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Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

GSM Architecture Overview

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Introduction
It provides an overview of the GSM network architecture. This includes a brief explanation of the different network subsystems and a description of the functionality of the elements within each of the subsystems. Topics include: General architecture overview The Mobile Station (MS) Subsystem and Elements The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) and

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

A GSM network is made up of three subsystems: The Mobile Station (MS) The Base Station Sub-system (BSS) comprising a BSC and several BTSs The Network and Switching Sub-system (NSS) comprising an MSC and associated registers
The interfaces defined between each of these sub systems include: 'A' interface between NSS and BSS 'Abis' interface between BSC and BTS (within

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Abbreviations: MSC Mobile Switching Center BSS Base Station Sub-system BSC Base Station Controller HLR Home Location Register BTS Base Transceiver Station VLR Visitor Location Register TRX Transceiver AuC Authentication Center MS Mobile Station EIR Equipment Identity Register OMC Operations and Maintenance Center

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Mobile Station
The Mobile Station (MS) consists of the physical equipment used by a PLMN subscriber to connect to the network. It comprises the Mobile Equipment (ME) and the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The ME forms part of the Mobile Termination (MT) which, depending on the application and services, may also include various types of Terminal Equipment (TE) and associated Terminal Adapter (TA).

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

The IMSI identifies the subscriber within the

GSM network while the MS ISDN is the actual telephone number a caller (possibly in another network) uses to reach that person.

Security is provided by the use of an

authentication key and by the transmission of a temporary subscriber identity (TMSI) across the radio interface where possible to avoid using the permanent IMSI identity.

The IMEI may be used to block certain types


of equipment from accessing the network if

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

MS and SIM

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

The mobile station consists of : mobile equipment (ME) subscriber identity module (SIM)
The SIM stores permanent and temporary data about the mobile, the subscriber and the network, including : The International Mobile Subscribers Identity (IMSI) MS ISDN number of subscriber Authentication key (Ki) and algorithms for authentication check

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

The BSS comprises: Base Station Controller (BSC) One or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs) The purpose of the BTS is to: provide radio access to the mobile stations manage the radio access aspects of the system BTS contains: Radio Transmitter/Receiver (TRX)

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

The BSC: allocates a channel for the duration of a call maintains the call: monitors quality controls the power transmitted by the BTS or MS generates a handover to another cell when required

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Network Switching System (NSS)


The NSS combines the call routing switches (MSCs and GMSC) with database registers required to keep track of subscribers movements and use of the system. Call routing between MSCs is taken via existing PSTN or ISDN networks. Signaling between the registers uses Signaling System No. 7 protocol.

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Functions of the MSC:

Switching calls, controlling calls and logging

calls Interface with PSTN, ISDN, PSPDN Mobility management over the radio network and other networks Radio Resource management - handovers between BSCs Billing Information

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Interfaces
Um
VLR Abis

BSC

MSC
ISDN, TUP

Section 1 GSM Architecture Overview

Exercise
Q1. Name the interfaces used between Mobile and BTS BTS and BSC BSC and MSC

Section 2 Access Network

Access Network

Section 2 Access Network

Objective
The Trainee will be able to understand:

Different BTS configuration commonly used in



the network Advantages of the configuration and optimal use of the trunks Abis mapping

Section 2 Access Network

Introduction
Access network is a connection between MS and NSS, comprise of BTSs & BSCs. It is responsible for radio management.

BSC looks towards MSC through single Ainterface as being the entity responsible for communicating with Mobile Stations in a certain area. The radio equipment of a BSS may support one or more cells.
A BSS may consist of one or more base

Section 2 Access Network

BSS Configuration
Collocated BTS
Remote BTS

Daisy Chain BTS


Star Configuration Loop Configuration

Section 2 Access Network

Collocated BTS: BTS is situated along with BSC or


the MSC and no required. additional E1 link is

BTS

BSC

Section 2 Access Network

Remote BTS : BTS is situated in a stand alone


position and additional E1 required to connect to BSC.

links are

BSC
BTS

Section 2 Access Network

Daisy Chain

BTS 3 BTS 1 BTS 4

BSC
BTS 2

MSC

Section 2 Access Network

Star Configuration

BTS 3
BTS 1

BSC
BTS 4

BTS 2

MSC

Section 2 Access Network

Loop Configuration

BTS 3 BTS 1

BTS 4

BSC
BTS 2

MSC

Section 2 Access Network

Comparison of Different Configurations

Daisy Chain: Easy to implement, effective

utilization of transmission links but if one of the link fails, all the BTSs connected in the chain will went off.
but poor utilization of links. Each BTS require one E1 to connect to BSC. But if link goes down only individual BTS will be affected.

Star Configuration: Easy to implement

Loop Configuration: Slightly difficult to

Section 2 Access Network

BSS Interfaces
Air Interface: Radio Interface between the
BTS and Mobile the supports frequency hopping and diversity.
Interface carried by a 2-Mb link between NSS and BSS. At this interface level, transcoding takes place.

A Interface:

Section 2 Access Network

Section 2 Access Network

Abis Interface (BTS - BSC)


If the BTS and BSC are not combined, A-bis interface will be used. Otherwise, BS interface will be used. Several frame unit channels are multiplexed on the same PCM support and BSC and BTS can be remote from each other. Its main functions are: Conversion of 260 bit encoded blocks (corresponding to 160x8 bit samples for 20ms) Encoded block synchronization Vocal activity detection

Section 2 Access Network

TRX 1 TRX 2

Section 2 Access Network

Exercise
Q1. In How many ways BTSs can be connected and which configuration gives the optimal solution?
Q2. What is a difference between BS interface and Abis interface? Q3. How many time slots are occupied by 1TRX on a PCM frame?

Section 3 NSS Topology

NSS Topology

Section 3 NSS Topology

Objective
The Trainee will be able to understand:

Terminology used in Network Sub System Protocols and Interfaces inside NSS Call routing and circuit groups Switching modules Stand alone and integrated HLR Echo canceller and TRAU location Authentication, Ciphering, OMC, Billing center Transit Switch

Section 3 NSS Topology

Introduction
Network Sub System can be considered as a heart of the GSM Network. All the major activities like switching of calls, routing, security functions, call handling, charging, operation & maintenance, handover decisions, takes place within the entities of NSS. Various kinds of interfaces are used to communicate between the different

Section 3 NSS Topology

Network Switching System (NSS)


Key elements of the NSS: Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Home Location Register (HLR) Authentication Center (AuC)

Section 3 NSS Topology

NSS Identifier
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identifier. The IMEI is an internationally-unique serial number allocated to the MS hardware at the time of manufacture. It is registered by the network operator and (optionally) stored in the AuC for validation purposes. IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR +sp TAC = Type Approval Code by central

Section 3 NSS Topology

IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identifier When a subscriber registers with a network operator, a unique subscriber IMSI identifier is issued and stored in the SIM of the MS as well as in the HLR . An MS can only function fully if it is operated with a valid SIM inserted into an MS with a valid IMEI. IMSI consist of three parts: IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN MCC = Mobile Country Code MNC = Mobile Network Code

Section 3 NSS Topology

TMSI Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

A TMSI is used to protect the true identity (IMSI) of a subscriber. It is issued by and stored within a VLR (not in the HLR) when an IMSI attach takes place or a Location Area (LA) update takes place. At the MS it is stored in the MSs SIM. The issued TMSI only has validity within a specific LA.
Since TMSI has local significance, the structure may be chosen by the administration. It

Section 3 NSS Topology

MSISDN Mobile Station ISDN Number The MSISDN represents the true or dialled number associated with the subscriber. It is assigned to the subscriber by the network operator at registration and is stored in the SIM. According to the CCITT recommendations, it is composed in the following way: MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN CC = Country Code

Section 3 NSS Topology

MSRN Mobile Station Roaming Number

The MSRN is a temporary, location-dependant ISDN number issued by the parent VLR to all MSs within its area of responsibility. It is stored in the VLR and associated HLR but not in the MS. The MSRN is used by the VLR associated MSC for call routing within the MSC/VLR service area.

