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GSM Signaling and Protocols Architecture

Contents

GSM signaling and protocol architecture Mobile initialization Location update Mobile identification Mobile authentication Mobile registration MS- PSTN call PSTN-MS call MS-MS call Intra-MSC handover Inter-MSC handover

GSM signaling and protocol architecture

GSM signaling and protocol architecture

Interfaces in GSM
MS Um interface BTS BSC MSC MSC or HLR or VLR

A- interface A-bis

SS7 GSM MAP

GSM signaling and protocol architecture

GSM signaling protocol layer 1

GSM signaling protocol layer 1

GSM signaling protocol layer 2

GSM signaling protocol layer 2

GSM signaling protocol layer 3

GSM signaling protocol layer 3

GSM signaling protocols

GSM signaling & SS7

SS7 Network Component

SS7 Network Component

SS7 protocol stack

SS7 protocol stack

GSM signaling protocol layer 1

GSM signaling protocol layer 2

GSM signaling protocol layer 3

GSM signaling protocol layer 4

GSM signaling protocol layer 4

GSM signaling protocol layer 4

GSM signaling protocol layer 4

GSM signaling protocol layer 4

GSM Protocol layers


To perform network control operations unique to personal communications, GSM adds a Mobile Application Part (MAP) to SS .7 MAP makes use of the Transactions Capabilities Part (TCAP) transport protocol . MAP functions :

Updating of residence information in VLR Storage of routing information in HLR Updating and supplementing of user profiles in HLR Handoff of connections between MSCs

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GSM Mobile Application Part

GSM Mobile Application Part

GSM Mobile Application Part

GSM Mobile Application Part

Contents

GSM signaling and protocol architecture Mobile initialization Location update Mobile identification Mobile authentication Mobile registration MS- PSTN call PSTN-MS call MS-MS call Intra-MSC handover Inter-MSC handover

Mobile initialization

Frequency Synchronization Time Synchronization System Synchronization

Frequency Synchronization

FCCH

Time Synchronization

SCH

System Synchronization

BCCH

Mobile initialization
MS In idle state

Contents

GSM signaling and protocol architecture Mobile initialization Location update Mobile identification Mobile authentication Mobile registration MS- PSTN call PSTN-MS call MS-MS call Intra-MSC handover Inter-MSC handover

GSM NETWORK LAYOUT


GSM Network (PLMN)

MSC region
Location area Location area

MSC region

BSC
BTS BTS

MSC region

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GSM NETWORK LAYOUT


PLMN INTERNATIONAL

ISC

OMC
BSC MSC BTS
Abis

PSTN ISDN

GMSC
B,C
E

BSC

EIR BTS BTS


Um

HLR VLR
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AUC

What is a location area (LA?)


A powered-on mobile is informed of an incoming call by a paging message sent over the PCH channel of a cell One extreme is to page every cell in the network for each call, which results in a waste of radio bandwidth Other extreme is to have a Mobile notify the system via location updating messages of its current location at the individual cell level. This requires paging messages to be sent to exactly one cell, but this is wasteful due to the large number of location updating messages. Hence, in GSM, we group cells into Location Areas (Neighborhoods.)

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Addresses and Identifiers


International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI)

-It is similar to a serial number. It is allocated by equipment manufacturer, registered by network, and stored in EIR

International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)


CC MNC MSIN

-CC: Country Code -MNC: Mobile Network Code -MSIN: Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (ID in home net). When subscribing for service with a network, subscriber receives (IMSI) and stores it in the SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card. The IMSI has the unique subscriber id that

identifies the HLR of the MS. It is never made public

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Addresses and Identifiers

Mobile Subscriber ISDN (MSISDN)


CC NDC SN

-NDC: National Destination Code, SN: Subscriber Number, CC: Country Code -The real telephone number, assigned to the SIM -The SIM can have several MSISDN numbers for selection of different services like voice, data, fax

Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN)

-It is location dependent ISDN number CCtemporary NDC SN -It is assigned by local VLR to each MS in its area.

