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FOOD

CONTAMINATION
AND TREATMENT

PRESENTER:
SITI NORAISAH KIFLI
OUTLINES
• INTRODUCTION
• RISK FACTORS
• COMMON SOURCES OF FOOD
CONTAMINATION
• SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
• COMPLICATIONS
• WHEN TO SEEK HELP
• TREATMENT
• REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
• Also known as food poisoning or food-
borne illness

• caused by consuming contaminated


foods or beverages

• More than 250 different foodborne


diseases have been described. Most of
these diseases are infections, caused by
a variety of bacteria, viruses, and
parasites
RISK FACTORS
• A weakened immune system,Eg in very young, the
elderly, people with chronic disease, and people who
take certain types of medication that reduce the ability
to fight off foodborne infections.

• Improper food storage or handling; leaving prepared


food at room temperature for too long or improperly
heating or reheating food increase the risk of food
poisoning.

• Cross contamination of food

• Anyone who handles food should wash their hands


after using the bathroom, changing diapers, or
handing pets and before handling food.
COMMON SOURCES OF FOOD-BORNE ILLNESS
Sources of illness Symptoms Bacteria

Raw and undercooked meat and Abdominal pain, diarrhea, Campylobacter


poultry nausea, and vomiting jejuni, E. coli
O157:H7, L.
monocytogenes,
Salmonella

Raw foods; unpasteurized milk and Nausea, vomiting, fever, L. monocytogenes,


dairy products, such as soft cheeses abdominal cramps, and Salmonella, Shigella,
diarrhea Staphylococcus
aureus, C. jejuni

Raw and undercooked eggs. Raw Nausea, vomiting, fever, Salmonella


eggs are often used in foods such as abdominal cramps, and enteriditis
homemade hollandaise sauce, caesar diarrhea
and other salad dressings, tiramisu,
homemade ice cream, homemade
mayonnaise, cookie dough, and
frostings.
COMMON SOURCES OF FOOD-BORNE
ILLNESS cont…
Raw and undercooked Chills, fever, and collapse Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio
shellfish parahaemolyticus

Fresh or minimally processed Bloody diarrhea, nausea, and E. coli O157:H7, L.


produce; contaminated water vomiting monocytogenes, Salmonella,
Shigella, Yersinia
enterocolitica, viruses, and
parasites

Improperly canned goods; Double vision, inability to C. botulinum


smoked or salted fish swallow, difficulty speaking,
and inability to breathe. Seek
medical help right away if you
experience any of these
symptoms.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
• Bloody diarrhea
• Weight loss
• Diarrhea leading to dehydration
• Fever
• Prolonged diarrhea (3 or more unformed stools
per day, persisting several days)
• Neurologic involvement such as paresthesias,
motor weakness, cranial nerve palsies
• Sudden onset of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
• Severe abdominal pain
COMPLICATIONS
• Dehydration (most common)

Less common but much more serious


complications include:
• Arthritis (Yersinia and Salmonella)
• Bleeding disorders (E. coli and others)
• Death (from mushrooms, certain fish
poisonings, or botulism)
• Kidney problems (Shigella, E. coli)
• Nervous system disorders (Botulism,
Campylobacter)
• Pericarditis (Salmonella)
• Respiratory distress, including the need for
support on a breathing machine (botulism)
WHEN TO SEEK HELP
• symptoms are persistent or severe
• The person has an underlying
medical condition
• A child or elderly
• if there are worrisome signs or
symptoms (temperature greater
than 100.4ºF/38ºC, severe
abdominal pain, inability to eat or
drink, bloody stool or vomit)
TREATMENT
• Treatment for food poisoning typically depends on the source of the illness, if known, and the
severity of your symptoms.

•Primary goals: to replace lost fluids and to relieve


symptoms of severe diarrhea and vomiting.

•Children and adults who are severely dehydrated need


treatment in a hospital, where they can receive salts and
fluids through a vein (intravenously), rather than by mouth.

•Antibiotics may be necessary for selected


patient as summarized in the table;
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Virus
Parasites
PREVENTION

•Defrost food safely


•Keep raw foods separate from ready-to-
eat foods
•Cook foods to a safe temperature

•Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods promptly

•Throw it out when in doubt


REFERENCES
• Food poisoning.
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/food-poisoning.June
2007
• Patient information: Food poisoning (food-borne
illness) http://www.uptodate.com/patients/content/topic.
• Diagnosis and Management of Foodborne Illnesses:A
Primer for Physicians and Other Health Care
Professionals.2004.American Medical
Association.American Nurses.Association-American
Nurses Foundation.Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention.Center for Food Safety and Applied
Nutrition.Food and Drug Administration.Food Safety and
Inspection Service.US Department of Agriculture.
- Foodborne Illnesses Table:Viral Agents
- Foodborne Illnesses Table:Bacterial Agents
- Foodborne Illnesses Table:Parasitic Agents