Dominates Capacity Thermal Noise Dominates Site Spacing WCDMA capacity is downlink limited NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .WCDMA Capacity Characteristic Downlink Capacity Characteristic Self .23 .

24 . UMTS (or CDMA-based systems) is auto-balancing NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .Downlink link budget & link balance Key parameters for DL link budget not generalizable • Downlink Eb/No is not predictable in CDMAbased system • WCDMA self-interference received by a mobile is extremely sensitive to the mobile’s location Auto-balancing in WCDMA • Power control algorithms will try to achieve target BLER • In effect.

Code Division .25 .User distinguishes By Codes Cscramb Cch : Scrambling Code (distinguishes Cells and Mobile Users) : Channelization Code (distinguishes one Communication Channel direction) Cscramb Cch & Cch Cscramb Cch Channel #i Sector 2 Cscramb Sector 1 Sector 3 Cscramb Cch Channel #i Cscramb Cch NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Cscramb Cch Channel #i Presentation Name .

26 .Scrambling Code Planning • Scrambing code planning is not as complicated as frequency planning in GSM • From Nortel CDMA experience scrambling code reuse pattern can be easily planned and usually requires little change after deployment • Can be achieved simply by ensuring that no cells have neighboring cells whose scrambling codes are the same Scrambling Code reuse pattern is much simpler than frequency reuse in GSM NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .

Interleaved sequences required to search GSM RSSI and BSIC Pattern for GSM RSSI measurements Pattern for initial BSIC identification Pattern for BSIC reconfirmation • GSM RSSI Measurements Initial BSIC Identification BSIC Reconfirmation GSM RSSI Measurements Initial BSIC Identification NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . • UE transmits at x2 Rate immediately before and after gap using secondary spreading codes (non orthogonal) Other options include reduced interleaving on primary code.27 .Compressed Mode Concept • Transmission gaps provided for UE to retune and search inter frequency GSM handoff candidiates at UMTS cluster Edge.

Compressed mode issue Why measurement assisted hard HO not popular in CDMA? • Impact to voice quality due to high frequency search • Impact to radio capacity may be significant Compressed Mode in UMTS • Degree of improvement not clear • Power control issue (no power control while searching) • Reduced spreading factor may cause code management issue • Problems may be significant in heavily loaded cells • Hard HO issue cannot be completely addressed by compressed mode • Hierarchical cell structure (HCS) is not equally applicable in UMTS as in GSM Compressed Mode is not the only hard handoff solution NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .28 .

4% -85 -95 11.CM Capacity Impact • Capacity decreases in larger clusters.0% -90 -95 5.29 . • Tolerable if UMTS deployed initially in small clusters with low traffic expectations. • “Blind Hard Handoff” to GSM should be considered Based on simulations RSSI CM Measurement Trigger (dBm) GSM Border Handoff Thresh (dBm) % Users in Compressed Mode % PA Power on Secondary Codes Carried Voice Traffic (Erlangs) % Erlang Capacity -95 0 0 42 100.5% RSSI trigger level has a huge impact on the applicability of Compressed Mode NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .5 32 74.1 17.8 33 23 53.

UMTS & CDMA2000基本技术特征 UMTS 信道间隔 接入方式 双工方式 码片速率 基站同步方式 幀长 调制方式 切换 语音编码 功率控制 5MHz 单载波宽带直接序列 扩频cdma FDD 3.84Mcps 异步(不需GPS).外环) ,速率800Hz Presentation Name .25MHz 单载波宽带直接序列扩 频cdma FDD 1.30 NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL . 步 10ms QPSK(前向),BPSK( 后向) 软切换,频间切换, 与GSM间的切换 自适应多速率 (based on RF condition) 闭环(内环,外环),速 率1500Hz 同 cdma2000 1.2288Mcps 同步需GPS 20ms等 QPSK(前向),BPSK( 后向) 软切换,频间切换,与 IS-95间的切换 可变速率 (based on voice activity) 开环,闭环(内环.

3.31 . 3G and 2G Design Similarities 3G and 2G Design Differences CDMA Myths and Misconceptions Design Considerations NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .Content 1. 4. 2.