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Addresses and Identifiers

Location Area ID(LAI)


CC MNC

-CC: Country Code, MNC: Mobile Network Code, LAC: Location Area Code -LAI is broadcast regularly by Base Station on BCCH -Each cell is identified uniquely as belonging to an LA by its LAI

LAC

-It is an alias of the IMSI and is used in its place for privacy. -It is used to avoid sending IMSI on the radio path. It is an temporary identity that is allocated to an MS by the VLR at inter-VLR registration, and can be changed by the VLR --TMSI is stored in MS SIM card and in VLR .

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

MSCs and location registers (HLR,VLR) are addressed with ISDN numbers. In addition, they may have a Signaling Point Code (SPC) within a PLMN to address them uniquely in SS#.7

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TMSI vs IMSI vs MSRN vs MSISDN


TMSI is used during location update and registration for find, paging and call routing. Instead of using IMSI, the MS sends the TMSI to the BSS, which forwards it to the MSC. MSRN is the routing number that identifies the current location of the called MS . MSRN is temporary network identity assigned during the call establishment to a mobile subscriber . MSRN is the address to the serving MSC/VLR. MSRN is used during call termination (Incoming call to the MS.) MSISDN is dialed during call termination. MSISDN points to the subscribers records in the HLR that contains information to locate the MSC where the subscriber is currently located . MSISDN is the telephone number.

There is an association between IMSI and MSISDN in the HLR.

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Location management

Set of procedures to:

Current location of MS maintained by 2-level hierarchical strategy with HLRs and VLRs.

track a mobile user find the mobile user to deliver it calls

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Location registration
MS
IMSI Ki Loc.Upd.Req (IMSI,LAI) Upd Loc.Area Auth.Para.Req (IMSI) Aut. Info. (IMSI,Kc, RAND,SRES)

BSS/MSC

VLR

HLR

AUC

(IMSI,LAI)
Authenticate

Auth.Info.Req (IMSI) Auth.Info (IMSI,Kc, RAND,SRES)

Authentic. Req (RAND)


Ki RAND

(RAND)

A3 & A8
Kc SRES Auth.Resp.

SRES Auth.Resp

(SRES)

(SRES)

Generate

Update Location (IMSI,MSRN)

(contd) Location registration.


MS BSS/MSC

VLR
Generate TMSI

HLR

AUC

Start Ciph. (Kc) Forw. New TMSI (TMSI) Loc.Upd.Accept

Ins.Subsc.Data (IMSI) Subs.Dat.Ins.Ack Loc.Upd.Accept (IMSI)

Kc

A5

Message M

Ciph.Mod.Co m.

Kc(M)

Ciph.Mod.
Kc(M) Kc Kc(M) M

A5

Loc.Upd.Accep t TMSI Realloc.Ack

TMSI Realloc.Cmd.

TMSI.Ack
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Location registration
MS has to register with the PLMN to get communication services Registration is required for a change of PLMN MS has to report to current PLMN with its IMSI and receive new TMSI by executing Location Registration process. The TMSI is stored in SIM, so that even after power on or off, there is only normal Location Update. If the MS recognizes by reading the LAI broadcast on BCCH that it is in new LA, it performs Location Update to update the HLR records. Location update procedure could also be performed periodically, independent of the MS movement. The difference in Location Registration and Location Update is that in location update the MS has already been assigned a TMSI.

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Location update
MS BSS/MSC VLR HLR AUC
IMSI, TMSI Ki, Kc, LAI

Loc.Upd.Req (TMSI,LAI)

Update Loc.Area
(TMSI,LAI)

Authentication
Update Location (IMSI,MSRN) Generate (option) TMSI Start ciphering Insert Subscriber. data (Kc) IMSI

Start ciphering.

Subs. Data Insert Ack

(contd..)

..(contd) Location update.


MS BSS/MSC

VLR

HLR

AUC

Start ciphering.
Forward new TMSI (TMSI) Loc. Upd. Acept (IMSI) Loc. Upd. Acept

Loc. Upd. Acept


TMSI Realloc. Cmd.

Auth. Para. Req (IMSI) Auth. Info.


