An individual’s unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations. Two key components   differences. personality refers to unique

personality is presumed to be stable and enduring.

What is Personality?
Personality defined  unique psychological qualities of an individual that influence a variety of characteristic behavior patterns across different situations and over time.

People are often confused with two words
 CHARACTER The overall pattern of regularly occurring behavior. In character, moral component is more or moral issues are more.  TEMPERAMENT Biologically based characteristic way of reacting. The things are inborn or born with. This has bee classified into three Difficult Slow to worm up Easy.

Characteristics of personality
It has both physical and psychological components. Its expression in terms of behavior is fairly unique in a given individual. Its main features do not easily change with time. It is dynamic in the sense that some of its features may change due to internal situational demands. Thus, personality is adaptive to situations.






Psychodynamic Theories
behavior as a product of psychological forced within the individual, often outside conscious awareness. Five propositions common to all psychodynamic theories.      Much of mental life is unconscious. Mental processes such as emotions, motivations, and thought may conflict with one another. Early childhood experiences strongly affect personality development. Our mental representation of ourselves and others guides our interactions with others. Development of personality involves learning to regulate sexual and aggressive urges.

Best known of psychodynamic theorists. Freud was first to stress the unconscious. The unconscious is all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are normally not aware. Freud’s ideas form the basis for psychoanalysis.

Three Parts of Psychoanalytical theory

Structure of personality

Theory of Personality dynamics & ego-defense mechanism

Theory of Psycho-sexual development

Freud: psychoanalysis
Id Ego Superego

Collection of unconscious urges and desired that continually seek expression Operates according to the pleasure principle, i.e., seeks immediate pleasure and to avoid pain Operators entirely in the unconscious mind

Mediates between reality, conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id) Operates according to the reality principle Operates at the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels

The social and parental standards that have been internalized Conscience  Our sense of morality Ego ideal  The standard of what one would like to be We are not born with the superego, but it develops over time Operates at the conscious, pre conscious, and unconscious levels

Comparison of Freud’s three SYSTEMS of personality
Represents biological aspect



Represents psychological Represents societal aspect aspect



self present

conscience past

TIME ORIENTATION Immediate present


unconscious pleasure Seek pleasure Avoid pain Immediate gratification irrational subjective

Conscious & unconsciousConscious & unconscious reality Adapt to reality Know true & false Safety & compromise rational morality Represent right & wrong perfection illogical subjective


Diagram of structure of personality

Defense Mechanisms
Anxiety is produced when the ego cannot satisfy the demands of the id in a way acceptable to the superego This anxiety causes feelings of uneasiness and worry Ego may employ any of a number of defense mechanisms to protect the conscious mind from this anxiety

Repression and Ego Defenses
Ego Defense Mechanisms – Denial of Reality – Displacement – Fantasy – Identification – Isolation – Projection – Rationalization

Repression and Ego Defenses
 Ego Defense Mechanisms – Reaction Formation – Regression – Repression – Sublimation

Defense Mechanisms
– Refusal to acknowledge a painful reality.

– Unpleasant thoughts are excluded from consciousness.

– Attributing one’s own feelings, motives, or wishes to others.

– Taking on the characteristics of other to avoid feeling incompetent.

– Reverting to childlike behavior.

– Thinking about stressful problems in an abstract way to detach one self from them

Reaction Formation
– Expression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are opposite of true feelings

Defense Mechanisms
– – Shift repressed motives from an original object to a substitute object.

Redirecting repressed motives and feelings into socially acceptable activities.

Development of personality
Freud believed that personality development is the results of various ways in which the instinct (also called the libido) is satisfied during the course of life. There are several stages, each focusing on different bodily areas. These stages are called the psychosexual stages.