Section 3 NSS Topology

LAI Location Area Identity Each Location Area within the PLMN has an associated internationally unique identifier (LAI). The LAI is broadcast regularly by BTSs on the Broadcast Control channel (BCCH), thus uniquely identifying each cell with an associated LA. LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC MCC = Mobile Country Code, same as in IMSI MNC = Mobile Network Code, same as in

Section 3 NSS Topology

Mobile Switching Center (MSC)


The Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It also controls calls to and from other telephony and data systems, such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). Difference between a MSC and an exchange in a fixed network is - MSC has to take into

Section 3 NSS Topology

required for location registration procedures required for handover


An MSC can be connected to only one VLR. Therefore, all mobile stations that move around under base stations connected to the MSC are always managed by the same VLR. An MSC would communicate typically with one EIR. While it is possible for an MSC to communicate to multiple EIRs, this is highly unlikely since the EIR provides a centralized

Section 3 NSS Topology

The MSC consults an HLR to determine how a call should be routed to a given mobile station: For incoming calls to a mobile station, the MSC would typically consult one HLR. For mobile-to-mobile calls in larger networks, a MSC could consult HLRs of other systems to help minimize the trunk paths to the other mobile station.

Section 3 NSS Topology

The following are typical MSC functions in a cellular system:

Provide switched connections with PSTN Provide switched connections between mobile

subscribers Provide coordination over signaling with mobiles Coordinate the location and handover process Provide custom services to mobile users Collect billing data

Section 3 NSS Topology

Protocols
MSC/BSC MSC/HLR MSC/VLR MSC/EIR MSC/GMSC VLR/VLR VLR/HLR MSC/MSC TCAP+MAP SCCP MTP SS7 OMC/MSC OMC/HLR OMC/VLR OMC/BSS MSC/Fixed Network MSC/Voice messaging

BSSMAP SCCP MTP

X.225 X.224 X.25

R2, ISUP other Signaling MTP SS7

Section 3 NSS Topology

Switching In MSC
Signaling network is separated from the speech network and consists of

signaling Links (SL) signaling Point (SP) signaling Transfer Part (STP).

Section 3 NSS Topology

Telephony system contains:

Group Switch to switch the calls, ST to perform signaling in accordance with


SS7 Trunk interfaces for interfacing the PCM.

Group switch provides a semi permanent connection between time slot (PCM) and ST.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Signaling Point (SP)


SP provides the functions of signaling and transmit and receive messages to and from different nodes. Each SP in the network will have an identification code termed as signaling Point Code (SPC).

Section 3 NSS Topology

Signaling Transfer Point (STP)


Signaling Transfer Part is signaling point that only transfers messages from one signaling point (SP) to another.
STP

SP (SPC)

STP

SP (SPC)

Section 3 NSS Topology

Signaling Link (SL)


Signaling Link is the 64kbps link interconnecting two signaling Points and provides the functions of message error control and message sequencing. Each signaling Link has an SLC (signaling Link Code), which identifies the signaling Link with in the signaling Link Set.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Service Switching Point (SSP)


The MSC contains: The Service Switching Point One or more radio control point SSP handles the usual switching function and can be connected via 2Mbps PCM link with: Other exchanges of fixed PSTN or mobile PLMN, Points on the SS7 signaling network, X.25 network

Section 3 NSS Topology

The OA&M network, The Intelligent network, PSTN via user data channels and signaling
channels using ISUP and R2 protocols, Other elements of the GSM

Section 3 NSS Topology

Switching Function of SSP:

Main control, Switching matrix, PCM multiplex connection, Service circuits Operation and maintenance Establishing and releasing section of the links from and to mobiles, Finding circuits to the BSS; special circuit groups are created. SSP selects an incoming and outgoing circuit.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Call Routing
If a number received is a national or
international number, the address information is passed to the SSP. PLMN), the RCP asks the HLR for a roaming number (MSRN). This MSRN is passed to the SSP for routing.

If the number received is an HPLMN (Home

If the number received is an emergency

service number, the originating geographic area is attached to it and the combined

Section 3 NSS Topology

In the SSP the number received from RCP follow the standard translation process:

Preliminary analysis: Selection of a translator


(national, international), Translation: Determination of a routing depend on the first digits dialled, Routing: Determination of an outing circuit group.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Circuit Groups
Call routes from the MSC through circuit groups. Different circuit groups are created inside it:

Group for the PSTN (according to the


exchange) Group for the BSCs Group for the Supplementary services Group for the IWF

Section 3 NSS Topology

CG1 CG2

BSC1 BSC2

CGn

BSCn

MSC

CGa

PSTN1

CGx CG

PSTNx Supplementary Services IWF

CG

Section 3 NSS Topology

Interfaces

Section 3 NSS Topology

A-Interface (MSC BSC)


The interface between the MSC and its BSS is specified in the 08-series of GSM Technical Specifications. The BSS-MSC interface is used to carry information concerning:

BSS management; call handling; mobility management.

Section 3 NSS Topology

B-Interface (MSC VLR)


The VLR is the location and management data base for the mobile subscribers roaming in the area controlled by the associated MSC(s). Whenever the MSC needs data related to a given mobile station currently located in its area, it interrogates the VLR. When a mobile station initiates a location updating procedure with an MSC, the MSC informs its VLR which stores the relevant information. This procedure occurs whenever an MS roams to another location area. Also, when a

Section 3 NSS Topology

C-Interface (HLR - MSC)


The Gateway MSC must interrogate the HLR of the required subscriber to obtain routing information for a call or a short message directed to that subscriber.

Section 3 NSS Topology

D-Interface (HLR - VLR)


This interface is used to exchange the data related to the location of the mobile station and to the management of the subscriber. The main service provided to the mobile subscriber is the capability to set up or to receive calls within the whole service area. To support this, the location registers have to exchange data. The VLR informs the HLR of the location of a mobile station managed by the latter and provides it (either at location updating or at call set-up) with the roaming number of that station.

Section 3 NSS Topology

E-Interface (MSC - MSC)


When a mobile station moves from one MSC area to another during a call, a handover procedure has to be performed in order to continue the communication. For that purpose the MSCs have to exchange data to initiate and then to realize the operation. After the handover operation has been completed, the MSCs will exchange information to transfer A-interface signaling as necessary. When a short message is to be transferred between a Mobile Station and Short Message

Section 3 NSS Topology

F-Interface (MSC - EIR)


This interface is used between MSC and EIR to exchange data, in order that the EIR can verify the status of the IMEI retrieved from the Mobile Station.

Section 3 NSS Topology

G-Interface (VLR - VLR)


When a mobile subscriber moves from a VLR area to another Location Registration procedure will happen. This procedure may include the retrieval of the IMSI and authentication parameters from the old VLR.

Section 3 NSS Topology

H-Interface (HLR - AUC)


When an HLR receives a request for authentication and ciphering data for a Mobile Subscriber and it does not hold the requested data, the HLR requests the data from the AuC. The protocol used to transfer the data over this interface is not standardized.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Switch Modules
Switch has three major types of equipment modules: Switching module (SM) Communication module (CM) Administrative module (AM)

Section 3 NSS Topology

Switching Module (SM): All external lines, trunks, and special services circuits are terminated at the switching module. The analog and digital signals are converted to the digital format used inside the switch. The SM performs almost 95% of the call processing and maintenance functions including:

Line and trunk scanning Tone generation Announcements

Section 3 NSS Topology

The SM also provides subscriber calling features including: call waiting abbreviated dialing call diversion conference calls.
SM further has two components:

1. Control units - Control all activities within


the SM, such as call processing and maintenance functions.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Communication Module (CM): The CM serves as the hub (focal point) for all inter module communication in a switch. The CM has four main functions:

1. Call switching - The CM interconnects the


paths between modules to complete telephone calls and to relay data.