(IMSI,Kc, RAND,SRES)

TMSI Reallocation Complete

Auth.Info.Req

TMSI Ack

(IMSI)
Auth.Info
(IMSI,Kc, RAND,SRES)
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Location update for inter LA, inter VLR


MS BSS/MSC VLR new HLR VLR old

IMSI, TMSI Ki, Kc, LAI

Loc.Upd.Req
(TMSI,LAI)

Update Loc.Area (TMSI,LAI)

Authentication

Send para. From VLR new (TMSI, LAI) IMSI response (IMSI,RAND,SRES,Kc Update Location (IMSI,MSRN)

Forward new TMSI Subs. Data Insert Ack (TMSI) Location update accept

Cancel Location (IMSI) Cancel location ack (IMSI) Start ciphering Insert Subscriber. data (Kc) IMSI

Generate TMSI

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Contents

GSM signaling and protocol architecture Mobile initialization Location update Mobile identification Mobile authentication Mobile registration MS- PSTN call PSTN-MS call MS-MS call Intra-MSC handover Inter-MSC handover

Mobile identification
The Identification procedure is used to identify the MS when the VLR fails to recognize the TMSI sent by MS Such failure may be caused when the MS changes its location while powered off The Identification procedure is initiated by VLR The VLR send MAP/D provide IMSI message to the MSC

Location update for inter LA, inter VLR


MS BSS/MSC VLR new HLR VLR old

TMSI Ki, Kc, LAI

(TMSI,LAI)

(TMSI,LAI)

(MAP/B provide IMSI) (IMSI,LAI)

Send para. From VLR new (TMSI, LAI) IMSI response (IMSI,RAND,SRES,Kc Update Location (IMSI,MSRN) Cancel Location (IMSI) Cancel location ack (IMSI) Insert Subscriber. data IMSI

Authentication

Generate TMSI

Start ciphering (Kc) Forward new TMSI Subs. Data Insert Ack (TMSI) Location update accept

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Contents

GSM signaling and protocol architecture Mobile initialization Location update Mobile identification Mobile authentication Mobile registration MS- PSTN call PSTN-MS call MS-MS call Intra-MSC handover Inter-MSC handover

Mobile Authentication
Authentication procedure occurs at: Location Update Services Request

Mobile Authentication
Mobile Authentication is done every location update and every service request The VLR send MAP/D send parameter message to the HLR The Authentication is done using the AuC with the HLR

Contents

GSM signaling and protocol architecture Mobile initialization Location update Mobile identification Mobile authentication Mobile registration MS- PSTN call PSTN-MS call MS-MS call Intra-MSC handover Inter-MSC handover

Mobile registration
GSM Attach/Detach or IMSI Attach/Detach is done only if you switch ON and switch OFF your cell phone Lets say you switched ON your Cell phone so at this stage what happens is you first synchronize with frequency (FCCH Channel) then you go for time synchronize(SCH Channel) and then you start getting information about your network (BCCH Channel.) It is like once you enter into the IDLE mode means you have done frequency and time synchronization and now you need to inform to the network that hey.now I am in idle mode

Mobile registration

IMSI ATTACHED
IMSI Attach MS registered

MS ON

IMSI ATTACHED
When mobile is turn on, it send its TMSI to the MSC which in turn send it to the VLR if suppose lets say you were there under this MSC/VLR before in this case what happens is that the state changes from the detach to attach.

IMSI ATTACHED
When MSC finds that the MS is new MS that is there is no any kind of entry for this particular MS in VLR then the MSC will ask HLRthe HLR will provide the details about the MS i.e nothing but the IMSI saying that this IMSI is validthe MSC now is going to create one entry in VLR for this new MS with the status of IMSI ATTACHEDinside the HLR also the same will be updated.

IMSI DETACHED
IMSI Detach MS OFF

IMSI DETACHED

Contents

GSM signaling and protocol architecture Mobile initialization Location update Mobile identification Mobile authentication Mobile registration MS- PSTN call PSTN-MS call MS-MS call Intra-MSC handover Inter-MSC handover

Call Origination
VLR u1
3 2

PSTN

MSC

VLR

PSTN

MSC

MS

2. MAP_SEND_INFO_FOR_OUTGOING_CALL 3. MAP_SEND_INFO_FOR_OUTGOING_CALL_ack 4. IAM 1.call origination request

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Call Termination
PSTN
1

GMSC

5 2

HLR

3 6

VLR
Target MSC

VLR HLR GMSC 1. ISUP IAM Originating 2. MAP_SEND_ROUTING_INFO Switch 3. MAP_PROVIDE_ROAMING_NUMBER

