China-US Workshop’ 2009, Changzhou, Jiangshu, China, 091017

Materials, Mechanism and Device of Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

Tsinghua University Hong Lin hong-lin@tsinghua.edu.cn

Production Forecast of Solar Modules Using Different Technologies
3500 MW 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0
c-Si thin film "New Concepts" c-Si thin film "New Concepts" 430 20

30%p.a.

2002

2005 950 50

2010 3340 290 70

2015

2020

2025

2030

140 25%p.a. 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

GW
2010 (Forecast) Jp EU US SOA ROW Σ
c-Si thin film "New Concepts"

1.200 1.000 500 500 500 3.700

9 2 1

24 8 3

56 36 20

114 133 133

Courtesy Dr. Winfried Hoffman, CEO, RWE, SCHOTT Solar GmbH

Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC)

• Low cost • Easy process • High theoretical efficiency

Key issues for DSC
 Electron Transport Mechanism
 Electron generation  Electron transport  Electron recombination

 Material Design and Synthesis

 Assembling Technique for Large-area Cell and Module
 Screen printing technique  Sealing technique

 Designed for improving electron generation and transport, but retarding recombination

Scientific issues for DSC

Electron generation
Surface area Dye absorption

Electron transport
Porosity Diffusion coefficient

Electron recombination
Pore size Recombination resistance

Jsc =Jinj -Jloss

Mechanism of Electron Transport
 Numerical simulation combining with experiments  Promoting electron transport, especially retarding recombination was found to be important for Jsc
• • J. Phys. Chem. C, 112, 13744–13753 (2008) J. Photochem. Photobio., A., 195, 247–253 (2008)  Structural modeling  Electrochemical modeling

Promoting Electron Transport
• Nanowire array gave higher photocurrent than P25 nanoparticles, by providing nano-channel for electrons • J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 91 (2) 628–631 (2008)
(a )
500nm

(b )
100n m

(c )

(d )

10n m

Promoting Electron Transport
• Composite electrolyte with layered inorganic material increased ionic diffusion coefficient largely, by providing nano-channel for I3• Electrochem. Commun., 8, 946–950 (2006) • Appl. Phys. Lett., 89(19): 194104-194106, (2006)
α -ZrP wt% 0 3
e-

I0 mA/cm2 0.339 0.541 1.02 0.698 0.613

DI − 3 -7 10 cm2/s

1.08 1.55 2.89 2.60 2.38

6 9 12

Retarding electron recombination
• Co-adsorbent can retard the electron recombination • DINHOP
– found by our student during his co-research in Prof. Graetzel’s lab – with high efficiency and long lifetime

• Chem. Lett. 38 (4), 322-323. (2009) • Dalton Trans., in press, cooperated with Prof. Graetzel
No. r s t u v Dye to DINHOP 0 4:1 2:1 1:1 1:2 Jsc (mA cm-2 ) 14.8 15.5 14.6 14.8 14.2 Voc (mV) 724 752 754 763 749 FF 0.675 0.670 0.700 0.700 0.702 η (%) 7.24 7.79 7.75 7.91 7.50

Assembling Technology
• Screen printing technique for all materials • Sealing technique for durability testing

W-type series

Parallel

Cell and Module

30 cm * 40 cm

Summary
Improving electron transport and retarding electron recombination are very important for increasing efficiency  Low-dimensional materials are positive for charge transport Assembling technique for solar module are still needed to be improved

Acknowledgement
•National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, 50672041) •The National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program, 2006AA03Z218) •Beijing Natural Science Foundation (2062013)

Acknowledgement
Prof. Jianbao Li Dr. candidate: X. Li, JZ Liu H. Hao, XC Zhao J. Wu, JF Li Master candidate: WL Wang DT Zhuang CJ Liu, J Zhang LH Liu SRT students

Acknowledgement

Thank you for your attention!