2. Message switching - The CM provides paths to send information between processors to process calls, maintain records, and perform system tasks.

Section 3 NSS Topology

3. Network timing - The CM provides accurate timing and synchronization for the switch.

4. Fast pump - The CM provides resources to quickly download (pump) an SMs software if needed.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Administrative Module (AM): The AM controls the CM and communicates with all the SMs (through the CM). The AM monitors itself and the CM for malfunctions. If there are any problems, they are reported to maintenance personnel. The AM performs resource allocation and processing functions that are done more efficiently on a centralized basis such as: Call routing for inter module and intra module calls

Section 3 NSS Topology

Traffic measurement reports/system performance


reports Memory management System maintenance Maintaining file records of changes to the system Software Release. Personnel interface/system monitoring Allocating trunks for call processing.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Switch

SM

AM

CM

Control Unit

Peripheral Unit

MSGS

TMS

Control Unit

I/O Processor

Disk Unit

Tape Unit

MCC

Section 3 NSS Topology

Home Location Register


HLR is a database that stores subscription and set of functions needed to manage subscriber data in one PLMN area. Any administrative action by the service provider or changes made by subscriber is first carried out on the HLR and then update the VLR. Following are the subscriber data which frequently changes: - Identification number MSISDN & IMSI - Service restriction - Teleservices

Section 3 NSS Topology

Beside the permanent data it also include dynamic data of home subscriber including VLR address, call forward number and call barring numbers. Triplets are also stored in the HLR for the authentication purpose.
The HLR communicates with other nodes: VLR, AUC, GMSC & SMS SC via MAP (Mobile Access Protocol). To support this communication HLR needs MTP and SCCP

Section 3 NSS Topology

Section 3 NSS Topology

MAP (Mobile Application Protocol)


The only way via which HLR communicates with other GSM nodes is Mobile Access Protocol. Number of functional blocks exist to support different MAP operations eg HLCAP is used for location cancellation or HLUAP is required for location updating. Other functions defined on the MAP are: - Inter MSC Handover and subsequent handover - Update HLR and VLR

Section 3 NSS Topology

Support of Short Message Services. Call establishment / delivery Security related data. Retrieval of subscriber data during call setup.

HLR also needs to communicate with GMSC, VLR, AUC and SMS-SC, for which MTP and SCCP is essential.

Section 3 NSS Topology

SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Point)


All MAP messaging use SCCP to analyze the GT (Global Title) of incoming information. If GT belongs to anther node, then SCCP will use the services of MTP (Message Transfer Part) to reroute the message. SCCP must have the GT analysis to terminate and route MAP messages from all nodes it communicates with.

Section 3 NSS Topology

MTP (Message Transfer Part)


MTP must be defined to allow the nodes to communicate with each other. The MTP provides the means for reliable transport and delivery of UP (User Part) information across the No. 7 network eg ISDN User part (ISUP), the Telephone User Part (TUP), Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP), Interworking function User Part (IWUP) and Data User Part (DUP)

Section 3 NSS Topology

MTP has the ability to react to system and network failure that affect the user information. MTP further has 1. MTP Level 1 2. MTP Level 2 3. MTP Level 3 three functional levels: Signaling data link Signaling link Signaling network

Section 3 NSS Topology

HLR connects with MSC via C interface, VLR via D interface

Section 3 NSS Topology

HLR can be configured in two ways: 1. Integrated with MSC

Section 3 NSS Topology

1.

Hs

2. Stand Alone HLR (External Database)

Section 3 NSS Topology

Integrated Vs Stand Alone HLR


The Integrated HLR is accessed by other MSCs/ VLRs via MAP, and the switch can use MAP to query other off switch HLRs. The main advantages with an integrated HLR solution at this early stage are: Efficient use of HW and lower HW investments Fewer physical connections required due to fewer physical nodes Less capacity required in No. 7 network as

Section 3 NSS Topology

A single fault will affect a smaller number of


subscribers than if standalone HLR is used Major drawbacks are: Less processing capacity available for MSC/VLR. Additional Switching capacity will be required earlier Migration to standalone HLR (which is to be preferred in a mature larger network) will induce major changes in the network Administration of subscriptions

Section 3 NSS Topology

In Stand Alone HLR, call processing activities are not performed by the switch. Only HLR queries are handled via the GSM standard MAP messages coming over signaling links from other Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs) in the wireless network.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Benefits:

All HLR data is centralized, thus simplifying its


ongoing maintenance and operation High HLR Capacity High processing capacity On going enhancement

There are some drawbacks with standalone HLR A fault in a HLR will affect many subscribers A fault in a HLR will increase the signaling substantially in

Section 3 NSS Topology

HLR is responsible for:


Connection of mobile subscribers and definition of

corresponding subscriber data. Subscription to basic services. Registration/deletion of supplementary services. Activation/deactivation of supplementary services. Interrogation of supplementary services status.

Continued..

Section 3 NSS Topology

Functions for analysis of mobile subscriber

numbers (MSISDN, IMSI, additional MSISDN) and other types of addresses. Statistical functions for collecting data regarding the performance of the system. Functions for communication with GMSC and VLR using the No. 7 signaling system and MAP Handling of authentication and ciphering data

Section 3 NSS Topology

Get Password/Register Password Alert Service Center Provide Roaming Number Send Routing Information for SMS Send Routing Information for GMSC Set Message Waiting Data

Section 3 NSS Topology

Visitor Location Register


It is a subscriber database containing the information about all the MS currently located in the MSC service area. VLR can be considered as a distributed HLR in the case of a roaming subscriber. If MS moves into a new service area (MSC), VLR requests the HLR to provide the relevant data and store it, for making the calls for that MS. VLR is always integrated with MSC to avoid the signaling load on the system.

Section 3 NSS Topology

VLR connects with MSC via B interface, HLR via D interface and with another VLR via G interface.

Section 3 NSS Topology

VLR is responsible for

Setting up and controlling calls along with supplementary services. Continuity of speech (Handover) Location updating and registration Updating the mobile subscriber data. Maintain the security of the subscriber by allocating TMSI
Continued..

Section 3 NSS Topology

Receiving and delivering short messages


Handling signaling to and from - BSC and MSs using BSSMAP - other networks eg PSTN, ISDN using TUP IMEI check Retrieve data from HLR like authentication data, IMSI, ciphering key
Continued..

Section 3 NSS Topology

Retrieve information for incoming calls.


Retrieve information for outgoing calls.
Attach/Detach IMSI Search for mobile subscriber, paging and complete the call.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Security Feature
Both the users and the network operator must be protected against undesirable intrusion of third party. As a consequence, a security feature is implemented in the telecommunication services. The following parts of the system have been reinforced and provide the various security features: 1. Access to the network authentication 2. Radio part ciphering 3. Mobile equipment equipment

Section 3 NSS Topology

Authentication Center (AUC)


AUC is always integrated with HLR for the purpose of the authentication. At subscription time, the Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) is allocated to the subscriber, together with the IMSI. The Ki is stored in the AUC and used to provide the triplets, same Ki is also stored in the SIM. AUC stores the following information for each subscriber

Section 3 NSS Topology

Authentication is required at each registration, at each call setup attempt (mobile originated or terminated), at the time of location updating, before supplementary service activation, de-activation , registration.

HLR uses the IMSI to communicate with AUC, triplets are requested in sets of five.

Continued..

Section 3 NSS Topology

In AUC following steps are used to produce one triplet:

1. A non- predictable random number, RAND, 2. 3.

is produced RAND & Ki are used to calculate the Signed Response (SRES) and the Ciphering Key (Kc) RAND, SRES and Kc are delivered together to HLR as one triplet.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Authentication Procedure:
The MSC/VLR transmits the RAND (128 bits) to the mobile. The MS computes the SRES (32 bits) using RAND, subscriber authentication key Ki (128 bits) and algorithm A3. MS sends back this SERS to AUC and is tested for validity.