Target MSC

4. MAP_PROVIDE_ROAMING_NUMBER_ack 5. MAP_SEND_ROUTING_INFO_ack 6. ISUP IAM


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MSC Directory Number Allocation

Trunks

MSC

Local Exchange

Trunks

PSTN
MSC

Directory Number Spectrum in MSC MSISDN Used to reference home subscribers

MSRN

Used to reference visiting subscribers

Ways to obtain MSRN


Obtaining at location update MSRN for the MS is assigned at the time of each location update which is stored in the HLR. This way the HLR is in a position to supply immediately the routing info (MSRN) needed to switch a call through to the local MSC. Obtaining on a per call basis This case requires that the HLR has at least an identification for the currently responsible VLR. When routing info is requested from the HLR, it first has to obtain the MSRN from the VLR. This MSRN is assigned on a per call basis, i.e. each call involves a new MSRN assignment
1. 2.

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Land to Mobile Call Routing


Mobile Located in Non-Home MSC Area
HLR MSISDN 3 MSRN 4

BSS 1

MSISDN 1

MSISDN 2

Home MSC BSS 2

PSTN

MSRN

TMSI 9

TMSI
10

MSRN

Visited MSC
6 7 8 TMSI & LAC VLR

BSS 1

BSS 2

Signalling Voice Path

MSRN

Land to Mobile Call Routing


Mobile in Home MSC Area

HLR
MSISDN MSISDN TMSI MSISDN MSRN

PSTN

Home MSC

BSS 1

TMSI

BSS 2
MSRN TMSI & LAC

VLR

Land to Mobile Call Routing


Routing Via a Gateway MSC
BSS 1 BSS 2
MSISDN

Home MSC

MSISDN

PSTN
MSISDN

Gateway MSC

HLR
TMSI

MSRN

BSS 1
TMSI

MSRN

Visite d MSC
MSRN TMSI & LAC

BSS 2

Signalling Voice Path

VLR

Phases of a Land-to-Mobile Call


Routing Analysis Paging Authentication*

Ciphering*
Equipment Validation* Call Set-up

Handover(s)*
Release

*Phase might not occur


Note:: Detail for authentication, ciphering and equipment validation is not shown. It is the same as in location registration update and mobile-to-land call scenarios.

Land-to-Mobile Call Routing Analysis


B PSTN MSC

C
HLR

VLR

Incoming Call MSISDN

Get Route MSISDN

Routing Information MSRN

Incoming Call MSRN

Perform Page TMSI, LAI

Land-to-Mobile Call Paging


Um MS BSS A MSC B VLR

6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Page TMSI (on PCH)

Perform Page TMSI

Channel Request (on RACH) Dedicated Signalling Channel Assignment (on AGCH) Page Response TMSI, LAI (on SDCH)

Page Response TMSI, LAI

Page Response TMSI, LAI

Land-to-Mobile Call Setup


Um
MS BSS

A
MSC

13

Call Set-up

14

Call Set-up Confirm

15
Assign Radio Channel TCH

Assign Trunk & Radio Channel TRUNK

16

17

Radio Assignment Complete

18

Trunk & Radio Assignment Complete

Land-to-Mobile Call Set-up Continued


MS MSC PSTN

19

Mobile Alerting

20

Network Alerting

21

Connect (off-hook)

22

Connect

23

Connect Acknowledge

Land-to-Mobile Call Network Initiated Call Release


Um
MS BSS

A
MSC PSTN

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Channel Release Release Disconnect

Network Release

Release Complete

Clear Command

Clear Complete

Mobile-to-Land Call Scenario

Required Facilities for a Mobile-to-Land Call


Public Land Mobile Network Voice Trunk to PSTN MSC PSTN Fixed Public Land Network Line

Radio Channel BSC Voice Trunk Mobile Station


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. BSC BTS MSC PSTN

MSC Voice Trunk

BTS

BSC

Radio channel between Mobile Station and BTS selected by the BSC BSC BTS voice trunk selected by the BSC MSC BSC voice trunk selected by the MSC MSC PSTN voice trunk selected by the MSC Line from PSTN end switching office to Fixed Station (permanent link) - Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Mobile Switching Centre Public Switched Telephone Network

Phases of a Mobile-to-Land Call


Request for Service Authentication* Ciphering*

Equipment Validation*
Call Set-up Handover(s)* Release
* Phase might not occur Note: Detail for authentication and ciphering is not shown. It is the same as in the location registration update scenario.

