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Embedded Systems

• From automotive industries and controlling


home appliances to industrial instruments,
remote sensors, electrical door locks and
safety devices microcontrollers play a
important part .
• It is also ideal for smart cards as well as
for battery supplied devices because of its
low consumption.
• An embedded system uses either a
microprocessor or microcontroller to do
one specific task only
• For example:
– CD-ROM
– Printer
– Microwave
– Climate Control …etc
General Purpose MicroProcessor
System

CPU
General Serial
I/O
purpose RAM ROM Timer Com
Ports
Micro port
processor
Microcontroller

CPU RAM ROM

Serial
I/O Timer Com
Port
• EEPROM memory makes it easier to
apply microcontrollers to devices where
permanent storage of various parameters
is needed (codes for transmitters, motor
speed, receiver frequencies, etc.).
• Low cost, low consumption, easy handling
and flexibility make PIC16F84 applicable
even in areas where microcontrollers had
not previously been considered (example:
timer functions, interface replacement in
larger systems, coprocessor applications,
etc.).
Choosing a microcontroller

• Meeting the computing needs of the task at hand


effectively and cost effectively.
• Availability of software development tools such as
compilers, assemblers and debuggers
• Wide availability and reliable source of the
microcontroller
1.Criteria for choosing the microcontroller

• Speed
• Packing
• Power consumption
• RAM/ROM
• I/O ports
• Up gradation
• Cost per unit
Address bus and data
Address bus and Data Bus
bus are the same
are seperate
• In Harvard architecture, data bus and address
bus are separate. Thus a greater flow of data is
possible through the central processing unit, and
of course, a greater speed of work.
• Separating a program from data memory makes
it further possible for instructions not to have to
be 8-bit words. PIC16F84 uses 14 bits for
instructions which allows for all instructions to be
one word instructions.
• PIC16F84 has a RISC architecture
• Harvard architecture is a newer concept than
von-Neumann's
• Microcontrollers with Harvard architecture are
also called "RISC microcontrollers". RISC stands
for Reduced Instruction Set Computer
• Microcontrollers with von-Neumann's
architecture are called 'CISC microcontrollers'.
Title CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set
Computer.
• PIC16F84 perfectly fits many uses, from
automotive industries and controlling
home appliances to industrial instruments,
remote sensors, electrical door locks and
safety devices. It is also ideal for smart
cards as well as for battery supplied
devices because of its low consumption.
Port A
XT Oscillator
RC Oscillator
Reset
• Reset is used for putting the microcontroller into a
'known' condition
• That practically means that microcontroller can behave
rather inaccurately under certain undesirable conditions.
• a) Reset during power on, POR (Power-On Reset)
b) Reset during regular work by bringing logical zero to
MCLR microcontroller's pin.
c) Reset during SLEEP regime
d) Reset at watchdog timer (WDT) overflow
e) Reset during at WDT overflow during SLEEP work
regime.
Ports
Ports
Port B
Port A

BSF 03h,5 ;Go to Bank 1


MOVLW 06h ;Put 00110 into W
MOVWF 85h ;Move 00110 onto TRISA
BCF 03h,5 ;Come back to Bank 0
Memory organization
• Program memory
– Program memory has been carried out in FLASH
technology which makes it possible to program a
microcontroller many times before it's installed into a
device, and even after its installment if eventual
changes in program or process parameters should
occur.
– The size of program memory is 1024 locations with 14
bits width where locations zero and four are reserved
for reset and interrupt vector.
• Data memory

– Data memory consists of EEPROM and RAM memories.


– EEPROM memory consists of 64 eight bit locations whose
contents is not lost during loosing of power supply. EEPROM is
not directly addressable, but is accessed indirectly through
EEADR and EEDATA registers.

– As EEPROM memory usually serves for storing important


parameters (for example, of a given temperature in temperature
regulators) , there is a strict procedure for writing in EEPROM
which must be followed in order to avoid accidental writing.

– RAM memory for data occupies space on a memory map from


location 0x0C to 0x4F which comes to 68 locations.

– Locations of RAM memory are also called GPR registers which


is an abbreviation for General Purpose Registers. GPR registers
can be accessed regardless of which bank is selected at the
moment.