Section 3 NSS Topology

SIM Card
IMSI Ki A3 A8

RAND SERS
=?

A4 A4
RAND Ki

IMSI Ki

Kc

Triplets
A3 A8 Triplets Generation

Kc

A2

Ciphering Function A5

Ciphering Function A5

RAND SERS Kc

MS

BTS

MSC/VLR

HLR

AUC

OMC

Section 3 NSS Topology

Ciphering
The user data and signaling data passes over the radio interface are ciphered to prevent intrusion. The ciphered key (Kc) previously computed by the AUC is sent from the VLR to the BSS after the mobile has been authenticated. The Kc is also computed in the MS and in the way both ends of the radio link (MS and BSS) possess the same key.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Procedure: For the authentication procedure, when SRES is being calculated, the Ciphering Key (Kc), is calculating too, using the algorithm A8.

The Kc is used by the MS and the BTS in order to cipher and decipher the bit stream that is sent on the radio path.

Section 3 NSS Topology

SIM
Choice of random no RAND (128 bits)

AUC

Ki

RAND

Ki

A3

A3
SERS SERS =? Ciphering Command

A3

A3

A8

A8

OK

A8
Kc

A8

Kc (64 Speech, data,sig bits)

Speech, data,sig

A5

Ciphered Data

A5
Ciphering/Deciphering

Section 3 NSS Topology

Subscriber Confidentiality
The subscriber identity (IMSI), since is considered sensitive information, is not normally transmitted on the radio channel. A local, temporary identity is used for all interchanges. The identity (TMSI) is assigned after each change of authenticated location. For other cases: Call set-up Use of supplementary services Use of SMS

Section 3 NSS Topology

A TMSI is allocated when the one supplied by the MS is considered out of date or when the MS does not provide the TMSI. Transmission of the TMSI over the traffic channel is ciphered.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Equipment Identification Register (EIR)


Purpose of this feature is to make sure that no stolen or unauthorized mobile equipment is used in the network. EIR is a database that stores a unique International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number for each item of mobile equipment.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Procedure: The MSC/VLR requests the IMEI from the MS and sends it to a EIR. On request of IMEI, the EIR makes use of three possible defined lists: - A white list: containing all number of all equipment identities that have been allocated in the different participating countries. - A black list: containing all equipment identities that are considered to be barred. - A grey list: containing (operators decision) faulty or non-approved mobile equipment.

Section 3 NSS Topology

EIR
Storage of all number series mobile equipment that have been allocated in the different GSM countries Storage of all grey/black listed mobile equipment

MSC/VLR

MS
Storage of the equipment identity IMEI

Call Setup IMEI Request Sends IMEI Check IMEI Continues/Stops call setup procedure

Access/ barring info

Section 3 NSS Topology

Echo Canceller
In order to eliminate echo effects (noticeable by the mobile subscribers while in conversation with PSTN subscribers) caused by the time delay due to coding and decoding of signal processing, group of echo cancellers are installed even for local calls.

This is rarely a problem when communicating between two MSs. However, when connecting to a PSTN telephone, the signal must pass through a 4-wire to 2-wire hybrid

Section 3 NSS Topology

The function of this transformer is - some of the energy at the 4-wire receive side from the mobile is coupled back to the 4-wire transmit side and thus speech is retransmitted back to the mobile.

As a result, all calls on to the PSTN must pass through an echo canceller to remove what would otherwise be a noticeable and annoying echo.

Section 3 NSS Topology

The process of canceling echo involves two steps:

First, as the call is set up, the echo canceller

employs a digital adaptive filter to set up a model or characterization of the voice signal and echo passing through the echo canceller. As a voice path passes back through the cancellation system, the echo canceller compares the signal and the model to dynamically cancel existing echo. It removes more than 80 to 90 percent of the echo across the network.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Transcoder and Rate Adaptor Unit (TRAU)


The primary function of the TRAU is to convert 16kps (inc signaling) GSM speech channels to 64kbps PCM channels in the uplink direction and the reverse in the downlink direction. The reason this process is necessary is because MSCs only switch at the 64kbps channel level.

Section 3 NSS Topology

TRAU Locations
TRAU can be physically located in the BTS, BSC or MSC and hence leads to a variety of installation configurations.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Advantages of Different Configurations


Case 1, TRAU at BTS: If the TRAU is installed at the BTS, each 16kbps GSM channel would need to be mapped to its own 64kbps PCM channel. This results in 75% of the transmission bandwidth being wasted across both the Abis (BTS-BSC) and A (BSC-MSC) interface. Case 2, TRAU at BSC: If the TRAU is installed at the BSC, 16kbps GSM channel mapped to

Section 3 NSS Topology

Case 3, TRAU at MSC: If the TRAU is placed at the MSC, as is generally the case in current networks, a multiplexer can be placed at the BTS which enables 4 x 16kbps GSM channels to be multiplexed onto one 64kbps PCM channel, using 4 x 16kbps ISDN D-channels. In this configuration, only at arrival at the MSC is the 16-64kbps channel conversion necessary, thereby maximizing the efficient usage of the transmission medium by increasing the GSM channel throughput per PCM 2048 bearer from 30 to 120 channels.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Operation And Maintenance Center (OMC)


The OMC centralizes all operations and maintenance activities for the MSCs and BSSs using remote software control. It provides remote testing, operations, and maintenance capabilities for the entire system from one central location. Each BSS, MSC, HLR, VLR, EIR, and AUC can be monitored and controlled from the OMC.

Section 3 NSS Topology

OMC Functional Architecture


Event/ Alarm Management MMI Security Management

Fault Management

Operating System Communications Handler Performance Management

Database Configuration Management

Section 3 NSS Topology

The OMC supports the following network management functions:

Event Management - General functions of the


OMC include operator input and output messages, application input commands, and application output reports.

Fault Management - The OMC provides fault

management such as diagnostics and alarms for the MSC and BSS. It provides the means to isolate and minimize the effects of faults in the network thereby enabling the network to

Section 3 NSS Topology

Security Management It provides an extensive

range of features to ensure that access to the OMC functions is restricted to relevant personnel. The security features are as follows: Password Authentication of OMC operator Logging of OMC access attempt Configurable user access restrictions Automatic logoff

Section 3 NSS Topology

Configuration Management - Configuration

management for the BSS consists of generic download, non-volatile memory download, database administration, and translations download. For the MSC, software release updates, database administration (route analysis, IMSI analysis table), and subscriber administration (connect/disconnect) are supported.

Performance Management - Performance

management supports data collection (such as traffic data, handovers, statistics, plant

Section 3 NSS Topology

Billing Center
Charging analysis is the process of analysing the Charging Case and then ultimately generating the TT (Toll Ticketing) record so that an itemised bill can be produced and then sent on to the customer. The tariff structure consists of two parts: The network access component The network utilization component

Section 3 NSS Topology

The network utilization component is registered on a per call basis. Charging starts at the moment the subscriber answers, or on connection to an answering machine internally in the network. The main elements are: Use of GSM PLMNs Use of national / international PSTNs Use of connection between different networks Use of the signaling system no.7

Section 3 NSS Topology

Depending on the type of call, one or more call tickets can be generated:

Outgoing call to fixed network: a call tickets is

generated by the originating MSC. Incoming call from the fixed network: two call tickets are created: one in the GMSC and another in the destination MSC. If a call forwarding supplementary service is in operation, other call tickets are generated in the MSC and the GMSC.

Continued..

Section 3 NSS Topology

Outgoing call from a mobile subscriber to

another mobile subscriber belonging to same PLMN: three call tickets are created: one in the originating MSC, one in the GMSC (which is in this case is the originating MSC) and another in the destination MSC.