Mobile-to-Land Call Request for Service


Um
MS BSS

A
MSC

New VLR

Channel Request

Dedicated Signalling Channel Assignment

Service Request TMSI, LAI

Service Request TMSI, LAI

Service Request TMSI, LAI

Mobile-to-Land Call Equipment Validation


MS MSC EIR

IMEI Request

IMEI Response

Check IMEI (IMEI)

IMEI Check Results

Mobile-to-Land Call Setup


Um MS
Call Setup Request

A BSS MSC

B VLR

10 11 12 13
Call Proceeding Access Subscriber Data

Subscriber Data

Assign Trunk & Radio Trunk No.

14
15 16 17
Trunk & Radio Assignment Complete TCH Assign Radio Channel TCH Radio Assignment Complete (on TCH)

Mobile-to-Land Call Set-up Continued


MS MSC PSTN
Network Set-up (Dialled DN, Trunk No.)

18

19

Network Alerting

20

Alerting

21

Connect (answer)

22

Connect

23

Connect Acknowledgement

Note: Network Set-up, Network Alerting and Connect are generic terms. For SS7, the network set-up message would be Initial Assignment Message (IAM).

Mobile-to-Land Call Mobile Initiated Release


Um MS BSS A MSC PSTN
Disconnect

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Network Release

Release

Release Complete

Clear Command

Channel Release

Clear Complete

Mobile-to-Mobile Call Scenario

Phases of a Mobile-to-Mobile Call


Request for Service

Authentication*
Ciphering* Equipment Validation* Call Setup Originating Mobile

Routing Analysis Paging Authentication* Ciphering* Equipment Validation* Call Setup Handover(s)* Release Terminating Mobile

*Phase might not occur

Mobile-to-Mobile Call Set-up & Release


Um
MS-A
Channel Request Service Request

A
BSS

MSC VLR

A
BSS

Um
MS-B

Authentication Ciphering Equipment Validation Routing Analysis With HLR

Paging and Response Authentication Ciphering Equipment Validation

Call Set-up Handover Release

Call Set-up Handover Release

Find Operation

Inter-LA

Inter-MSC Inter-VLR

Both LAs belong to same MSC, call/packets will be routed directly

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Find operation in GSM


ISDN switch recognizes from the MSISDN that the call subscriber is a mobile subscriber. Therefore, forward the call to the GMSC of the home PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) GMSC requests the current routing address (MSRN) from the HLR using MAP By way of MSRN the call is forwarded to the local MSC Local MSC determines the TMSI of the MS (by querying VLR) and initiates the paging procedure in the relevant LA After MS responds to the page the connection can be switched through.

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GSM Handover
MSC

To Frequency 9 Time Slot 7 From Frequency 6 Time Slot 3


BSS MS

Subscriber Set

BSS

Lanline switched at MSC Frequency and time slot changed at MS

4types of handover

BTS

BTS BSC

BTS BSC MSC

BTS BSC MSC

Handover decision
receive level BTSold receive level BTSold

HO_MARGIN MS BTSold MS BTSnew

Handover procedure
MS BTSold BSCold measurement measurement report result HO decision HO required

MSC

BSCnew

BTSnew

HO request resource allocation ch. activation

HO command

HO command

ch. activation ack HO command HO request ack

HO access
HO complete

Link establishment HO complete clear command clear command

clear complete clear complete

Contents

Speech coding Channel coding Interleaving Frame structure Modulation Logical channel Organization of logical channel Power Control

Speech coding

Speech coding
In order to send our voice across a radio network, we have to turn our voice into a digital signal . GSM uses a method called RPE-LPC (Regular Pulse Excited - Linear Predictive Coder with a Long Term Predictor Loop) to turn our analog voice into a compressed digital equivalent.

