MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Microwave Remote Sensing (MRS)
Presented by Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313

Under the guidance of Mr. Rowdra Ghatak
Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313

[1]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

What is microwave remote sensing?

•A special application of microwave communications technologies for the purpose of collecting geophysical information about targets (objects and media) without making physical contact. •Microwave reflections or emissions from earth materials bear no direct relationship to their counterparts in the visible portions of the spectrum.

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[2]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

How does it work? •There is an interaction between the EM waves and matter. •The target imposes a modulation on the EM wave which becomes its identifying characteristics. •Sensors use microwave communications technologies. •Active (radar) and passive (microwave radiometry) measurements.

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[3]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Active and Passive Microwave Sensors •Passive: uses natural energy, either reflected sunlight or emitted thermal or microwave radiation •Active: sensor creates its own energy •Transmitted toward Earth •Interacts with atmosphere and/or surface •Reflects back toward sensor (backscatter)
Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313

[4]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Microwave Radiometry In the microwave region of the EM spectrum, the power collected by a microwave antenna is: P blackbody = k Tb * bandwidth

Microwave Brightness Temperature, Tb, of a media is the product of the media emissivity and its physical temperature. For blackbodies, ε = 1.0 Tb = ε * T phys
Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313

[5]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Microwave Radiometer
Antenna Receiver

+
Trec

Square Law detector

LPF

Resistor noise

Tsys = Radiometer Output power
KB*(receiver gain)

Where K=Boltzman’s constant B=bandwidth

Tsys = T ant + T Rec

TRec = (1-NF)*290 K; NF=Receiver noise figure Tant= scene brightness temp collected by antenna
Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313

[6]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Radiative Transfer Theory The TB measured by spaceborne radiometer is the linear sum of individual contributions from the atmosphere and surface

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[7]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP)

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[8]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Three Day Average of Some MRS Parameters

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[9]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

What is a Microwave Scatterometer?

•A special purpose radar sensor that measures scattering from the earth’s surface i.e., a scatter-meter •If the objects are having smaller wavelengths,then scattering occurs

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[10]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Satellite Microwave Scatterometer

P r = Pt * σ
Where σ = ocean Scattering coeff. Or Normalized radar Cross-section

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[11]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Scatterometer Applications

•Ocean Wind Vector (wind speed & direction) • Hurricanes & Typhoons • Sea Ice Imaging • Land Imaging

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[12]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Antarctic Sea Ice Imaging

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[13]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) • Microwave remote sensing of rainfall • TRMM Microwave (Radiometer) Imager • Precipitation Radar

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[14]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Greenland Ice Melt - 4 day intervals

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[15]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Precipitation Radar - Hurricane Rainfall Image

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[16]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Synthetic Aperture Radar •Generally refers to the case of a moving radar and a stationary target- usually an extended scene, such as the surface of the Earth. •ISAR refers to the case in which the radar is relatively stationary and a rotating target provides all(or most) of the motion to create the synthetic aperture.

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[17]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Comparison Between RAR and SAR

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[18]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Comparison Between RAR and SAR

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[19]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

SAR Modes

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[20]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Side-Looking Radar System

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[21]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

SLR Operation

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[22]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Conclusion •microwave sensors provide valuable geophysical measurements • Remote sensing satellites provide global coverage each day • Day/night all weather • Atmosphere • Water vapor, cloud liquid water, precipitation • Sea Ice and land snow cover • Ocean • Surface winds, sea surface temperature

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[23]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Lillesand Thomas M. and Ralph W. Kiefer,”Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation”, fourth edition, chapter 8,pp. 616-692 Sullivan Roger J., “Radar Foundations for Imaging and Advanced Concepts”, Chapter 7, pp.191-194 http://www.engr.ucf.edu/centers/cfrsl/ http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Ulaby, F.T., R.K.Moore, and A.K.Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Addison-Welsey, Reading, MA; vol.1: Microwave Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Radiometry, 1981;vol. II: Radar Remote Sensing and Surface Scattering and Emission Theory, 1982;vol. III.
EC200117313

Kishore Kumar Parida

[24]

MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

THANK YOU

Kishore Kumar Parida

EC200117313

[25]

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