Call tickets mainly register the following information: 1. IMSI 2. Identity (MSISDN) and type (MSC or GMSC)

Section 3 NSS Topology

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Other partys identity Call type (incoming, outgoing, forwarded etc) Call status Teleservices and bearer service Date and time Call duration

Section 3 NSS Topology

Call Detail Record (CDRs)


Each call within the PLMN creates one or

more call records These records is generated by the MSC/GMSC originating the call The records are known as a Call Detail Records (CDRs) CDRs contain the following information: - Subscriber Identity - Number called - Call Length

Section 3 NSS Topology

Call Charge Procedure

Network supplies originating MS with CAI

details MS calculates AOC record using CAI details This record acts as a toll ticket which tracks the call on its route through various networks Each call component can generate a separate CDR The record passes along the backbone to the home network Billing computer generates bills based on cumulative CDRs

Section 3 NSS Topology

Section 3 NSS Topology

The Transferred Account Procedure (TAP) is the mechanism by which operators exchange roaming billing information. This is how roaming partners are able to bill each other for the use of networks and services through a standard process.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Gateway MSC (GMSC)


Gateway MSC (GMSC) connects the PLMN with other networks and the entry point for the mobile subscriber calls having the interrogation facility. It has the function to obtain the information from the HLR about the subscribers current location and reroute the calls accordingly. In case of the network having only on MSC, the same MSC work as the GMSC, while in the

Section 3 NSS Topology

Section 3 NSS Topology

Roaming Number
A MSRN is used during the call setup phase for mobile terminating calls. Each mobile terminating call enters the GMSC in the PLMN. The call is then re-routed by the GMSC, to the MSC where the called mobile subscriber is located. For this purpose, a unique number (MSRN) is allocated by the MSC and provided to the GMSC.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Call Setup

Section 3 NSS Topology

1. GMSC receives a signaling message "Initial

2. 3.

4.

Address Message" for the incoming call (MSISDN). GMSC sends a signaling message to the HLR where the subscriber data is stored (MSISDN). The VLR address that corresponds to the subscriber location and the IMSI are retrieved. HLR sends a signaling message using the VLR address as the destination (IMSI). VLR having received the message, requests MSC to seize an idle MSRN and to associate

Section 3 NSS Topology

5. HLR sends back the result to the GMSC (MSRN). 6. GMSC uses MSRN to re-route the call to the MSC.

MSC performs digit analysis on the received MSRN and find the association with IMSI. The MSRN is released and the IMSI is used for the final establishment of the call.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Transit Switch
When planning the trunk network architecture, it is important to take into consideration the future expansion of the network. Some factors that influence the trunk network configuration are: Number of MSCs Transmission costs Traffic distribution Traffic volume PSTN tariffs

Section 3 NSS Topology

In case of a medium networks (having 5 - 10 MSCs), some of the MSCs are used as transits for the others and the number of direct links between the MSCs are restricted. In case of large networks (having more than 10 MSCs), separate transit exchanges are used. These are connected to all MSCs and are working with load sharing. Transit functionality is used for passing on calls to another node. This provides a hierarchical structured network.

Section 3 NSS Topology

High Usage trunk

Section 3 NSS Topology

Traffic between MSCs and from MSCs to other networks is routed over two MSCs in a similar way as is used for the small network. The TGMSCs are used as interconnecting exchanges, since they have trunks to all MSCs in the operators PLMN.
MSCs located in the same city area or in close cities are likely to be interconnected by high usage routes, while traffic between distant MSCs is likely more economically routed over the TMSCs.

Section 3 NSS Topology

ADVANTAGES OF USING TRANSIT EXCHANGES

The use of transit exchanges implies a more stable network structure and some of the most important benefits are: increased flexibility enhanced reliability easily expandable network platform for functional development lower handling costs improved signaling network

Section 3 NSS Topology

Value Added Services


Value Added Services includes the following: Point-to-Point Short Message Services Cell Broadcast Short Message Service Voice/Fax Mail Pre-Paid SIM The products associated with each of these services as well as the required interfaces into the core network elements are defined as:

Section 3 NSS Topology

Section 3 NSS Topology

Short Message Services (SMS)


The Point-to-Point and Cell Broadcast Short Message Services are implemented using the Short Message Service Center (SMSC) and Cell Broadcast Center (CBC).

SMSC is built around proven Open Systems Platforms from the UNIX based computer platform to the MSC/HLR/VLR interfaces utilizing SS7.

Section 3 NSS Topology

Following are the services and functions for which SMSC is capable of: Alerting services to indicate call or message waiting Paging interfaces providing full industry standard TAP interworking Information services - subscription to financial, weather, traffic, etc. services DTMF message entry via interactive voice prompts E-mail Network administration including bill

Section 3 NSS Topology

The CBC product is based on the same Open Systems Platforms with an X.25 interface to BSC components. It offers a wide range of applications, which include advertising, general and specialist information distribution services along with other non-mobile terminal applications. The services and functionality that the CBC can provide includes: Customer care information Weather and traffic reports Free advertising Variable re-transmission rates Distributed network interface units to handle varying network loads Local and remote message submission facility.

Section 3 NSS Topology

SMS Network Components

Section 3 NSS Topology

Callers which cannot reach the MS are given the option (by the VMS) to leave either a short message or a voice mail message. Message waiting notification will be delivered to the MS when the MS is reachable. The VMS (voice mail system) communicates with the SMS SC via TCP/IP or X.25.

The VMS has a trunk and signaling interface to the PSTN (e.g., R2, ISUP signaling). The VMS has a trunk and signaling interface to the MSC for mobile subscriber to access his/her voice mail.

Section 3 NSS Topology

SMS Applications
SMS up to 160 alphanumeric characters. Alert services (MT-SMS)
Voice Message Alert FAX/Telex Message Alert E-mail System Alert Paging Bureau Emulation Services. Information Services Financial Services (stock market queries and alerts) Weather or traffic information (e.g., from

Section 3 NSS Topology

Network Administration
Bill reminders (MT-SMS), bill payment Statements on demand (MO and MT-SMS) Handset re-programming and much more.

Section 3 NSS Topology

VMS
It supports a wide range of innovative applications including: Call answering Voice and fax bulletin boards Information on demand One number services Voice and fax messaging Interactive voice response Prepaid calling cards

Section 3 NSS Topology

Pre Paid SIM


The functionality of the Pre-Paid SIM feature includes: Provision of pre-defined limits based on air time or talk time Service provisioning including various provisioning options (point of sale, service providers, etc.) and definitions of pre-paid categories (throw away, top up, etc.) Service execution for air and talk time credit usage

Section 3 NSS Topology

Supplementary Services
Wide range available in GSM standard and Operators can also define their own In GSM it is possible for the subscribers to check and modify the parameters and status of their Supplementary Services

Section 3 NSS Topology

Some of the Supplementary Services are:

Calling Line Identification/Restriction Connected Line Identification/Restriction Call Forwarding Call Waiting Call Hold Conference Calling Conference Calling Advice of charge Call barring

Section 3 NSS Topology

Exercise
Q1. Write a full form of following : IMEI, TMSI, MSRN, LAI, ST, STP, SSP Q2. How many circuit groups are required for 3 BSCs and 10 PSTN? Q3. List down the three functions of each HLR & VLR. Q4. Fill in the following:

Section 3 NSS Topology

Algorithm A8 is used for ---------Algorithm A3 is used for ---------Transit exchanges are used to reduce the -------Q5. List down the different locations of TRAU and explain the best position. Q6. What information is contained in the CDRs? Q7. 2 advantages of transit switch.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

GSM Signaling

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Objective
The Trainee will be able to understand:

signaling between MSC/VLR and BSS Concept of DTAP Concept of BSSMAP signaling between BSC and BTS Functions of LAPDm Functions of LAPD Frame structure of LAPDm And LAPD