32 .Topics • Design targets : – – – – Coverage Availability Capacity Reliability • • • • • • • Interference Control Site Selection Concerns Co-location Concerns Load-Sharing Concerns RF Design Rules Indoor Coverage Strategy Hotspot Coverage Strategy NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .

33 .Coverage Requirement • Service area – Need to define the most constraining service – Need to identify areas of particular importance just like GSM • Service availability – Usually ranges from 75-95% – High availability will mean high site count • Rollout Phasing and Contiguous Coverage – Contiguous coverage is more cost effective – Best practice is to have single urban service area expanding over time towards suburban and rural NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .

urban area and expanding to sub-urban and rural area • Since UMTS/CDMA network is interference limited. the Ec/Io also need to be evaluated. 2) NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . (see fig. but not critical in Phase 1 due to low traffic Coverage Plot (fig.34 .2) • The initial UMTS build-out is recommended to be coverageoriented – Coverage should be continuous to minimise inter system handoffs. 1) Ec/Io Plot (fig.Continuous Coverage & Phased Rollout Phase 1 Potential interference area. increasing demand on network resources and may result in higher drop-call rates – The coverage should start from dense-urban.

Continuous Coverage & Phased Rollout Phase 2 Coverage Plot (fig. increasing UMTS subscribers requires new capacity cells to be added (see fig. 1) Ec/Io Plot (fig. 1) and coverage area is expanded at the same time – The interference area observed in Phase 1 is resolved by adding the new capacity cells (see fig. 2) Add capacity cells to handle traffic increase in Phase 2 NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .35 . 2) • During Phase 2.

36 .Quality. care must be taken to reduce irregular site spacing and great variation in antenna height – Reuse existing site only if it is suitable for UMTS • Traffic management – Experience shows best strategy is to migrate heaviest users to dual mode service – Ensure dual mode users use UMTS whenever possible NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . Traffic and Site Selection • BLER target is a trade-off between quality and radio capacity – From IS95 CDMA and CDMA2000 experience 2% target for voice is good compromise – CSD (Video) requires anywhere from 1% to 5% – Packet bearers are typically configured from 5% to 10% • Site selection – When reusing existing sites.

but in CDMA/UMTS RF design.UMTS Site Selection Coverage Plot (Fig. 2) 100% GSM & UMTS blind co-location may cause problems in UMTS system. RF design is measured by RSSI level in coverage area (see fig. 1) .2) • • • UMTS/CDMA Network is Interference limited System In GSM system. interference must be evaluated as well (see fig. such as pilot pollution due to too much interference Pilot Pollution Area due to too much interference Minimising Interference is a primary design target NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .37 .1) Ec/Io Plot (Fig.

38 .Load Sharing • Load sharing between UMTS carriers is essential to optimise UMTS radio resources – Deploy multi-carrier management system for efficient sharing of UMTS carrier capacity • 3G/2G Load Sharing is targeted to achieve resource utilisation efficiency across the unified 3G/2G spectrum – Load Sharing is achieved by Overload prevention & Load balancing • In the initial phase of UMTS deployment. primary objective is to achieve network stability and optimisation – Frequent handovers between systems has an impact on network performance and end user experience – Standardisation of Iur-g to enable cell loading information transfer between GSM and UMTS not yet mature • Phased approach required to achieve radio resource utilisation efficiency across unified 2G/3G spectrum 3G/2G Load Sharing is a long term objective NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .

Priority. & Service • unifiedRRM NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .3G/2G Load Sharing: UMTS network roll-out recommendations 3G/2G PHASE I Essential Mobility • 3G to 2G mobility • 3G to 2G mobility • 2G to 3G mobility • 2G to 3G mobility in idle mode in connected mode in idle mode in packet ready mode 3G/2G PHASE II Enhancements / Segmentation • 2G to 3G HO CS domain • Maximize UMTS capacity through iMCTA for multi-carriers 3G/2G PHASE III Advanced Multi-Layer Management • iMCTA based on Load.39 .

