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# Cryptology and Its Applications

## Cryptology and Its Applications

Presented By
AKSHAT MATHUR Roll # EC200118042

## Under the guidance of

Dr. Parth S. Mallick

## Akshat Mathur [1]

Cryptology and Its Applications

Introduction
National Institute of Science & Technology

The science of cryptology is the science of secure communications, formed from the Greek
words kryptós, "hidden", and logos, "word".

Useful Terminology
• CIPHERTEXT

•CODE

•CRYPTANALYSIS

•CRYPTOGRAPHY

•CRYPTOSYSTEM

•DECRYPTION

•ENCRYPTION

## Akshat Mathur [2]

Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

PRODUCT CIPHERS A D F G B X
A S U B J E C
D T A D F G H
F I K L M N O
G P Q R V W X
V Y Z 0 1 2 3
X 4 5 6 7 8 9
M E R C H A N T T A Y L O R S

FG AV GF AX DX DD FV DA DA DD VA FF FX GF AA

## Akshat Mathur [3]

Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

• Block Ciphers
It is a type of symmetric-key encryption algorithm that changes
a fixed length of block text into same length of Cipher text.
Encryption works by means of key and Decryption is the reverse
of encryption process using the same key.
• Stream Ciphers
The encryption method is based on simple XOR of binary bits.
It encrypts one bit at a time.
The key sequence is generated on highly complex mathematical
algorithms. LFSR based on primitive polynomials and
combination of several LFSR using linear and nonlinear logic
provides a very high level of complexity.

## Akshat Mathur [4]

Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

## • Public Key Cryptography

– RSA Algorithm
• In this system a user chooses a pair of prime numbers so large that
factorizing the product is beyond all computing capabilities.
• Stages of sending the message by this method.
– The receiver, M, distributes his public key pair.
– The sender, F, composes a plain text message, m, and then uses Ms public key
to encrypt the message and from cipher text, c. c is the remainder left when m
is raised to the power of e and divided by the modulus n.

## Akshat Mathur [5]

Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

## – c = me mod n (where e and n are Ms public key pair).

– F sends the ciphertext, c, to M.
– The receiver, M, decrypts the ciphertext and retrieves the
plaintext message, m. m is the remainder obtained when c is
raised to the power of d and divided by n.
– m = cd mod n
– As you can see, this process requires d, which only M knows.
Another person, I, who intercepts the message, can not decrypt
it.
– Example:
» Let p = 5, q = 11, n = pq = 55
» The least common multiple of (p-1)(q-1) is 20 = 22 ´ 5.

## Akshat Mathur [6]

Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptography
National Institute of Science & Technology

## » Therefore, in this case, any key, e, not divisible by 2 or 5

will have a matching key, d (e must be relatively prime to
(p-1)(q-1) for it to be the key).
» Let e = 7
» (ed -1) mod (p-1)(q-1) = 0 \ d = 3
» Let the plaintext message, m = b = 2
» \ The ciphertext, c = me mod n = 27 mod 55 = 18
» To decrypt this information it is necessary to know d.
» m’ = cd mod n = 183 mod 55 = 2 \ The message has been
successfully decrypted.

## Akshat Mathur [7]

Cryptology and Its Applications

## Cryptography in the "Real World"

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• Applications of Cryptography

## – protecting confidential company information, telephone

calls

– lottery tickets

## Akshat Mathur [8]

Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptanalysis
National Institute of Science & Technology

## • Unlike cryptography which is a clearly defined science, cryptanalysis is as

much an art as it is a science.
• Types of Cryptanalysis: The type used depends on the type of cipher and how much
information the cryptanalyst has.
– Types Of Cryptanalytic Attacks
• A brute force attack
• Dictionary attack
• Ciphertext only attack
• Chosen plaintext

## Akshat Mathur [9]

Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptanalysis
National Institute of Science & Technology

## • A Triumph of Cryptanalysis – Enigma

– What Was Enigma?
The Enigma machine consisted of a 26 letter keyboard for
input. The output was read off 26 lamps which each
corresponded to a letter. The encipherment was performed
by a device called a "scrambler" that was made of three
rotating wheels on a common spindle and a plug board
security.

## Akshat Mathur [10]

Cryptology and Its Applications

Cryptanalysis
National Institute of Science & Technology

## – What Made It Possible?

With the level of sophistication of the Enigma machines it
should have been unbreakable. However, the Germans had
a number of procedural flaws which allowed the British
and Polish to break the cipher.

## Akshat Mathur [11]

Cryptology and Its Applications

CONCLUSION
National Institute of Science & Technology

## • Military cryptography for encryption may still remain

mainly symmetric key based for obvious reasons.
• Public key cryptography would develop more in near
future particularly in the context of key exchange and
digital signatures.
• Simultaneously , the challenging area of the
cryptanalysis, being the other side of the development
exercise will gain the importance in the view of the
plethora of applications demanding assured security.

## Akshat Mathur [12]

Cryptology and Its Applications
National Institute of Science & Technology