Drives and psychosocial development
Concept of libido 5 stages of Psychosexual development –
– – – – Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital

• Oedipus and Electra Complexes • Concept of Fixation

Psychosexual Stages
Oral Stages (birth to 18 months)
Pleasure is obtained by sucking and swallowing Too much oral stimulation may result in an overly optimistic, gullible, and dependent adult  Too little stimulation can result in a pessimistic, sarcastic, argumentative adult  

Anal Stages(18months to 3 years) 
Focus of pleasure is the anus, especially controlling bowels  Strict toilet training may result in anal retentive personality types as adults, i.e., stingy and excessively orderly

Psychosexual Stages
Phallic Stages (after age 3)
Erotic feelings center on genitals Boys experience the Oedipal complex wherein they are strongly attached to their mother and jealous of their father  Girls experience the Electra complex, bring strongly attached to their father and jealous of their mother  These complexes are usually resolved by identification with the same-sex parent  Fixation at this stages may result in vanity and egotism in adult life  

Psychosexual Stages
Latency Stages (5 or 6 to 12 or 13)  Child appears to have no interest in the another sex Genital Stages (begins at puberty)  Final stages marked by development of mature sexuality

Criticisms of psychodynamic theories
Culture-bound ideas Freud made no connection between women’s subordinate status in society and their sense of inferiority. Psychodynamic theories are largely untestable in any scientific way.

Post-Freudian theories or other psychoanalytical theories
Alfred Adler
– Inferiority and Superiority – Individual psychology: the Creative self

Karen Horney Carl Jung
– Collective Unconscious – Archetypes – Analytic psychology.

Carl Jung
Shared Freud’s emphasis on unconscious processes Personal unconscious That part of the unconscious mind containing an individuals thoughts and feelings. • Collective unconscious  The part of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species.

Ideas/ categories in the collective unconscious Examples of archetypes
 Our public self

 Female archetype as expressed in male personality

 Male archetype as expressed in female personality.

Attitude Types
 Focus on external world and social life

 Focus on internal thoughts and feelings

Jung felt that everyone had both qualities, but one is usually dominant.

Personality Types
Rational individuals People who regulate their actions through thinking and feeling Irrational individuals People who base their actions on perceptions, either through their senses or intuition

Alfred Adler
Compensation Our efforts to overcome real or perceived weaknesses Inferiority complex Fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that can to emotional and social paralysis

Karen Horney
Viewed anxiety as a powerful motivating force Environmental and social factors important seen as being as important as unconscious sexual conflict Neurotic trends Irrational strategies for coping with emotional problems

Learning & Behavioral Theory
Learning & behavioral theories were made based on classical & operant conditioning Based on assumptions

The behavior which An individual current make our personality environment maintain are based on learning his or her behavior & conditioned

Difference b/w Learning theorist view & Psychoanalytical theorist view

Learning theories view Learning theorist emphasized on current environment Learning theorist said that internal factors are also influential while studying behavior The concepts were scientifically proved

Psychoanalytical theorist view Psychoanalytical theorist emphasized on viewer dynamics Theorist main focus was on sex & women The concepts were not scientifically proved

Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
Hold that people behavior is guided by thought, expectancies, learning, and the environment Expectancies What a person anticipates in a situation or as a result of behaving in certain ways Performance standards Individually determined standards by which to judge one’s own behavior

Cognitive-Social Learning Theories Self-Efficacy →Expectancy that one’s efforts will be successful • Locus of control →Expectancy about whether reinforcement is under internal or external control.

Criticisms Of Cognitive-Social Learning Theories Affirms role of cognition in development of personality Focuses on conscious behavior and experience Can be studied scientifically Has led to many useful therapies

Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories Walter Mischel’s Cognitive-Affective personality Theory – Encodings – Expectancies and beliefs – Affects – Goal and values – Competencies and elf-regulatory plans

Social-Learning and cognitive Theories
Bundura’s Cognitive Social Learning Theory: Reciprocal Determinism

Behavior Environment

Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories Bandura’s Cognitive Social Learning Theory: Self-efficacy



Type theory was divided into two Type A  Type B Type Theory

Type A

Type B

Type A
Are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; Strive to think or do two or more things at once; Cannot cope with leisure time; Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.

Type B
Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; Can relax without guilt.