RPE-LPC
In modern land-line telephone systems, digital coding is used . The electrical variations induced into the microphone are sampled and each sample is then converted into a digital code . The voice waveform is then sampled at a rate of 8 kHz . Since we sample 8000 times per second Each sample is then converted into an 8 bit binary number representing 256 distinct values . So we have a bit rate of 8kHz X 8 bits = 64kbps . This bit rate is unrealistic to transmit across a radio network since interference will likely ruin

RPE-LPC
A LPC encoder fits a given speech signal against a set of vocal characteristics. The best-fit parameters are transmitted and used by the decoder to generate synthetic speech that is similar to the original . Information from previous samples is used to predict the current sample . The coefficients of the linear combination of the previous samples, plus an encoded form of the residual, the difference between the predicted and actual sample, represent the signal . Speech is divided into 20 millisecond samples,

RPE-LPC

Contents

Speech coding Channel coding Interleaving Frame structure Modulation Logical channel Organization of logical channel Power Control

Channel coding
Once we have a digital signal we have to add some sort of redundancy so that we can recover from errors when we transmit our digital voice over the radio channel. Channel coding adds redundancy bits to the original information to detect and correct errors occurred during transmission. GSM uses convolution coding and interleaving to achieve this protection. The exact algorithms used differ for speech and for different data rates

otection.

Channel coding
In digital transmission, the quality of the transmitted signal is often expressed in terms of how many of the received bits are incorrect. This is called Bit Error Rate (BER.) BER defines the percentage of the total number of received bits which are incorrectly detected.

Channel coding
This percentage should be as low as possible. It is not possible to reduce the percentage to zero because the transmission path is constantly changing.

Channel coding for GSM


Channel coding is used to detect and correct errors in a received bit stream. It adds bits to a message. These bits enable a channel decoder to determine whether the message has faulty bits, and to potentially correct the faulty bits.

Channel coding for GSM

Channel coding for GSM speech


Recall that the RPE-LTP Encoder produces a block of 260 bits every 20 ms. It was found (though testing) that some of the 260 bits were more important when compared to others. Below is the composition of these 260 bits.

Class Ia: 50 bits (most sensitive to bit errors) Class Ib:132 bits (moderately sensitive to bit errors) Class II: 78 bits (least sensitive to error)

Channel coding for GSM


As a result of some bits being more important than others, GSM adds redundancy bits to each of the three Classes differently. The Class IA bits are encoded in a cyclic encoder. The Class Ib bits (together with the encoded Class IA bits) are encoded using convolutional encoding. Finally, the Class II bits are merely added to the result of the convolutional encoder.

Channel coding for GSM


Class Ia bits have a 3 bit Cyclic Redundancy Code added for error detection. These 53 bits, together with the 132 Class Ib bits and a 4 bit tail sequence (a total of 189 bits), are input into a rate convolutional encoder. Each input bit is encoded as two output bits.

Channel coding for GSM


The convolutional encoder thus outputs 378 bits, which are added to the 78 remaining Class II bits, which are unprotected. Thus every 20 m sec speech sample is encoded as 456 bits, giving a bit rate of 22.8 kbps

Channel coding for GSM

Class Ia

Class Ib

Class II

Contents

Speech coding Channel coding Interleaving Frame structure Modulation Logical channel Organization of logical channel Power Control

Interleaving
To further protect against the burst errors common to the radio interface, each sample is interleaved. This method rearranges a group of bits in a particular way. After encoding resultant sample block consists of 456 bits. These blocks are then divided into eight blocks each containing 57 bits. The first four blocks will be placed in the even bit positions of the first four bursts. The last four blocks will be placed in the odd bit positions of the next four bursts.

Interleaving
Because of interleaving lost bits are part of several different packets and each packet loses only a few bits out of a large number of bits. So Interleaving decreases the possibility of losing whole bursts during the transmission, by dispersing the errors. Since the errors become less concentrated , it is then easier to correct them.

Interleaving

Interleaving

Interleaving

Interleaving

Contents

Speech coding Channel coding Interleaving Frame structure Modulation Logical channel Organization of logical channel Power Control

GSM frame structure

GSM frame offset

GSM super and hyper frame

GSM super and hyper frame

Contents

Speech coding Channel coding Interleaving Frame structure Modulation Logical channel Organization of logical channel Power Control

Digital Modulation Technique


Modulation is the process of encoding information from a message source in a manner suitable for transmition. The ultimate goal of a modulation technique is to transport the message signal through a radio channel with the best possible quality while occupying the least amount of radio spectrum.