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Introduction
There are two different types of communication channels: Traffic channel at 64 Kbps, carrying speech or data for radio channels. signaling channels at 64Kbps, carrying signaling information.
In PCM one time slot is reserved for signaling and remaining are used for transmitting speech or data. As the entire siganlling is

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Protocols in GSM Networks


VLR ISDN GMSC MSC PSTN
MAP

AUC
MAP

ISUP ISUP MAP TUP

VLR
MAP

HLR
MAP MAP

EIR

MSC
Switching System BSSAP

BSC
LAPD

MS

LAPDm

BTS

Base Station System

Section 4 GSM Signaling

GSM Signaling Matrix


DTAP RR

Database

BSSMAP
DTAP

MAP
BSS MAP

RIL3
RIL3

RSM

RSM BSSAP BSSAP TCAP

ISUP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP2 &3

MTP2 & 3 MTP1 MSC

LAPDm

LAPDm

LAPD

LAPD

MTP1

MS

BTS

BSC

Section 4 GSM Signaling

MSC uses ISUP/TUP protocols for PSTN

signaling. MAP siganlling for database applications like HLR, VLR, EIR, AUC, SMS-SC, GMSC. GSM specific protocol as BSSAP, which comprises of DTAP and BSSMAP. The BSC on layer 2 uses LAPD protocol, which is an ISDN. BTS has LAPDm as layer 2 protocol. Mobile has DTAP for MSC and RR for Radio Resource signaling.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

MAP (Mobile Application Part)


MAP is a protocol specially designed for GSM requirement. It is installed in MSC, VLR, HLR, EIR and communicates in case of:

Location registration Location cancellation Handling/management/ retrieval of subscriber



data. Handover Transfer of security/ authentication data.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

BSS Application Part (BSSAP)


BSSAP is used for signaling between MSC/VLR and BSS. Three groups of signals belong to BSSAP

1. DTAP 2. BSSMAP 3. Initial MS messages

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Transparent to BSS

M S C

DTAP Initial MS Message BSSMAP LAPDm

M S

BSC/BTS

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP)


DTAP is a messages between the MSC and MS, passes through the BSS transparently. These are call control and mobility management messages directed towards a specific mobile. 3 main type of DTAP messages are: Messages for mobility management like location update, authentication, identity request Messages for circuit mode connections call control Messages for supplementary services

Section 4 GSM Signaling

BSSMAP
BSS management messages (BSSMAP) between MSC and BSS (BSC/ BTS), which are necessary for resource management, handover control, paging order etc. The BSSMAP messages can either be connection less or connection oriented.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Initial MS Messages
These messages are passed unchanged through BSS, but BSS analyses part of the messages and is not transparent like DTAP messages. Between BSS and MSC, the initial MS message is transferred in the layer 3 information in the BSSMAP.

The Initial MS messages are: CM Request Location update request

Section 4 GSM Signaling

LAPDm
Link Access Procedures on the Dm channel (LAPDm) is the layer 2 protocol used to convey signaling information between layer 3 entities across the radio interface. Dm channel refers to the control channels, independent of the type including broadcast, common or dedicated control channels. LAPDm is based on the ISDN protocol LAPD, used on the Abis interface. Due to the radio environment, the LAPD protocol can not be

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Data exchanged between the data link layer and the physical layer is 23 octets for BCCH, CCCH, SDCCH and FACCH. For SACCH only, 21octets are sent from layer 2 to layer 1.
LAPDm functions include: LAPDm provides one or more data link connections on a Dm channel. Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) is used for discriminating between data link connections. It allows layer 3 message units be delivered transparently between layer 3 entities.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

LAPDm Frame Structure


info length command address

N(R)

P/F

N(S)

SAPI

CR

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Sequence Number: N(S) send sequence number of the transmitted frame. N(R) is receive sequence number.

P/F : All frames contain the Poll/Final bit. In command frames, the P/F bit is referred to as the P bit. In response frames, the P/F bit is referred to as the F bit.
Service Access Point Identifier: Service Access Points (SAPs) of a layer are defined as gates through which services are offered to an adjacent higher layer.SAP is identified with the Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI).

Section 4 GSM Signaling

LAPDm has no error detection and correction. It is used in two modes: Acknowledge & Unacknowledged and having a different structure for both.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

LAPD
All signaling messages on the Abis interface use the Link Access Procedures on the D-channel. (LAPD protocol). LAPD provides two kinds of signaling: unacknowledged information acknowledged information
LAPD link handling is a basic function to provide data links on the 64 kbps physical connections between BSC and BTS.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Links are provided for operation and maintenance (O&M) of the links, for O&M of the BTS equipment and for transmission of layer 3 Abis messages. Each physical connection can support a number of data links (logical connections). On each physical connection each data link is identified by a unique TEI/SAPI

Section 4 GSM Signaling

LAPD has three sub signaling channels

1. RSL (Radio signaling Link), deals with traffic 2. 3.


management, TRX signaling. OML (Operation & Maintenance Link), serves for maintenance related info and transmission of traffic statistics. L2M (Layer 2 Management), used for management of the different signaling on the same time slot.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

LAPD Frame Structure


Flag FCS info length command address Flag

N(R )

P/F

N(S)

TEI

SAPI

CR

Section 4 GSM Signaling

LAPD Frame structure is made up of: Flag: Indicates the beginning and end of each frame unit. Flag has a pattern of 01111110. FCS: Frame Check Sequence, provides the error checking for the frame. If error is found frame will be retransmitted. Command: It has two types of structure, in acknowledge mode it has N(S) and N(R ). N(S) is a sequence number of frame sent and N(R ) is the sequence number of the frame

Section 4 GSM Signaling

C/R: This bit indicates whether it is command or response. P/F: In command frames, the P/F bit is referred to as the P bit and the other end transmits the response by setting this bit to F. TEI: Terminal Endpoint Identifier, is a unique identification of each physical entity on either side like each TRX within a BTS have a unique TEI.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

SAPI: Service Access Point Identifier, used to identify the type of link. SAPI = 0 for RSL SAPI = 62 for OML SAPI = 63 for L2ML Each LAPD link is identify by SAPI/TEI pair.

Section 4 GSM Signaling

Exercise
Q1. Name the protocol which is transparent to BSS and what information is used to transfer on this protocol?
Q2. Name the protocols used between Mobile and BTS BTS and BSC BSC to MSC MSC to PSTN

Section 5 Call Handling

Call Handling

Section 5 Call Handling

Objective
The Trainee will be able to understand:

Basic call concepts Location Area concepts Call setup in different scenarios SMS routing Intra and Inter MSC handovers

Section 5 Call Handling

Introduction
Call setup is required to establish communication between a Mobile Station and Network Subsystem (NSS). The NSS is responsible for establishing a connection with the corresponded. Different types of calls require different teleservices. For the optimum utilization of the network, different location areas will be defined to reduce the paging load on the system.

Section 5 Call Handling

Basic Types of Calls


There are three basic types of call:

1. Mobility Management calls: Such as

2. 3.

Location update. These are used to collect information about the MS and only signaling channels are used. Service calls: Such as SMS. These calls passes very small information, therefore signaling channels are used. User traffic calls: Such as speech or data.

Section 5 Call Handling

Basic Call Setup

Section 5 Call Handling

Subscriber on switch A places a call to a Subscriber on switch B:

1. Switch A analyzes the dialed digits and 2. 3.

determines that it needs to send the call to switch B. Switch A selects an idle trunk between itself and switch B and formulate IAM STP W receives a message, inspects its routing label, and determines that it is to be routed to switch B.