3G/2G Load Sharing: 3G/2G Mobility Considerations • Two major types • Coverage fill-up . Mobility occurs mainly for radio reasons. it can be complemented with GSM coverage in a seamless manner for the end user. • Network optimization . – During a first phase. it may be useful to introduce load sharing and service segmentation – Finally.40 . an efficient multilayer management can optimize the radio resources across 2G and 3G networks NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name . in order to maintain the call across the combined 3G/2G coverage areas.Preventive – During network extension and optimization. during network growth and densification.Rescue – Because UMTS coverage may be limited at network launch.

not signal level • Analysis result depends very much on traffic distribution Coverage & Interference Control is key NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .Key RF Design rules • RF Coverage control is the most important optimization factor • Cell edge reliability and building penetration loss: – if too high  pilot pollution • Use downtilt and/or reduce height to confine coverage • Create dominant server area • Pilot Ec/Io is the important threshold.41 .

– Typical Vertical antenna pattern should be 7 degrees. with 4 degrees electrical downtilt • • • Excessive sector overlap within a site – – – – increases system noise floor Increases soft handoff and expands neighbor lists Degrades Ec/Io Reduces capacity increases system noise floor Increases soft handoff and expands neighbor lists beyond second and third tiers Degrades Ec/Io and creates pilot pollution Reduces capacity • Excessive overlap between sites – – – – RF Optimisation usually involves minimising interference to improve radio capacity NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .Frequent problems encountered in CDMA RF optimisations • • Directing the energy to only the desired coverage area for that sector Selecting proper horizontal and vertical patterns – Typical Horizontal antenna pattern should be 65 degrees • • Wide horizontal patterns make excessive soft handoff Narrow horizontal patterns leave nulls Wide vertical patterns result in poor coverage control gives poor building penetration and reverse link interference.42 .

43 .RF Optimisation Before After Pilot pollution region resolved • Nortel use in-house developed RF optimizer to process drive test data • RF Optimizer is developed as a result of Nortel Networks’ experience in CDMA RF optimisation NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .

maximizing outdoor coverage is primary objective – Shopping malls and deep indoor locations can be covered by using indoor antenna distribution system • Indoor locations with high isolation (e.g.e.Indoor Coverage Strategy • In Phase 1. most office and residential buildings can be covered by using outdoor Macro site penetrating indoor i.44 . underground car park) may use repeater or micro cell – Incorrect repeater deployments may cause interference which impact network performance – Micro cell solution is more expensive than repeaters for coldspot coverage extension • HSDPA will provide additional flexibility in the near future – WLAN may also be considered NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .

improving success rate of inter-cell handoffs NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .Hotspot Coverage Considerations • UMTS hotspot issues are addressed by – Site splitting – Increase # of carriers • Micro cell approach (island implementation) is not appropriate – Increased interference between macro and micro layer = Pilot pollution – Increased hard handoffs between micro and macro layer resulting in higher effective drop call rate • Careful implementation of the hotspot capacity solution to minimise – Pilot pollution – Increased hard handoffs • Nortel Networks has a Twin cell product feature – Improve overall cell capacity for small focused area – High percentage of handoffs in hotspot performed through softer handoffs.45 .

46 .RF Co-location with Other Systems (1/4) • RF co-existence is an extremely broad and complicated topic – Location and deployment dependent • Types of interference – – – – Wideband noise Spurious emissions Inter-modulation products Uncoordinated frequency bands NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .

Sources of RF Interference (2/4) • BS transmitter from one network interferes with BS receiver from a different network • MS transmitter from one network interferes with BS receiver from a different network • BS transmitter from one network interferes MS receiver from a different network • MS transmitter from one network interferes with MS transmitter from a different network NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .47 .

48 . GSM1800. GSM-R and UMTS • China-specific considerations – – – – CDMA1900 (WLL) downlink interferes with UMTS uplink UMTS uplink interferes with PHS/TD-SCDMA uplink PHS/TD-SCDMA uplink interferes with UMTS uplink PHS/TD-SCDMA downlink interferes with UMTS uplink NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .Technology-specific Considerations (3/4) • Global considerations – GSM900/ETACS.

49 .Some Solutions for RF Co-location (4/4) • No generic solution for all RF co-existence issues – Each deployment must be assessed individually • Some example solutions – Separation: ensuring as much path loss between source and victim systems as possible – Co-location: ensuring source and victim systems share the same cell site – Filtering: using antennas and filters NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name .

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