Type Approach
The Greek Physician Hippocrates has proposed a typology of personality based on fluid or humour. He classified people into four Temperament i. Sanguine ii. Phlegmatic iii. Melancholic iv. Choleric

Type Approach
i. Sanguine- somebody who is very cheerful, optimistic and confident. ii. Melancholic- somebody who is very depressed iii. Choleric- somebody who is very hottempered iv. Phlegmatic- somebody who is very slow.

Erik Erickson
Eight stages of personality development ◘ Trust vs. mistrust ◘ Autonomy vs. shame and doubt ◘ Initiative vs. guilt ◘ Industry vs. inferiority ◘ Identity vs. role confusion ◘ Intimacy vs. isolation ◘ Generativity vs. stagnation ◘ Ego integrity vs. despair

Criticism of Type Theory
About the mythology reliability, there was no agreement among the observers. People questioned the consistency. This increased the importance of situation.

The most central concept in personality psychology is the trait. A trait is a relatively stable predisposition to behave in a certain way. Trait are part of the person, not the environment.

Do Traits Predict Behaviors?
Consistency Paradox  Personality ratings are consistent while behavior ratings are not

Trait Theory
The goal of trait theory is to specify a manageable set of distinct personality dimension that can be used to summarize the fundamental psychological differences among individuals. Examples of trait approaches Gordon Allport’s list of approximately 4500 traits  Raymond Cattell's reduction to 16 personality factors  Hans Eysenck’s three-factors model

Allport’s Trait Theory
Gordon Allport is considered the pioneer of trait approach He proposed that individuals possesses a number of traits, which are dynamic in nature. They determine behavior in such a manner that an individual approaches different situations with similar plans. The traits integrates stimuli and responses which otherwise look dissimilar Allport categorized traits into1. Cardinal trait 2. Central trait 3. Secondary trait

Allport’s Trait Theory
 Cardinal traitThese are highly generalized dispositions. They indicate goal around which a person’s entire life seems to revolve: e.g. Mahatma Gandhi's nonviolence & Hitler's Nazism Such traits are often get associated with name of the person so strongly that they derive identities Central traitThese traits (e.g. warm, sincere, diligent, etc) are often used in writing a testimonial or job recommendation for a person. Secondary traitThe least generalized characteristics of a person are called secondary trait. Trait such as ‘like mangoes’ or ‘prefers ethnic clothes’ are examples of secondary trait.

Factor Theory Of Raymond Cattell
Raymond Cattell believed that there is a common structure on which people differ from each other. He tried to identify the primary traits from a huge array of descriptive adjectives found in language. He applied a statistical technique called factor analysis to discover the common structures. He found 16 primary or source trait. The source traits are stable and a considered as the building blocks of personality. There are also a number of surface traits that result out of the interaction of source traits. Cattell describe source traits in terms of opposing tendencies.

Single Trait Research
Basically researchers focus o trait. For e.g.-locus of control
Locus of control

External locus of control

Internal locus of control

Locus Of Control
 The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.

New Approach Of studying Personality
Five-Factors Model (Big Five) Or There Are 5 Key Dimension Of Personality. – Extraversion – Agreeableness – Conscientiousness – Neuroticism – Openness to experience

Five Big Factors Of Personality
Extraversion: Sociable or retiring fun-loving or somber affectionate or reserved Agreeableness: Softhearted or ruthless trusting or suspicious helpful or uncooperative

Openness: Imaginative or practical interested in variety or routine independent or conforming Conscientiousness: Organized or disorganized careful or careless disciplined or impulsive

Emotional stability: Calm or anxious secure or insecure self-satisfied or self-pitying

Are The “Big Five” Traits Universal?
Evidence point to the presence of the big five traits across cultures Findings suggest a genetic basis for traits

Criticism Of Trait Theories
Unlike some other theories, trait theories can be studied scientifically Merely descriptive Traits represent statistical averages of populations rather than individuals Disagreement over minimum number of traits needed to fully describe variety of human behavior