Modulation may be done by varying the amplitude ,phase, or frequency of a high frequency carrier in accordance with the amplitude of the message signal.

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying


Quadrature Phase Shift Keying is effectively two independent BPSK systems (I and Q), and therefore exhibits the same performance but twice the bandwidth efficiency. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying can be filtered using raised cosine filters to achieve excellent out of band suppression. Large envelope variations occur during phase transitions, thus requiring linear amplification.

Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (OQPSK)


Offset quadrature phase-shift keying OQPSK is a variant of Phase Shift Keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase shift keying SQPSK. OQPSK limits the phase-jumps that occur at symbol boundaries to no more than 90 and reduces the effects on the amplitude of the signal due to any low-pass filtering. Bit transitions occur every Tb sec Smaller envelope variations

QPSK vs. OQPSK

Minimum shift Keying


MSK uses changes in phase to represent 0's and 1's, but unlike most other keying, the pulse sent to represent a 0 or a 1, not only depends on what information is being sent, but what was previously sent. The pulse used in MSK is the following:

Minimum shift Keying


Right from the equation we can see that (t( depends not only from the symbol being sent (from the change in the sign), but it can be seen that is also depends on (0) which means that the pulse also depends on what was previously sent . To see how this works let's work through an example. Assume the data being sent is 111010000, then the phase of the signal would fluctuate as seen in the figure below.

Minimum shift Keying


Even though the derivation of MSK was produced by analyzing the changes in phase, MSK is actually a form of frequency-shiftkeying (FSK) MSK produces an FSK with the minimum difference between the frequencies of the two FSK signals such that the signals do not interfere with each other.

Contents

Speech coding Channel coding Interleaving Frame structure Modulation Logical channel Organization of logical channel Power Control

Logical Channel

Traffic Channels (TCH)


A traffic channel (TCH) is used to carry speech and data traffic . Traffic channels are defined using a 26-frame multi frame, or group of 26 TDMA frames. The length of a 26-frame multi frame is 120ms. Out of the 26 frames, 24 are used for traffic, 1 is used for the slow associated control channel (SACCH) and 1 is currently unused.

Full Rate & Half Rate TCH


They can be defined as full-rate TCHs (TCH/F, 22.8 kbps) and half-rate TCHs (TCH/H, 11.4 kbps .) Half-rate TCHs double the capacity of a system effectively by making it possible to transmit two calls in a single channel . If a TCH/F is used for data communications, the usable data rate drops to 9.6 kbps (in TCH/H: max. 4.8 kbps) due to the enhanced security algorithms . Eighth-rate TCHs are also specified, and are used for signaling. In the GSM Recommendations, they are called stand-alone

Signaling channels
The signaling channels on the air interface are used for call establishment, paging, call maintenance, synchronization, etc. There are three type of signaling channels

Broadcast Channels Common Control Channels Dedicated Control Channel

Broadcast Channels (BCH)


Carry only downlink information and are responsible mainly for synchronization and frequency correction. This is the only channel type enabling pointto-multipoint communications in which short messages are simultaneously transmitted to several mobiles

BCH Characteristics
Each cell has a designated BCH carrier All BCH timeslots transmit continuously on full power TS 0 contains logical control channels TS1-7 optionally carries traffic BCCH block occur once each 51-frame multiframe Each block comprises 4 frames carrying 1 message

Broadcast Channels (BCH) Types

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH:)

Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH :)

General information, cell specific (local area code (LAC), network operator, access parameters, list of neighboring cells, etc .) The MS receives signals via the BCCH from many BTSs within the same network and/or different networks. Downlink only; correction of MS frequencies; transmission of frequency standard to MS ; it is also used for synchronization of an acquisition by providing the boundaries between timeslots and the position of the first timeslot of a TDMA frame.

