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Power Electronics Notes 07C Boost Converter Design Example

Marc T. Thompson, Ph.D. Thompson Consulting, Inc. 9 Jacob Gates Road Harvard, MA 01451 Phone: (978) 456-7722 Fax: (888) 538-3824 Email: marctt@thompsonrd.com Web: http://www.thompsonrd.com

Marc Thompson, 2008 M. T. Thompson, 2008

Boost Converter Design Example

Summary
Design a boost converter with the following specifications: Input voltage: 12V Output: 24V @ 1A, 24 Watts Continuous conduction mode Inductor and capacitors: selected from following datasheets Switching frequency 100 kHz Output voltage ripple < 50 mV-pp Evaluate output ripple and estimate efficiency of converter

M. T. Thompson, 2008

Boost Converter Design Example

Step-Up (Boost) DC-DC Converter


Output voltage is higher than the input, without a phase inversion

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Boost Converter Design Example

Boost Converter Waveforms


Continuous current conduction mode
Switch closed:

di L VCC dt L
Switch open:

di L VCC v o dt L
Inductor Volt-second balance: VCC DT (VCC Vo )(1 D)T 0 L L V Vo CC 1 D

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Boost Converter Design Example

Boost: Limits of Cont./Discont. Conduction


The output voltage is held constant For low load current, current conduction becomes discontinuous

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Boost Converter Design Example

Boost Converter: Discont. Conduction


Occurs at light loads

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Boost Converter Design Example

Boost Converter: Effect of Parasitics


The duty-ratio D is generally limited before the parasitic effects become significant

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Boost Converter Design Example

Boost Converter Output Ripple


ESR is assumed to be zero Assume that all the ripple component of diode current flows through capacitor; DC component flows through resistor

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Boost Converter Design Example

Boost Converter 1st-Cut Design --- Inductor


D = 0.5 What is minimum inductor value to keep this converter in continuous conduction mode ? (I.e. this converter operates at the continuous/discontinuous conduction boundary) Average diode current: 0.5Ipk(1-D) = Io = 1A Ipk = 4A Lmin =(Vo Vi)(1-D)T/i = (24-12)(0.5)(10-5)/4 = 15 H For the diode, ID,rms = I pk

1 = 2.3A 3

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Boost Converter Design Example

Inductor Datasheet
Use 22 H (ESR = 0.085 Ohms) Note that series resonant frequency (SRF) is much higher than operating frequency Note that IRMS rating of this inductor is 2.7A

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Boost Converter Design Example

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Boost Converter Current Waveforms

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Boost Converter Design Example

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Boost Converter 1st-Cut Design --- Capacitor


What is minimum capacitor value ?

Vo pp

Vo D R f swC

C m in

Vo D ( 24 )( 0.5) 5 100 F f sw RVo pp 10 ( 24 )( 0.05 )

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Boost Converter Design Example

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Capacitor Datasheet
Use 3 47 F caps in parallel (35V, ESR = 0.9 Ohms)

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Boost Converter Design Example

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MOSFET Datasheet
This device is over-sized, but lets use it anyway

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1st Cut Design

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Simulation Result --- Inductor Current


Note that inductor ripple is about 3A peak to peak

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Boost Converter Design Example

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Simulation Result --- Output Ripple


Why is output voltage ripple so large ?

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Simulation Result --- Analysis


The culprit is capacitor ESR. Ripple current is 3A pp, divided into 3 capacitors. Ripple voltage = ripple current x ESR This is a problem with the boost converter --- large output ripple current makes sizing capacitor difficult

Ripple 1 V pp

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Mitigating Strategies
Parallel up more capacitors, or find capacitors with even lower ESR Alternative strategy: use lower ESR caps with a post-filter

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2nd Cut Design


Lower ESR capacitors and an LC post filter added

Lower ESR caps

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2nd Cut Design --- Simulation Results

Ripple 20 mV pp

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2nd Cut Design --- Efficiency Estimate


Losses due to: Inductor loss Switch conduction loss Switch switching loss Diode loss Capacitor ESR loss Gate drive loss

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2nd Cut Design --- Efficiency Estimate


Boost converter lecture example MTT 10-9-03 fsw 1.00E+05 L 2.20E-05 Vi 12 Vo 24 Rinductor 0.085 D 0.5 Rsw 0.0825 IL,avg 2 IL,max 3.36E+00 IL,min 6.36E-01 tsw 1.50E-07 IL,rms 2.15E+00 Isw,RMS 1.52E+00 Vd 0.8 Diode voltage Io 1 Output current Qg 1.00E-07 LOSSES CALCULATION Pdiode Pinductor Pswitch, conduction Pswitch, switching Gate drive loss Capacitor ESR loss

0.80 0.39 0.19 0.61 0.12 0.12

Total losses Output power Efficiency

2.23 24 91.5%

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2nd Cut Design --- Evaluation


FATAL DESIGN FLAW Note that ISAT rating of this inductor is 2.6A Peak current in inductor is 3.4A Therefore, this design will blow up

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3rd Cut Design --- Replace Inductor


Using next-size up Coilcraft inductor, Isat rating of 22 H inductor is 7.0A, RMS rating is 3.5A, so this should be OK Inductor loss will be lower due to lower DC resistance This comes at the cost of a more expensive inductor, and more PC board space needed
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Boost Converter Design Example