Respiratory System

Dr. Dini Sri Damayanti,MKes

Respiration

Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between a living organism and its environment = respiration.

In animals (people) this takes place in the lungs (alveoli) where the air and blood come in close contact.

Pulmonary ventilation – breathing, the process that moves air into and out of the lungs. Also called external respiration.

Internal respiration – process by which an exchange of gases occurs between the blood and the cells of the body. Cellular respiration – actual use of O2 by cells in the process of metabolism.

Causes by irritation to the phrenic nerve or some types of brain injury.Mechanics of Breathing  Muscles – control the size of the chest cavity. spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm.   External intercostals – between the ribs move the chest up and out when they contract.  Hiccups (singultus) – involuntary. . moves down when it contracts increasing the volume in the thorax. Diaphragm – dome shaped muscle between the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

the lungs expand as the thorax expands and air rushes in and down to the alveoli. Expiration or exhalation – moving air out of the lungs. Because of the positioning of the pleura. .  Inspiration occurs as the thorax enlarges (contraction of the external intercostals and diaphragm).Mechanics of Breathing  Pulmonary ventilation has 2 phases:   Inspiration or inhalation – moving air into lungs.

Mechanics of Breathing  Expiration Passive process that begins when the muscles relax decreasing the size of the thorax and lungs – air moves out of the lungs.  Forceful expiration – internal intercostals and abdominal muscles contract and depress the rib cage decreasing the depth (front to back) of the thorax. Pressure increases and air flows out of the lungs.  .

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some is dissolved in the plasma and some combines with hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin. O2 moves out of and CO2 moves into the blood.Gas Exchange    CO2 moves into the lungs and leaves the body during expiration. . At the tissues O2 is low and CO2 high whereas the blood reaching them is just the opposite. Most of the CO2 is carried in the blood as a bicarbonate ion.

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Tidal volume – amount of air taken into our lungs during normal inspiration. Vital capacity – largest amount of air that we can breathe in or out in one inspiration/expiration. about 4800 ml in normal young men. about 500 ml.Respiratory Function    Spirometer .device used to measure the amount of air exchanged during breathing. .

. Residual volume – air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration.Respiratory Function     Expiratory reserve – amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after exhaling the tidal volume. Residual volume + Vital Capacity = Total Lung Capacity. Inspiratory reserve – amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled over and above normal inhalation.

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Physical Principles of Gas Exchange  Diffusion of gases through the respiratory membrane  Depends on membrane’s thickness. partial pressure of gases in alveoli and blood  Relationship between ventilation and pulmonary capillary flow  Increased ventilation or increased pulmonary capillary blood flow increases gas exchange . surface areas of membrane.

Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Diffusion Gradients  Oxygen   Carbon dioxide    Moves from alveoli into blood. Blood is almost completely saturated with oxygen when it leaves the capillary P02 in blood decreases because of mixing with deoxygenated blood Oxygen moves from tissue capillaries into the tissues  Moves from tissues into tissue capillaries Moves from pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli .

Changes in Partial Pressures .

or an increase in temperature results in a decrease in the ability of hemoglobin to hold oxygen The substance 2.Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport    A shift of the curve to the right because of a decrease in pH.3-bisphosphoglycerate increases the ability of hemoglobin to release oxygen Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does maternal . an increase in carbon dioxide.

Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve at Rest .

Bohr effect: .

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Temperature effects: .

Shifting the Curve .

Transport of Carbon Dioxide    Carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate ions (70%) in combination with blood proteins (23%) and in solution with plasma (7%) Hemoglobin that has released oxygen binds more readily to carbon dioxide than hemoglobin that has oxygen bound to it (Haldane effect) In tissue capillaries. carbon dioxide combines with water inside RBCs to form carbonic acid which dissociates to form bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions .

Transport of Carbon Dioxide   In lung capillaries. The respiratory system regulates blood pH by regulating plasma carbon dioxide levels . Increased plasma carbon dioxide lowers blood pH. The carbonic acid is converted to carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide diffuses out of the RBCs. Bicarbonate ions combine with hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid. bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions move into RBCs and chloride ions move out.

Movement .CO2 Transport and Cl.

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Respiratory Areas in Brainstem  Medullary respiratory center Dorsal groups stimulate the diaphragm  Ventral groups stimulate the intercostal and abdominal muscles   Pontine (pneumotaxic) respiratory group  Involved with switching between inspiration and expiration .

Respiratory Structures in Brainstem .

  Increasing inspiration  Stopping inspiration  .Rhythmic Ventilation  Starting inspiration    Medullary respiratory center neurons are continuously active Center receives stimulation from receptors and simulation from parts of brain concerned with voluntary respiratory movements and emotion Combined input from all sources causes action potentials to stimulate respiratory muscles More and more neurons are activated Neurons stimulating also responsible for stopping inspiration and receive input from pontine group and stretch receptors in lungs. Inhibitory neurons activated and relaxation of respiratory muscles results in expiration.

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Modification of Ventilation  Cerebral and limbic system   Chemical control  Respiration can be voluntarily controlled and modified by emotions  Carbon dioxide is major regulator  Increase or decrease in pH can stimulate chemosensitive area. causing a greater rate and depth of respiration Oxygen levels in blood affect respiration when a 50% or greater decrease from normal levels exists .

Modifying Respiration .

Regulation of Blood pH and Gases .

Herring-Breuer Reflex  Limits the degree of inspiration and prevents overinflation of the lungs  Infants  Reflex plays a role in regulating basic rhythm of breathing and preventing overinflation of lungs Reflex important only when tidal volume large as in exercise  Adults  .

lactic acid produced by skeletal muscles . gradual increase occurs (4-6 minutes)  Anaerobic threshold is highest level of exercise without causing significant change in blood pH   If exceeded.Ventilation in Exercise  Ventilation increases abruptly At onset of exercise  Movement of limbs has strong influence  Learned component   Ventilation increases gradually After immediate increase.

Effects of Aging     Vital capacity and maximum minute ventilation decrease Residual volume and dead space increase Ability to remove mucus from respiratory passageways decreases Gas exchange across respiratory membrane is reduced .

  In any fluid that contains water: CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3The brain senses the H+ concentration that develops in the CSF because CO2 diffuses into the CSF from the blood.pH Disturbances  Respiratory – change in gas exchange. . Alkalosis – blood pH is alkaline or basic due to decreased levels of CO2 in the blood. lungs   Acidosis – blood pH is acid due to increased levels of CO2 in the blood.

  Acidosis – diabetes mellitus. Respiratory compensation – increased rate and depth. Alkalosis – vomiting. kidney disease or severe diarrhea increase H+ in the blood. Respiratory compensation – decreased rate and depth. medications – decrease H+ in the blood. . Metabolic – change in pH that is not due to changes in gas exchange in the lungs.

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