Synchronization Channel (SCH :)

Broadcast Channels (BCH) Types


Downlink only; frame synchronization (TDMA frame number) and identification of base station . The valid reception of one SCH burst will provide the MS with all the information needed to synchronize with a BTS

Common Control Channels (CCCH)


A group of uplink and downlink channels between the MS and the BTS . These channels are used to convey information from the network to MSs and provide access to the network . CCCHs include the following channels;

Paging Channel (PCH) Access Grant Channel (AGCH) Random Access Channel (RACH)

Common Control Channels (CCCH) Types

Paging Channel (PCH :)

Access Grant Channel (AGCH :)

Downlink only ; the MS is informed by the BTS for incoming calls via the PCH Downlink only , BTS allocates a TCH or SDCCH to the MS, thus allowing the MS access to the network. Uplink only , allows the MS to request an SDCCH in response to a page or due to a call ; the MS chooses a random time to send on this channel .

Random Access Channel (RACH :)

etc . The DCCHs include the following channels;

Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH ) Responsible for roaming, handovers, encryption,


Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH ;)
Communications channel between MS and the BTS; signaling during call setup before a traffic channel (TCH) is allocated Transmits continuous measurement reports in parallel to operation of a TCH or SDCCH Similar to the SDCCH, but used in parallel to operation of the TCH ; if the data rate of the SACCH is insufficient, borrowing mode is used: Additional bandwidth is borrowed from the TCH ; this happens for messages associated with call

Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH ;)


Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH ;)

Contents

Speech coding Channel coding Interleaving Frame structure Modulation Logical channel Organization of logical channel Power Control

Organization of logical channel

Organization of logical channel

Organization of logical channel

Organization of logical channel

Organization of logical channel

Organization of logical channel

Organization of logical channel

Organization of logical channel

Organization of logical channel

Contents

Speech coding Channel coding Interleaving Frame structure Modulation Logical channel Organization of logical channel Power Control

Power Control
GSM is designed so that the MS uses only the minimum transmit power level to communicate with BTS the power of the GSM mobiles is closely controlled so that

the battery of the mobile is conserved the levels of interference are reduced performance of the base station is not compromised by high power local mobiles

GSM power levels


The base station controls the power output of the mobile keeping the GSM power level sufficient to maintain a good signal to noise ratio. A table of GSM power levels is defined the base station controls the power of the mobile by sending a GSM "power level" number In virtually all cases the increment between the different power level numbers is 2dB The power level numbers vary according to the GSM band in use

GSM power level table for GSM 900


POWER LEVEL NUMBER 2 3 4 5 6 POWER OUTPUT LEVEL DBM 39 37 35 33 31

7
8 9 10 11

29
27 25 23 21

12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19

19
17 15 13 11 9 7 5

GSM power level table for GSM 1800


POWER LEVEL NUMBER 29 30 31 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 POWER OUTPUT LEVEL DBM 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18

7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14

16
14 12 10 8 6 4 2

GSM Power class


Not all mobiles have the same maximum power output level In order that the base station knows the maximum power level number that it can send to the mobile, it is necessary for the base station to know the maximum power it can transmit This is achieved by allocating a GSM power class number to a mobile This GSM power class number indicates to the base station the maximum power it can transmit and hence the maximum power level number the base station can instruct it to use

Power Control

Power Control

Power Control
The transmit power level of MS is dynamically controlled in steps of 2 dB to a minimum of 20 m watt (13 dBm) MS power control is remotely controlled by BTS The BTS monitors the received power from the MS and ordered the MS to adjust the transmit power for minimum power level for reliable transmission.

GSM frequency hopping

GSM frequency hopping


In cellular urban environment, multi-path propagation exists in most cases . Due to Rayleigh fading, short-term variations in received level are frequently observed . This mainly affects stationary or quasistationary mobiles . Frequency Hopping is able to take the advantage due to frequency selective nature of fading to decrease the number of errors and at the same time they are temporally spread. Interference Averaging means spreading raw bit errors (BER caused by the interference) in order to have random distribution of errors instead of

Timing Advance
timing advance value corresponds to the length of time a signal takes to reach the base station from a mobile phone The TA value is normally between 0 and 63, with each step representing an advance of one bit period (approximately 3.69 microseconds) the TA value changes for each 550-metre change in the range between a mobile and the base station This limit of 63 550 meters is the maximum 35 kilometers that a device can be from a base station and is the upper bound on cell placement distance

Timing Advance

Timing Advance

Thank you