Section 5 Call Handling

6. Switch B picks one of its links and transmits

the ACM over the link for routing to switch A. 7. STP X receives the message, inspects its routing label, and determines that it is to be routed to switch A. 8. On receiving the ACM, switch A connects the calling subscriber 9. When and/or if the called subscriber picks up the phone, switch B formulates an answer message (ANM), 10. Switch B selects the same link it used to

Section 5 Call Handling

12. Switch A ensures that the calling subscriber


is connected and conversation can take place. 13. If the calling subscriber hangs up first switch A will generate a release message (REL) addressed to switch B. 14. STP W receives the REL 15. Switch B receives the REL, disconnects the trunk from the subscriber line, returns the trunk to idle status. 16. STP X receives the RLC, determines that it is addressed to switch A.

Section 5 Call Handling

Location Registration
When the mobile is turned on first time in the network, it has no indications in its data about an old Location Area Identity. MS immediately inform the network and request for the Location Update to the MSC/ VLR. After registration MSC/ VLR will consider the MS as active and marked the MS as attached.

Section 5 Call Handling

Location Update
When the MS moves from one LA to another, it has to register. This registration is performed when the MS detects another LAI than the one stored. This is called location updating. This function provides mobile subscribers with uninterrupted service throughout the GSM coverage area so that they can: Be called on a permanent directory number irrespective of their location at the time of call.

Section 5 Call Handling

There are four different types of location updating: Normal IMSI detach IMSI attach Periodic registration

Section 5 Call Handling

Normal Update
The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) of every
cell continually transmits the Location Area Identity (LAI) on BCCH. If MS detects LAI is different from the one stored in the SIM-card, it is forced to do a location update. If the mobile subscriber is unknown in the MSC/VLR (new subscriber) then the new MSC/VLR must be updated, from the HLR, with subscriber information.

Section 5 Call Handling

Section 5 Call Handling

1. The MS requests a location update to be 2.

3.

4.

carried out in the new MSC/VLR. The IMSI is used to identify the MS. In the new MSC/VLR, an analysis of the IMSI number is carried out. The result of this analysis is a modification of the IMSI to a Mobile Global Title (MGT) The new MSC/VLR requests the subscriber information for the MS from the HLR. The HLR stores the address of the new MSC/VLR and sends the subscriber data to the new MSC/VLR.

Section 5 Call Handling

5.

6.

The HLR also orders the old serving MSC/VLR to cancel all information about the subscriber since the MS is now served by another MSC/VLR. When the new MSC/VLR receives the information from the HLR, it will send a location updating confirmation message to the MS.

Section 5 Call Handling

IMSI Detach
The MS must inform the network when it is entering an inactive state (detach). 1. At power off or when the SIM card is taken out, the MS asks for a signaling channel 2. The MS uses this signaling channel to send the IMSI detach message to the MSC/VLR. 3. In the VLR, an IMSI detach flag is set for the subscriber which is used to reject incoming calls to the MS.

Section 5 Call Handling

Only the VLR is updated with the detached information.

Section 5 Call Handling

IMSI Attach
The attach procedure is performed only when the MS is turned on and is in the same LA as it was when it sent the detach message. If the MS changes location area while being switched off, it is forced to do a normal location update. The procedure is as follows

1. The MS requesting a signaling channel. 2. The MSC/VLR receives the IMSI attach

Section 5 Call Handling

Section 5 Call Handling

Periodic Location Update


To avoid unnecessary paging of the MS in case the MSC never got the IMSI detach message, there is another type of location updating called periodic registration.
The procedure is controlled by timers both in the MS and in the MSC. If the MS does not register within the determined interval plus a guard time, then

Section 5 Call Handling

Paging
A call to MS is routed to the MSC/ VLR and send a paging message to the MS. This message is broadcast all over the Location Area (LA), which means that all BTSs with in the LA will send a paging message to the mobile. The MS, moving in the LA and listening to the CCCH information, will hear the paging message and answer it immediately.

Section 5 Call Handling

Paging Capacity
Paging capacity is the number of mobiles that can be paged per second This depends on: CCCH configuration AGCH blocks reservation Type of paging message used Paging message takes

Section 5 Call Handling

Paging Message Types


Type 1: can address up to two mobiles using either IMSI or TMSI Type 2: can address up to 3 mobiles, one by IMSI and other 2 by TMSI. Type 3: can address up to 4 mobiles using the TMSI only. If the network does not use TMSI then only type 1

Section 5 Call Handling

Calculation Of Paging Capacity

X = number of mobiles paged per paging message (1 to 4)

Y = number of possible paging messages per multiframe


Duration of channel multiframe = 0.235 seconds (235 ms) X depends on paging message type

Y depends on CCCH configuration in the multiframe (e.g. 3 or 9) and the number of AGCH blocks reserved

Section 5 Call Handling

PCH Dimensioning
Paging channel requirement in blocks per multiframe is given by: Calls = Number of calls predicted for the location area during busy hour

MT = Fraction of calls which are mobile terminated


PF = Paging Factor = number of pages required per call M = safety margin PMF = Paging Message Factor = number of pages per message Number of control channel multiframes per second = 4.25

Section 5 Call Handling

Example
A particular location area contains 50 000 subscribers. It is predicted that 30% of these will receive a call during the busy hour. On average 2 pages are needed per call and only type 3 paging messages (TMSI) are used. This gives the following data: Calls = 50 000 MT = 0.3 PF = 2 PMF = 4

Section 5 Call Handling

A typical safety margin for peak variations in number of calls is 1.2

1 PCH block per multiframe will be adequate

Section 5 Call Handling

Paging Control
The MSC has to initiate the paging procedure, as it holds the information on the last MS location update. MSC sends a paging message to BSC and sets a timer for response from the MS, which is send as a part of service request message. The paging message from the MSC contains a cell list identifier, identifying the cells in which paging message is to be transmitted.

Section 5 Call Handling

Call From MS (Mobile to PSTN)


cb

PLMN
VLR Exch PSTN

MSC

Section 5 Call Handling

Call From MS Overview

Mobile is active and idle, wants to set up a

call User dial the number and press send, at first moment it sends on RACH MSC/VLR assigns a dedicated channel If the calling MS is allowed to make a call MSC/VLR acknowledges the access request Depending on whether a fixed or a mobile subscriber is called, number is analyzed directly in the MSC/VLR. Call setup message is acknowledged as soon

Section 5 Call Handling

Signaling Interfaces
ISDN/ PSTN PLMN
LAPDm

VLR

BSSMAP LAPD

MSC

BSC
DTAP

ISUP/TUP

Section 5 Call Handling

Point Of Interconnect (POI) Location


In case of long distance mobile to PSTN call, circuits define to route a call in the switch should be such that, call can travel maximum distance on the airtime and minimum on the land line to enhance the revenue. Call should handover to the POI as near as possible to the subscriber location.

Section 5 Call Handling

Call to MS (PSTN to Mobile)


MSISDN

PSTN

GSM/PLMN

Link is setup from local exchange to the GMSC

GMSC

Section 5 Call Handling

PSTN

GSM/PLMN

signaling No.7: Interrogation function used by GMSC

GMSC
MSISDN + MSRN request

HLR

Section 5 Call Handling

PSTN

GSM/PLMN

VLR

signaling No7: Request for MSRN to VLR

GMSC

MSC

IMSI

HLR

Section 5 Call Handling

PSTN

GSM/PLMN
IMSI
VLR

MSRN in VLR. signaling No 7: MSRN send to GMSC

GMSC

MSC

HLR

MSRN

MSRN request + IMSI

Section 5 Call Handling

PSTN

GSM/PLMN

VLR

MSC

GMSC

HLR

Link is setup from GMSC to MSC/VLR

Section 5 Call Handling

PSTN

GSM/PLMN

VLR BSC

MSC

GMSC

HLR

signaling No7: Paging message is sent to the BSS

Section 5 Call Handling

PSTN

GSM/PLMN

HLR

VLR BSC

MSC

GMSC

Air path signaling: Paging message is sent over the air path to MS. The MS answers.

