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Cryptology and Its Applications

National Institute of Science & Technology

Cryptology and Its Applications


Presented By
AKSHAT MATHUR Roll # EC200118042

Under the guidance of


Dr. Parth S. Mallick

Akshat Mathur [1]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Introduction
National Institute of Science & Technology

The science of cryptology is the science of secure communications, formed from the Greek
words kryptós, "hidden", and logos, "word".

Useful Terminology
• CIPHERTEXT

•CODE

•CRYPTANALYSIS

•CRYPTOGRAPHY

•CRYPTOSYSTEM

•DECRYPTION

•ENCRYPTION

Akshat Mathur [2]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

PRODUCT CIPHERS A D F G B X
A S U B J E C
D T A D F G H
F I K L M N O
G P Q R V W X
V Y Z 0 1 2 3
X 4 5 6 7 8 9
M E R C H A N T T A Y L O R S

FG AV GF AX DX DD FV DA DA DD VA FF FX GF AA

Akshat Mathur [3]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

• Block Ciphers
It is a type of symmetric-key encryption algorithm that changes
a fixed length of block text into same length of Cipher text.
Encryption works by means of key and Decryption is the reverse
of encryption process using the same key.
• Stream Ciphers
The encryption method is based on simple XOR of binary bits.
It encrypts one bit at a time.
The key sequence is generated on highly complex mathematical
algorithms. LFSR based on primitive polynomials and
combination of several LFSR using linear and nonlinear logic
provides a very high level of complexity.

Akshat Mathur [4]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

• Public Key Cryptography


– RSA Algorithm
• In this system a user chooses a pair of prime numbers so large that
factorizing the product is beyond all computing capabilities.
• Stages of sending the message by this method.
– The receiver, M, distributes his public key pair.
– The sender, F, composes a plain text message, m, and then uses Ms public key
to encrypt the message and from cipher text, c. c is the remainder left when m
is raised to the power of e and divided by the modulus n.

Akshat Mathur [5]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

– c = me mod n (where e and n are Ms public key pair).


– F sends the ciphertext, c, to M.
– The receiver, M, decrypts the ciphertext and retrieves the
plaintext message, m. m is the remainder obtained when c is
raised to the power of d and divided by n.
– m = cd mod n
– As you can see, this process requires d, which only M knows.
Another person, I, who intercepts the message, can not decrypt
it.
– Example:
» Let p = 5, q = 11, n = pq = 55
» The least common multiple of (p-1)(q-1) is 20 = 22 ´ 5.

Akshat Mathur [6]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

» Therefore, in this case, any key, e, not divisible by 2 or 5


will have a matching key, d (e must be relatively prime to
(p-1)(q-1) for it to be the key).
» Let e = 7
» (ed -1) mod (p-1)(q-1) = 0 \ d = 3
» Let the plaintext message, m = b = 2
» \ The ciphertext, c = me mod n = 27 mod 55 = 18
» To decrypt this information it is necessary to know d.
» m’ = cd mod n = 183 mod 55 = 2 \ The message has been
successfully decrypted.

Akshat Mathur [7]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography in the "Real World"


National Institute of Science & Technology

• Applications of Cryptography

– military and diplomatic services

– protecting confidential company information, telephone


calls

– Internet Business

– lottery tickets

Akshat Mathur [8]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptanalysis
National Institute of Science & Technology

• Unlike cryptography which is a clearly defined science, cryptanalysis is as


much an art as it is a science.
• Types of Cryptanalysis: The type used depends on the type of cipher and how much
information the cryptanalyst has.
– Types Of Cryptanalytic Attacks
• A brute force attack
• Dictionary attack
• Ciphertext only attack
• Chosen plaintext
• An adaptive chosen plaintext

Akshat Mathur [9]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptanalysis
National Institute of Science & Technology

• A Triumph of Cryptanalysis – Enigma


– What Was Enigma?
The Enigma machine consisted of a 26 letter keyboard for
input. The output was read off 26 lamps which each
corresponded to a letter. The encipherment was performed
by a device called a "scrambler" that was made of three
rotating wheels on a common spindle and a plug board
known as a "Steckerboard" that added an additional level of
security.

Akshat Mathur [10]


Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptanalysis
National Institute of Science & Technology

– What Made It Possible?


With the level of sophistication of the Enigma machines it
should have been unbreakable. However, the Germans had
a number of procedural flaws which allowed the British
and Polish to break the cipher.

Akshat Mathur [11]


Cryptology and Its Applications

CONCLUSION
National Institute of Science & Technology

• Military cryptography for encryption may still remain


mainly symmetric key based for obvious reasons.
• Public key cryptography would develop more in near
future particularly in the context of key exchange and
digital signatures.
• Simultaneously , the challenging area of the
cryptanalysis, being the other side of the development
exercise will gain the importance in the view of the
plethora of applications demanding assured security.

Akshat Mathur [12]


Cryptology and Its Applications
National Institute of Science & Technology

THANK YOU !!!

Akshat Mathur [13]