Section 5 Call Handling

PSTN

GSM/PLMN

HLR

VLR BSC

MSC

GMSC

The link is setup from the MSC/VLR to the MS, completing the connection from subscriber to subscriber

Section 5 Call Handling

Signaling Interfaces
ISDN/ PSTN PLMN
LAPDm

HLR

MAP GMSC ISUP/TUP ISUP/TUP

VLR MSC

BSSMAP

LAPD

BSC
DTAP

Section 5 Call Handling

Mobile to Mobile (Mobile Originated)


MS BTS
Channel Request rn Channel Request rn+fn+TA Channel Activation TA+SDDCH+power Channel Activation Ack Immediate assign commd

BSC

MSC

SDDCH Allocation

Switch to SDDCH

Immediate assign (AGCH) rn+fn+TA+ SDCCH SABM Cm+Service Request Establish Indication

UA
Service Request

Service Request

SCCP Connection Req

SCCP Connection Confirm

Section 5 Call Handling

MS
Setup (SDCCH) Tele/bearer service called party no. Layer 3CC

BTS
Layer 3CC

BSC
Layer 3CC

MSC

Layer 3CC

Call proceeding Assignment request Channel type+cm TCH allocation

Physical context request

Physical context confirm Power+TA Channel activation SACCH TA+power updates TCH+TA+cipher+DTX+ power Channel activation ack Assignment command (SDCCH)

Release SDCCH

Section 5 Call Handling

MS
SABM (FACCH)

BTS

BSC

MSC

Establish indication Set transcoder Set switching path Assignment complete (FACCH)

UA (FACCH)

Layer 3CC

Layer 3CC

Initiate SDCCH release alerting

Layer 3CC

Layer 3CC

connect

Connect ack

Layer 3CC

Section 5 Call Handling

Mobile to Mobile (Mobile Terminated)


MS BTS BSC
Paging Paging command Paging request (PCH) TMSI/IMSI TMSI/IMSI paging group+ channel no TMSI/IMSI+cell list

MSC

Paging request (RACH) Channel required

Radio and Link Establishment Procedure

Section 5 Call Handling

MS
Layer 3CC

BTS
Layer 3CC

BSC
Setup Tele/bearer service

MSC

Call confirmed (SDCCH) bearer service

Layer 3CC

Layer 3CC

Normal Assignment Procedure for TCH


Ring tone
alerting Layer 3CC Layer 3CC connect Layer 3CC Layer 3CC

User answer

Layer 3CC

Layer 3CC

Connect acknowledge

Section 5 Call Handling

SMS Point to Point


The Short Message Service, SMS, provides means of sending text messages, to and from GSM mobile station. SMS makes use of service centre, which acts a store and forward center for short messages.

Section 5 Call Handling

Mobile Terminated SMS


HLR

SMS - C

SMS - GMSC

MSC/VLR

Section 5 Call Handling

SMS C has the capability to transfer the short messages and also provides the information about the delivery.

1. A user sends a message to an SMS C 2. SMS C sends the message to the SMS 3.
GMSC SMS GMSC interrogates the HLR for routing information HLR interrogates MSC/VLR for a roaming number MSC/VLR returns a MSRN to the SMS

4.
5.

Section 5 Call Handling

7. MS is paged and a connection is setup 8. 9.

between MS and the network. If authentication was successful the MSC/VLR delivers the message to the MS. It is transmitted on the allocated SDCCH If the delivery was successful a delivery report is sent from MSC/VLR to the SMS C.

In the case of an unsuccessful delivery the service messages waiting will provide the HLR and VLR with the information that there is a message in the originating SMS

Section 5 Call Handling

Mobile Originated SMS


MSC/VLR SMS - C

Section 5 Call Handling

1. MS establishes a connection to the network,


as in the case of normal call setup. (This step is not performed if the MS is in busy mode, since there already exists a connection) 2. If the authentication was successful MS sends the short message to the SMS C via MSC/VLR. The SMS C in turn forward the short message to its destination. This could be MS or a terminal in the fixed network.

Section 5 Call Handling

Handover
Changing to a new traffic channel during call setup or busy state is called Handover. The network makes the decision about the change. After receiving the information about the signal strength and quality the BSC ranks the neighboring BTSs using the information. After a evaluation of the situation and the decision to start the handover procedure, the network is responsible for the setup of a link to the new BTS.

Section 5 Call Handling

Intra MSC Handover


VLR

BSC

MSC

BSC

New link Old link

Section 5 Call Handling

Intra MSC handover: Handover within the same MSC/VLR service area but different BSCs.

The BSC request for a handover from

MSC/VLR New link (MSC/VLR to new BSC to new BTS) is setup and if a free TCH is available, it must be reserved. MS receives the order to change to the new frequency and the new TCH. If the BTS change has also change of location

Section 5 Call Handling

Flowchart
BSC2
H.O. Request H.O. Request Ack H.O. Command H.O. Command H.O. Completed H.O. Completed Clear Command Clear Completed

MSC
H.O. Required

BSC1
Measurement Report

MS

Section 5 Call Handling

Inter MSC Handover


VLR MSC

BSC

VLR MSC

BSC
New link

Old link

Section 5 Call Handling

Inter MSC handover: handover between the two BSCs controlled by two different MScs. Lot of signals exchanges are required before the handover can take place.

The serving exchange sends a handover request to

the target exchange Target exchange will take over the responsibility for preparing the connection to the new BTS. After the setup of a link between the two exchanges, the serving exchange will send a handover command to the MS.

Section 5 Call Handling

Flowchart
VLR (MSC-B) BSC2
Allocate H.O.Number Send H.O. Report H.O. Request

MSC-B

MSC-A
Perform H.O. H.O. Required

BSC1
Measurement Report

MS

H.O. Request Ack

RAD CH Ack I AM (ISUP) ACM (ISUP) H.O. Command H.O. Complete

H.O. Command

H.O. Complete

Send End Signal ANS (ISUP)

Clear Command

Clear Complete

Section 5 Call Handling

Exercise
Q1. Name the types of the location updates exists in the mobile network? Q2. Describe the different kinds of paging messages? Q3. Calculate the paging capacity (mobiles paged per second) for the following operator setting: paging message type = 3

Section 5 Call Handling

Q4. Calculate the PCH requirement for following: Number of subscriber = 75,000 Busy hour calls = 40% Assume on average 2 pages required per call Safety margin for peak variation in number of calls =1.2 Paging message of type 2 Q5. Which part of the network allocates the MSRN to the call?

Section 6 SS7

SS7

Section 6 SS7

CONTENTS

Introduction Signaling Modes CCS 7 Vs. CAS CCS 7 Link Types CCS 7 Signaling Network Signaling Network Components CCS 7 Architecture CCS 7 Functional Blocks
MTP
Signaling Data link (Level 1) Signaling Link Functions (Level 2) Signaling Network Functions (Level 3)

Section 6 SS7

Functions of Signaling Link (Level 2)


Organization of signaling Information Signal Units Signal Unit Delimitation/ Flag Imitation Prevention

Error Detection Error Correction


Basic Method

Positive Ack Negative Ack


Preventive Cyclic Re-Transmission

Error Rate Monitoring


Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor Alignment Error Rate Monitor

Section 6 SS7

Signaling Network Functions (level 3)


Service Information Octet

Routing Label Signaling Message Handling


Message Discrimination Message Distribution Message Routing

Signaling link Management


Link activation Link restoration

Flow Control

Section 6 SS7

Introduction
Common Channel Signaling System No. 7 (i.e., SS7 or C7 ) is a global standard for telecommunications defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). The standard defines the procedures and protocol by which network elements in the public switched telephone network (PSTN) exchange information over a digital signaling network to effect wireless (cellular) and wire line call setup, routing and control.

Section 6 SS7

The SS7 network and protocol are used for:

basic call setup, management, and tear down


wireless services such as personal communications services (PCS), wireless roaming, and mobile subscriber authentication local number portability (LNP) toll-free (800/888) and toll (900) wireline services enhanced call features such as call